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Full text of "Yarmouth, Nova Scotia [microform] : a sequel to Campbell's History"

YARMOUTH, 



^OyA SCOTIA: 



A SEQUEL TO CAMPBELL'S HISTORY. 



BY GEORGE S. BROWN. 



'Ficum voco ticiim; et ligonem ligonem." — Ckto. 




BOSTON : 
RAND AVERY COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1888. 



^'t f 






Copyright, 1888, 
By GEORGE S. BROWN, Boston, Mass. 



1 ':^-:fii:i^^'V-: :vaS^\:'v-:;^-f 1 \%::^ 



TO 

• Efje ©escentiants 

OF 

THE EARLY SETTLERS OF YARMOUTH COUNTY 
AND THEIR FRIENDS, 

SCfjfs Book 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 
BY THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



THERE is extant a copy 'of "A History of the County of 
Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, by the Rev. J. R. Campbell," pub- 
lished in 1876, where, beneath the printed testimonial preceding 
its titlepage, occur these words over the date of Sept. 2, 1885 : 
"When this book was first offered to the public, I somewhat 
hastily passed over its pages; and then, and at other times since, 
it seemed to me strange that so many inaccuracies should have 
escaped the critical notice of the gentlemen whose names are 
attached to the above testimonial. But having more carefully 
examined the book within the past week, I have taken the 
liberty of making some marginal notes where it seemed to be 
of some importance that the errors in the text should be 
corrected." 

A few months afterward, a second examination of the book 
led to additional notes, which at length extended so far beyond 
the capacity of the margins of its pages and other blank spaces 
as to reach a volume nearly as large as the contents of the book 
they were reviewing; and toward the end of December, 1885, 
the Author concluded that it was his duty in some measure to 
repair the errors of omission and commission to which his 
notes referred, by the publication of this book. 



6 PREFACE. 

Upon reviewing his own pages, the Author is fully conscious, 
that, where the material is so ample, a satisfactory history of 
Yarmouth County has yet to be- written ; but he hopes that 
here may be found some contributions to that completer work 
which there have been lately some pleasing indications the 
future has in store. - , s 

GEORGE S. BROWN. 

Nov. 20, 1886. 






^■"Sv^ ■■ 



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 



Rafn . . 
Davis . . 
Brown . 

Various . 

Gallatin 
Trumbull 
Vetromile 
Priest . 
Eliot . . 
Rasles . 
horsford 
Lescarbot 

Raynal . 
Rameau . 
Rameau . 

MOREAU . 

Garneau 
Scott 
Stirling 
Robertson 
Logan . 
Keltie . 
Forbes • 
Johnson 
Pennant 



Haliburton 
Martin . . 



Discovery of America by the Northmen. 

Discovery of New England by the Northmen 

Icelandic Discoveries of America. 

The Northmen in America. . / ■ 

American Antiquities. 

Indian Tribes of North America. :, - 

Indian Tribes of North America. 

History of Aborigines of Acadia. 

Customs and Manners of the Micmacs. 

Indian Primer and Catechism. 

Indian Dictionary. 

Indian Dictionary. ., ^ 

Histoire de Nouvelle France. , .. _ 

Champlain's Voyages. 

History of European Settlements in East and West Indies. 

Une Colonie Feodale en Amerique. 

La France aux Colonies. 

Histoire de L'Acadie Fran9aise. ' ^ 

History of Canada. 

History of Scotland. 

Register Scotland and Nova Scotia, 1615-1635. 

Scotland under her Early Kings. 

Scottish Gael and Clans. 

History of the Scottish .Clans. 

Early Races of Scotland. 

Tour to the Hebrides. 

Tour to the Hebrides. 

Flora MacDonald's Autobiography. 

Nova-Scotia Legislative Documents, 1758-1776. 

History of Nova Scotia. 



8 



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 



Murdoch . 
Hannay 

Harvey . . 
Williamson 

Freeman . 

Hatfield . 

Sabine . . 



Forbes . . . . 
Savage . . . , 
Lawson . . . . 
Akins . . . , 
Brooks & Usher. 

Davis 

Surette . . . 
Temple . . . . 



Swift 
Lawson 



History of Nova Scotia. 

" Acadia. 

" Newfoundland. 

" Maine. 

" Cape-Cod Settlements. 

" Elizabethtown, New Jersey. 

" the Loyalists. 
Massachusetts Historical Society's Collection. 
Connecticut Historical Society's Collection. 
Pinkerton's Voyages. 
Lieut. James Moody's Narrative. 
Shipping of the Past. 
Genealogical Dictionary of New England. 
Record of the Shipping of Yarmouth, N.S. 
Nova-Scotia Archives. 
History of Medford, Mass. 
Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth, Mass. 
History of Corinthian Lodge, Concord, Mass. 

" Framingham, Mass. 

" Taunton, " 

" Beverly, " 

" Marblehead, " 

« Salem, " 

" Yarmouth, " 
" Yarmouth Herald " newspaper, 1833-1888. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

PAGE 

Early Voyages to America. — Phoenician Voyages 500 B.C. — Chinese Voyages in Fifth 
Century. — Their .\ccount of the Country. — Northmen's .Accounts of Voyages in 
Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. — They visit Yarmouth Harbor in 1007, and leave 
Inscription. — Christoplier Columbus. — The Cabots. — Americus Vespucius. — 
The Gilberts. — French Voyages to Acadia in Sixteenth Century . . . . 15 

CHAPTER II.' 

Mr. Campbell's Claims to Infallibility examined. — Boundaries of Yarmouth County. — 
Lakes. — Pubnico : Origin of Name. — Marsh and Meadow Lands. — Climate. — 
Wild Game. — John MacMunn discovers Woodcock. — Acadia : Origin and Meaning 
of Name. — Champlain's Visit to Yarmouth Harbor in 1604. — Did not describe 
Mud-flats as " Meadows." — Eel-grass, a Submarine Plant. — Old Limits of 
Acadia 28 



CHAPTER IIL 

The Micmacs. — Acadian Settlement at Chegoggin. — Traditional Conflict at Tusket 
Lakes. — Haliburton's Version. — Grant of Yarmouth Township. — Origin of the 
Name. — Privations of Early Settlers. — Efficacy of "Oiling." — Shares of Lands 
varied in Area. — Always exceeded Six Hundred and Sixty-six Acres. — Division of 
Bunker's Island. — Ranald MacKinnon not concerned in Expulsion of Acadians. — 

— The Hersey Family • • • 37 

CHAPTER IV. 

Early Roads between Chebogue and Yarmouth. — Why Chebogue was first settled. — 
Puritan Observances and Industry of the Preachers. — Why Acadians were expelled. 

— Samuel S. Poole, M.P.P. — Survey and Plan of Township in 1736. — Trade 
Practices in Early Times. — Free Trade the Rule. — John MacKinnon's Advice to 
an Informer. — Henry AUi'ie, a New-Light Preacher. — His Views and Eccentrici- 
ties. — Alexai.der Bain. — His Relation to a Distinguished Highland Family. — 
Heroism of Gillies MacBane at CuUoden. — Origin of the Campbells ... 47 

' Chapters II. to VI. inclusive are a review of Campbell's History, with added notes. 



10 CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 

PAGB 

Land Reservaiions for Church and School Purposes. — Privateers of 1812-1815. — 
Foreign Trade of the Port. — Not established by .Anthony Landers. — The .Men he 
brought to Yarmouth. — Their Influence on the Community. — Thomas .\ Hen : his 
Enterprise and Usefulness. — Yarmouth, Mass., in 16^0 and 1817. — Mr. Campbell's 
Views on Confederation controverted. — Joseph Howe's Speech in Parliament when 
proposing Public Monument to Herbert Huntington. — Chebogue and Yarmouth. — 
Superior Advantages of Chebogue for Settlement. — Maintenance of Bridges. — 
Balance of Trade Theory. — How it works 60 

CHAPTER VI. 

A Literary Curiosity. — Critics open to Criticism. — Isagogin and Ingogen. — Milicetes 
and Micmacs. — Obsolete Adjectives. — Printers' Pi. — Rules of Construction. — 
Unavailing Sympathy. — "For the More Part."' — H. G. Farish. — Rev. Harris 
. Harding. — .Adventure with the Pleasure-carriage. — Early Settlers Descendants of 
Puritans. — Their Churches at Chebogue and Yarmouth. — The Tabernacle. — 
Influences leading to its Construction. — Mrs. Ruth Ellis lays the Corner-stone . 76 

CHAPTER VII. . , 

The Micmacs a Branch of the Algonquin Family. — Their Territory. — The Micmacs _ 
a Superior Race. — Styled by Algonquins " Our Ancestors of the East." — Char- 
acter and Customs of the Acadian Indians. — Their Deference to the French Mis- 
sionaries. — Their Hospitality and Peaceable Disposition. — Beauties uf the Indian 
Language. — .'Structure of Indian Words. — Examples. — Longest Word in the 
Indian Language. — Longest in any Language. — Geographical Names in Yarmouth 
County ending in acadie. — Origin and Meaning of Chebogue, Chegoggin, Chebec, 
Tusket, Mispouk, and Kigigiak. — The Tusket River. — Its Attractions for the 
Tourist and Sportsman. — John Eliot, the Indian Missionary. — His Indian Bible 
and Testament. — The Lord's Prayer in Two Dialects 86 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Champlain's Early Cnr er. — His Skill as a Navigator. — Compared with Julius Cssar. 

— French Colon .:ation of Acadia. — Marquis de La Roche in 159S. — De Monts, 
Poutrincourt, and Champlain in 1604. — Champlain explores the Coast from Liver- 
pool to Ste. Marie's Bay, calling at Yarmouth in May, 1604. — The Colony first 
settles at Ste. Croix. — Removes to Port Royal in 1605. — Claude de La Tour and 
his Son Charles at Port Royal in 1610. — Argall's Raid in 1613. — Sir William 
Alexander^ Colony at Port Royal in 1622. — Claude de La Tour created a Baronet 
of Nova Scotia. — Charles declines a Similar Honor. — Gov. John Winthrop's 
Massachusetts Colony of 1630. — Met by Capt. Lovett off Cape .Anne, and escorted 
to Salem. — .Acadia restored to France in 1631. — Alexander abandons Port Royal. 

— .Alarm in Massachusetts Bay. — Razilly and D'AuInay found a Colony at La Hfeve 
in 1632. — Charles de La Tour builds a Fort at St. John. — Razilly dies, and 
D'AuInay succeeds to the Government of Acadia. — He removes his Colony to 
Port Royal. — Acadia divided by the King of France between I)"Aulnay and Charles 
de La Tour. — Conflict between them. — Encouraged by the English of Massachu- 
setts. — D'AuInay captures La Tour's Fort — Death of Madame de La Tour. — 
Death of D'.Aulnay. — Charles de La Tour marries Madame D'AuInay. — Devotion 
and Influence of French Missionaries. — The Abbe Sigogne. — Port Royal from 
1650 to Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 . loa 



CONTENTS. 1 1 



CHAPTER IX. 

PAGE 

Metrical Description of Port Royal in 1720. — Halifax 1749-1764. — Liverpool and 
Barrington settled 1759 and 1760. —Settlement of Shelbume by the Loyalists in 
1783. — Condition of Settlements on Western and Southern Coasts of Nova Scotia 
in 1787. — Shelburne at that Date. — Port Mouton settled by Tarleton's Regiment 
in 1783. — Next Year Three Hundred Buildings destroyed by Fire. — Provincial 
Census 1817-1827. — ShelbiTie, Barrington, Argyle, and Yarmouth in 1827: 
Population, Stock, etc. — Provi. Census 1851, 1861, 1871, and 1 881. — Yarmouth 
County Census by Subdivisions .1 1871 and 1881, with Explanations directing 
Attention to the Effect of Confederation as shown by the Tables , . . .124 



CHAPTER X. ' 

Acad'ans of Argyle. — Father Manning's Slcetch. — Haliburton's Estimate of .Acadians. 

— Their Industry and Enterprise. — English and French Captains of Argyle. — 
Their Services sought .Abroad. — Tusket .'^hip-biiilders. — .Argyle Ship-owners and 
Ship-masters. — Capts. Murphy, Blauvelt, Hatfield, and Hilaire Pothier. — Pierre 
Doucette of 1797. — Pierre and Denis Surette. — Solon Doucette. — Leon Pothier. 

— Jean Bourque. — .Anselme O. Pothier. — Ambroise Amirault. — Simon D'Entre- 
mont. — Eel-Brook Patriarchs of Half a Century Ago. — The Doucettes of "The 
Forks." — .Acadians' Claim to One of the Seats in Parliament. — Author's Estimate 

of the Acadians of Argyle 144 



: . .,i'. „.' CHAPTER Xr. 

Early Settlers of Yarmouth Township. — French and English Family Names 1761- 
1886. — Real-estate Owners of Yarmouth County: Thirty-nine French, Six Hun- 
dred and Fifty English, Names. — Argyle Township compared with Yarmouth for 
Purposes of Settlement 159 



CHAPTEk XII. 

Copy Scheme of Division Yarmouth Township Lands. — Names of Grantees alphabeti- 
cally arranged. — Number of Shares to Each. — Number and .Area of their Lots. — 
CJrantees of Bunker's and Gilfillan's Island, Chebogue Town Point, and Stony Point 
Beach. — Reservations for Highways. — Equal to about Two Hundred and Thirteen 
Miles of Road Four Rods Wide », . 171 



CHAITER XIIT. 

Chebogue Farmers. — Homes of Early Settlers. — Kelley's Cove. — Old Arcadia and 
Little- River Homesteads. — Durkee's Island.— Pinkney's Point. — Sea-side and 
River Scenery of Yarmouth Sound and Chebogue Harbor. — Phineas Durkee. — 
Proprietors' Improvements within Town Proper. — John Murray, E. \V. B. Moody, 
Comfort Haley of .*^alem, Thomas and George Goudey and others. — Coast-line 
from Cape Fourchu to Beaver- River Comer. — Israel Lovitt and RicharJ Fletcher. 
— Chegoggin and Brooklyn Farmers. — Farmers from Ulster. — Sons of James 
Murphy. — Ephraim Churchill and his Descendants. — Murphy's Bridge. — Eleazer 
and Rufus Hibbard. — Leading Farmers in other Districts of the Township and on 
the Banks of the Tusket River and its Branches. — Influtnce of the Early Settlers . 182 



%Z CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PAGB 

Maritime Interests of the County. — Early Settlers Skilled Navigators. — Interchange 
of Commerce with other Ports. — Gradual Growth and Extension of Trade. — 
Increase in Number and Capacity of the Vessels. — West-India Trade. — Other 
Foreign Trade. — Circumstances causing Increase of Tonnage of the Port. — 
Pomfey and County of Yarmouth, — View ot Shipping previous to 1800. — From 
1800 to 1810. — Ship-owners of these Periods. — Samuel Marshall. — Description of 
Marshall's Wharf in 1815. — Anthony Landers. — Influence of Arrival of Jacob 
Tooker, Bartlett Gardner, James, John, and William Jenkins. — List of Master 
Ship-builders of the County. — Boat-builders and Spar-makers. — Names of Leading 
Ship-owners from 1761 to 1886. — Number, Description, and Agi^regate Tonnage 
of Vessels owned wholly or in part by Each of them. — Special Reference to English 
and French Ship-owners of .Arp-yle. — Shipping of Yarmoutli at Different Periods, 
with Average Tonnage of Vessels. — Compared with the Shipping of Canada. — The 
Great Afic/iael of ]!Lmes IV., which " wasted the Woods of Fife." — Yarmouth's 
First Clyde-built Imn Ship. — The Great Repitblic of Donald MacKay. — Her Last 
Voyage across the Atlantic. — Other Ships of Donald MacKay. — Their Record 
never surpassed. — Ships of New England about the Beginning of the Century. 
— Shipping )f Yarmouth County Jan. i, 1S86, with Names of Owners. — Names 
of Ship-masters of some of the Old Yarmouth-County Families : Kelleys, Hiltons, 
Haleys, Robbinses, Perrys, Cooks, Canns, Hatfields ... ... 198 



CHAPTER XV. 

The Loyalists of Tusket and Yarmouth. — Their Old Home at Elizabethtown, N.J. 
— iis Early History, and a Description of the Territory about 1670. — The Hatfields, 
Tookers, Halsteads, and Ogdens among the First Settlers. — Their Course at the 
Rebellion of 1776. — Sketches from Sabine's " History of the Loyalists," of Tunis 
Blauvelt, Gabriel Van Xorden, Robert Timpany, Robert Huston, Samuel .\ndrews, 
James Lent, the Van Buskirks, and James .Moody. — Extracts from James Moody's 
Narrative. — His Services and Adventures as described by Others. — His View of 
the Cause of the War. — Genealogical Table of some of the Old Tusket Families ; 
viz.. Half Ids, Raynards, Hurlburts, Gavels, .Andrews, Halsteads, Blauvelts, 
Servants, Lents, Jefferys, Van Nordens, and Tookers, illustrating the Intermarriages 
of Three Generations 231 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Ranald MacKinnon of Argyle. — A Native of the Island of Skye. — Related to the 
Chief of the Clan MacKinnon. — joined the Montgomery Highlanders as Ensign 
in 1757. — Came to America in June, 1757. — Engaged in the Expedition of 1758 
against Fort du Quesne. — Promoted to a Lieutenancy. — Wounded in 1760 while 
engaged in an Expedition against the Cherokees. — Lord Chatham's Eulogy on the 
Highland Regiments. — Sketch of Some Highland Regiments. — The First One, 
the " Black Watch," or Forty-second Regiment, formed in 1740. — The Second, 
the Loudon Highlanders, m 1745. — The Third, the Montgomery Highlanders, 
or Seventy -seventh Regiment, in January, 1757. — Officers of the Montgomery 
Highlanders. — Their Career in America from 1758 to the Close of the War in 
1763. — Addresses of Sir Colin Campbell and Sir James Outram to the Highland 
Regiments in the Crimea and in India. — Sketch of the Clan MacKinnon, and 
of Some Events in Scottish History with which they were concerned. — Flora 



CONTENTS. 13 

PAGE 

MacDonald. — Her Connection with the Family. — Charles Edward Stuart's Flight 
after the Battle of CuUoden. — Narrative of his Adventures, and of the Part taken 
by the Chief of the Clan MacKinnon and his Kinsman John MacKinnon, to assist 
the Prince in his Escape from Skye 268 



CHAPTER X'>ni. 

First Nova-Scotia Parliament in 175S. — How constituted. — Queens County established 
in 1762, including Liverpool, Harrington, and Yarmouth. — Yarmouth's Representa- 
tives down to 1 784, when Shelburne County was established. — The Long Parlia- 
ment. — Septennial Bill passed in 1792. — Yarmouth's Representatives down to 1S36, 
when Yarmouth County was set off from Shelburne. — Quadrennial Bill passed in 
1838. — Duration of Parliaments and Representatives from Yarmouth County from 
1836 to 1886. — Executive Councillors from Yarmouth. — Legislative Councillors. — 
Sheriffs and Deputies.- ustodes and Justices of the Peace 1761-1886. — Clerks 
of the Peace and Treasurers. — Municipal Council 1856-1858. — Municipal Council 
Yarmouth and Argyle 1880 to 1SS6. — Probate Judges. — Registrars of Deeds. — 
Postmasters, — Crown Land Surveyors. — Collectors of Customs and Tide- Waiters. 
— Lloyd's and Consular Agents, etc 303 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Township Records 1762-1789. — Sessional Proceedmgs 1789-1840. — Churches of 
the Coui.y. — Clergymen 1761-1886. — Masonic Institutions. — Officers Hiram 
Lodge 1848-1 886. — Scotia Lodge 1S63 :886.— Royal Arch Chapter 1S65-1885.— 
British and Foreign Bible Society. — Ladies' Branch. — Book Society 1822. — Yar- 
mouth Academy. — School Teachers 1800-1864. — Newspapers 1831-18S3. — 
Yarmouth Seminary. — Common Schools. — Agricultural Societies. — Mountain 
Cemetery. — Abbotsford and other Funds. — Inland Navigation Company. — Marine 
Insurance Companies 1S09-1886. — Shareholders, Directors, and Profit and Loss 
Account. — Yarmouth Banks. — 'California and Australia Expeditions. — Commercial 
Wharf Company, and Moody, Brown, & Co. — Steam Communication. — Herald, 
Saxe-Gotha, and North America. — Eastern State. — Dominion. — Emperor. — 
Alpha. — Gaslight, Steam-tug, and Marine Railway Companies. — Western Counties 
Railway Company. — Water Company. — Building Society. — Mutual Relief Society. 

— Woollen Mill Company. — Telephone Companies. — Duck and Yarn Company. 

— Co-operative Deposit and Loan Society, — Conclusion. . . \* » . 319 



APPENDICES. 



APPENDIX A. — John and Sebastian Cabot, 389. 

APPENDIX Aa. — Correspondence of Rev. John Roy Campbell and Professor 
Cameron, 391. - . •■ "' > 

i4PPENDIX B. — Sir William Phipps, 393. ■ 

APPENDIX C. — Brigt. i9(7///w<7/-^. Humanity of the Indians, 395. 

APPENDIX D. — Settlement of lands and a record of Acadian families of Eel 
Brook, 397. • ^' -.-': 

APPENDIX E. — From the Annals of Salem. Privateers prohibited from hostil- 
ities against Yarmouth in 1782, 437. 

APPENDIX F. — Inscription on monument to Herbert Huntington, 439. 

APPENDIX G. — Abstract of Trade of Yarmouth in 1834, 440. 

APPENDIX H. — Extracts from " A Lost Chapter in Acadian History," 445. 

APPENDIX I. — On the Indian names of Acadia, 447. 

APPENDIX J. — William and Edward Hilton. William's letter from Plymouth in 
1 62 1 to his friend in London, 449. 

APPENDIX K. — Some account of the La Tour family and of Philippe Mius 
D'Entremont, and a record of some .\cadian families of Pubnico and 
Tusket Wedge, 450. 

APPENDIX L. — Of the Rev. Abbe Jean Mande Sigogne. His correspondence 
with the Committee of the Shelburne County Temperance Convention in 
1835. The Rev. Abl i Joseph Goudot, 1S39-1860, 477. 

APPENDIX M. — Obituary notice of Simon D'Entremont. 482. 

APPENDIX N. — Louis A. Surette and his record in Massachusetts, 484. 

APPENDIX O. — Bishop Perry's visit to Yarmouth in 1886, 487. 

APPENDIX P. — Duelling in the olden time, 490. 

APPENDIX Q.— Extracts from Dr. Johnson's "Journey to the Western High- 
lands of Scotland " in 1773, 492. 

APPENDIX R. — Origin of the Free-will Baptist Denomination; of the Revs. 
Charles Knowles and Walter C. Weston, 494. 

APPENDIX S.— Mary Fletcher and the Ladies' Bible Society of 1833, 496. 
APPENDIX T. — The nrst law establishing public schools in America in 1647, 
SOI. 

APPENDIX U. — Sir Walter Scott and the Abbotsford Subscription from 
Yarmouth in 1833, 502. 

APPENDIX Ua. — The Yarmouth Steamship Company, 1888, 505. 

APPENDIX v. — Extracts from Freeman's " History of Cape Cod." Ancestors 
of some Yarmouth County families, 507. 

APPENDIX W.— Extracts from Preface to Dr. Hatfield's " History of Elizabeth 
Town, New Jersey," 511. 



YARMOUTH COUNTY HISTORY 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

Early Voyages to America. — Phoenician Voyages 500 B.C. — Chinese Voyages in Fifth 
Century. — Their .Account of the Country. — Northmen's .Accounts of Voyages in Tenth 
and Eleventh Centuries. — They visit Yarmouth Harb<jr in 1007, and leave Inscription. 
— Christopher Columbus. — The Cabots. — Americus Vespucius. — The Gilberts. — 
French Voyages to Acadia in Sixteenth Century. 

IN the ninth century before the Christian era, the Phoenicians had 
estabhshed colonies on the western shores of Africa, and three 
hundred years later they sailed around the entire coast of Africa. 
They are supposed to have visited the eastern coasts of Central 
America and Me.xico in very early times ; for in some way a knowl- 
edge of a great country beyond the Pillars of Hercules, larger than 
Europe or Asia, had reached the priests of Egypt five hundred years 
before Christ. About that time the fact was made known to Solon 
by an Eg}'ptian priest ; and a brief account is given of the country by 
Plato and other writers. 

The Phoenicians discovered and colonized the Canary Islands, which 
they called the Fortunate Isles, and which Pliny (63 B.C.) called the 
Hesperides. After this mention by Pliny, the Canaries are lost to 
history for a period of thirteen hundred years, when a vessel, in the 
reign of Edward III., which sailed from England for France, was driven 
by a storm to the Canaries. A voyage to the Canaries was made by 
the Portuguese in 134 1. 

The Chinese made voyages to the coast of California in the year 
458 ; and it is the opinion of eminent Chinese scholars that they were 



1 6 CHINESE VISIT AMERICA IN FIFTH CENTURY. 

acquainted with the western coast of America nearly to Cape Horn. 
The following is an account of a country called Fousang, more than 
forty thousand // to the east of China (a // ii now one-third of a 
mile), as recorded in the Grand Annals of China: — 

" In the first of the year Yung Yuan, during the reign of Fiti, of 
the dynasty of Thsi (A.D. 499), a Chamman (Buddhist priest) named 
Hoechin came from the country of Fousang to Kingtcheou. He 
related the following : Fousang is twenty thousand li to the east of 
Tahan, and also to the east of China. In that country grows much 
of a tree called Fousang, the leaves of which resemble those of the 
Thong. The first shoots are like those of the bamboo. The people 
of the country eat them. The fruit is red, and of the form of a pear. 
They also make from it cloth and garments. They manufacture also 
stuffs from the flowers. Boards, made of its wood, are used in the 
construction of their houses. For in that country there are neither 
cities nor walled habitations. The inhabitants have a knowledge of 
writing, and make paper from the bark of the Fousang. They have 
neither armies nor troops, and they do not make war. 

" The name of the king of the country is called T'khi, or Tit-khi. 
The nobles of the first class are called Touilou ; those of the second 
class, little Touilou ; those of the third class, Natucha. The cattle of 
that country have long horns, upon which they carry burdens weighing 
a hundred and twenty pounds. In that country they use horses, 
cattle, and deer, attached to carriages. They raise deer as they do 
cattle in China, and they make cheese from the milk of the females. 
They find a kind of pear there, red, which keeps all the year. There 
are many vines. Iron is wanting, but copper is found. Gold and silver 
are not esteemed. Commerce is free, and they do not drive hard bar- 
gains." 

Ly-yen, a Chinese historian, who lived at the commencement of the 
seventh century, speaking of a country distant more than forty thousand 
// toward the east, says, " To reach this country, they sailed from the 
coast of the Province of Leatong, situate to the north-east of Pekin. 
Whence, after they had made twelve thousand //, they reached Japan. 
From Japan, after a voyage of seven thousand //' toward the north, 
they reached the country of Ven Chin. Five thousand //' from the last 



NORTHMEN'S VISIT. 17 

place toward the east, they found the country of Tahan. 'Ihence they 
sailed to Fousang, which was distant from Tahan twenty thousand /f." 

Tahan »vas the extreme northern part of Asia. Kamtschatka is doubt- 
less a part of the great country of Tahan. The courses and distances 
described would extend from Leatong by way of Japan, North-east China, 
and the peninsula of Alaska, to the Island of Kodiack, on the coast of 
Alaska. This would be a very favorable route, as it takes advantage of 
the Japanese current ; and they would be in sight of land the whole 
distance, which, as given by Ly-yen, is quite correct. As it is stated 
that Fousang is not only east of Tahan, but also east of China, it is 
inferred that they followed the coast as far south as Lower California, 
opposite China Central. ;■ ^' • f 

The tree Fousang appears to be the Mexican Maguey, of which Acosta 
thus speaks : " Maguey is a tree of wonders, whereof the Notaries, or 
Chapetons (as the Indians call them), are wont to write miracles, in 
that it yields them water, wine, oil, vinegar, honey, syrup, thread, needles, 
and a thousand other things." 

The first voyage to the eastern coast of America, of which we have 
any account, was performed by the Northmen, who were descendants of 
a race that in early times migrated from Asia, and travelled toward the 
North, finally settling in what is now the Kingdom of Denmark. From 
thence they overran Norway and Sweden, and afterward colonized 
Iceland and Greenland. 

As early as the year 860, Iceland had been made known to the 
Northmen by a Dane, named Gardar. The first settler of Iceland was a 
Norwegian, named Ingolf, who went there in 875, landing at a place 
which is still called Ingolfshofdi. He was soon followed by others, and 
in a short time a considerable population was gathered there. In the 
tenth century, Iceland had a population estimated at near seventy 
thousand. 

The Northmen were excellent navigators, and it is said they first 
discovered the art of sailing on the wind. They had good sea-going 
vessels, some of large size ; one, of which a full description is given, 
being one hundred feet long. 

Eric the Red, born in Norway in 935, was, on account of man- 
slaughter, obliged to flee from Norway. He took up his abode in 



1 8 LE/F'S VOYAGE. 

Iceland, and, not being able to live there in peace, early in 982 he 
fitted out a ship, and announced his determination tc go in search of 
land lying in the ocean to the west, which it was said Gumbiorn saw 
when, in the year 876, he was driven there by a storm. 

Eric sailed westward, and found land, where he r-^mained three years, 
and explored Greenland, the newly discovered country. He then 
returned to Iceland, and the next year sailed again for Greenland with 
a fleet of thirty-five ships, only fourteen of which reached their desti- 
nation, the rest being driven back or lost. This second voyage was made 
in 985, - i." . '^ •-■'.; ■.:'-^; '.- ., '■'\'.-- ■'.' 

In the year 1003, Greenland became tributary to Norway, the princi- 
pal settlement being upon the western coast. The colony maintained 
its connection with the mother country for no less than four hundred 
years; yet it finally disappeared, and was almost forgotten, until 1721, 
when communication was again opened with the colony. 

Before the expedition of Thorfinn Karlsefne, in 1007, some account 
of which was, in 1884, given in "The Yarmouth Herald," Leif, son 
of Eric the Red, in the year 1000, made a voyage from Greenland 
to Labrador and Newfoundland, and thence to the coast of Nova 
Scotia, and, as some think, from the description of the voyage, to 
the south-eastern coast of Massachusetts. The following is the narra- 
tive from the Danish archives, and each reader can make up the 
voyage for himself. 

- " Leif, son of Eric the Red, with a crew of thirty-five men, rigged 
out their vessel. They put the ship in order, and went to sea when 
they were ready. They first came to the land which Biarne had last 
discovered, sailed up to it, cast anchor, put out a boat, and went 
ashore. But there was no grass to be seen. There were large snowy 
mountains up the country ; but all the way from the sea up to these 
snowy ridges the land was one field of snow, and it appeared to them 
a country of no advantages. Leif said, ' It shall not be said of us 
as it was of Biarne, that we did not come up to the land ; for I will 
give the country a name, and call it Helluland.' 

" Then they went on board again, and put to sea, and found another 
land. They sailed toward it, put out a boat, and landed. The coun- 
try was flat, and overgrown with wood ; and the strand far around 



MARKLAND AND VINLAND. I9 

consisted of a white sand, and low toward the sea. Then Leif said, 
* We shall give this land a name according to its kind, and call it Mark- 
land.' Then they hastened aboard, and put to sea again, with the wind 
from the north-east, and were out for two days, and made land. They 
sailed towards it, and came to an island which lay on the north side 
of the land, where they disembarked to wait for good weather. There 
was dew upon the grass ; and having accidentally gotten some of the 
dew upon their hands, and put it in their mouths, they thought that they 
had never tasted any thing so sweet as it was. Then they went on board, 
and sailed into a sound that was between the island and a ness (cape) 
that went out northward from the land, and sailed westward past the 
ness. There was very shallow water at low tide, so that their ship lay 
dry, and there was a long way between the ship and the water. They 
were so desirous to get to the land that they would not wait till their 
ship floated, but ran to the land to a place where a river comes out of 
a lake. As soon as the ship was afloat, they look the boats, rowed to 
the ship, towed her up the river, and thence into the lake, where they 
cast anchor, carried their beds out of the ship, and set up their tents. 

" They resolved to put things in order for wintering there, and they 
erected a large house. They did not want for salmon, both in the river 
and in the lake ; and they thought these salmon larger than the5^ had 
ever seen before. The country appeared to them of so good a kind 
that it would not be necessary to gather fodder for the cattle for 
wiiiter. There was no frost in winter, and the grass was not much 
withered. Day and night were more equal than in Greenland and 
Iceland, for in the shortest day the sun was in the sky between 
Eykstarstad and the Dagmalarstad. 

" Now, when they were ready with their house-building (A.D. looi), 
Leif said to his fellow-travellers, * Now I will divide the cre»v into two 
divisions, and explore the country.' . . . 

" Toward spring they made ready and sailed away ; and Leif gave 
the country a name from its products, and called it Vinland. They 
now sailed into the open sea, and had a fair wind until they came in 
sight of Greenland and the lands below the ice-mountains. . . . 

"This expedition to Vinland was much talked of; and Leifs brother 
Thorvald thought that the country had not been explored enough in 



aO ' B/ARNE'S VOYAGE. 

different places. Then Leif said to Thorvald, ' You may go, brother, 
in my ship, to Vinland, if you like ; but I will first send the ship for the 
timber that Stover left upon the rock.' And so it was done." 

There are various accounts of these early expeditions of the North- 
men, differing a little in detail,' but evidently describing the same voy- 
ages. One account of Leifs voyage in the year looo reads, "They 
came first to the land which Biarne had last seen. They called it Hellu- 
land. They put to sea, and came to another land, level, and covered 
with wood, with cliffs of white sand. They called it Markland. They 
stood out to sea with a north-east wind, and continued sailing two 
days. They came to an island which lay to the eastward of the main 
land, and entered a channel between this island and a promontory pro- 
jecting in an easterly and northerly direction from the main land. They 
sailed westward, and came to a place where there was much land left dry 
at low tide. They went ashore at a place where a river, issuing from a 
lake, fell into the sea. They brought their ship into the river, and thence 
into the lake, and cast anchor. They explored the country, only going 
so far that they could return home at night. One day one of the men 
did not return. They went in search of him with twelve men, and 
found him coming towards them. Then he said, * I did not go much 
farther ; still, I have a discovery to acquaint you with. I have found 
vines and grapes.' They wintered there, filled the ship with timber, 
gathered a boat-load of grapes, and returned to Greenland in the 
spring." 

The voyage of Biarne that has been referred to is thus described : 
" Biarne, in 986, on a voyage from Iceland for Greenland, met with 
northerly winds and fogs, and after many days' sailing arrived, they 
knew not where. When the weather cleared up, they saw a land over- 
grown with wood, and with a very gentle elevation. They continued 
sailing two days, and saw another land, which was flat, and overgrown 
with wood. Then they stood out to sea, sailed three days with a south- 
east wind, and saw a third land, which was high and mountainous, and 
covered with icebergs. They coasted along its shores, and saw it was- 
an island. Bearing away from this island, they stood out to sea with the 
same wind, and after four days' sailing with fresh gales they reached 
Greenland." 



THORFINN KARLSEFNE, 31 

Biame would, by this account, appear to have made, first, the south- 
western coast of Nova Scotia ; next, Cape Breton ; and then, Newfound- 
land, whence he took his departure for Greenland. 

Leif shaped his course from Greenland for Newfoundland, " last seen 
by Biame;" then passing through the Straits of Belleisle, he discov- 
ered Prince Edward Island ; thence, standing out to sea to the east- 
ward of Cape Breton, he came to the Gut of Canseau, which he 
entered ; and thence sailed westward along the coast, wintering, 
perhaps, at Yarmouth. 

Writers generally identify Vinland with Massachusetts, the "island" 
with Nantucket, and the " promontory " with Cape Cod. In the year 
looo. Cape Cod and the adjacent territory were not likely to have been 
more prolific in wild " grapes " and " wheat " than the south-western 
shores of Nova Scotia, where the Gulf Stream tempers the climate ; yet 
it is recorded that both the early French voyagers to Acadia, and the 
early settlers of the Massachusetts Colony, found vines growing in 
the woods that led them to look forward to a profitable culture of the 
grape. 

The second account of Leif s voyage does not repeat the statement 
that there was " no frost in winter ; " but the account of Karlsefne's 
voyage, from which the following extract is taken, says there was " no 
snow in winter; " and it is quite possible that eight hundred years ago, 
the Gulf Stream approached so near the south-western shores of Nova 
Scotia as to account for the absence of frost and snow. 

" Thorfinn Karlsefne, in 1007, in one ship, and Biarne Grimolfsen in 
another ship, left Greenland for Vinland. They had a hundred and 
sixty men, and took all kinds of live-stock, intending to establish a 
colony. They sailed southerly, and found Helluland, where there were 
many foxes. They again sailed southerly, and found Markland, over- 
grown with wood. They continued south-westerly a long time, having 
the land to starboard, passing long beaches and deserts and sands, and 
came to a land indented with inlets. They landed, and explored the 
country, finding grapes and some ears of wheat which grew wild. They 
continued their course until they came to a place where a frith penetrated 
far into the country. Off the mouth of it was an island, past which 
there ran strong currents, which was also the case farther up the frith. 



22 VISITS YARMOUTH. 

On the island, there was an immense number of eider-ducks, so that 
it was impossible to walk without treading on the eggs." 

The following (copied from " The Yarmouth Herald ") is from the 
report of Mr. Henry Phillips, corresponding secretary of the Antiquarian 
Society of Philadelphia : — 

"ON A SUPPOSED RUNIC INSCRIPTION AT YARMOUTH, 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

" On the shore of the Bay of Fundy, opposite the town of Yarmouth, 
stands a rock, weighing about four hundred pounds, which, about the 
end of the last century, was discovered by a man named Fletcher. It 
has been well known for nearly one hundred years ; and those who 
dwell in its vicinity have always accepted it as a genuir.e relic of anti- 
quity, no breath of suspicion ever having fallen upon It. The glyphs 
thereon have been at various times copied and sent abroad to men of 
learning, who have made more or less attempts at deciphering them, 
more than one savant seeing traces of Semitic origin. 

"In 1875, a rubbing, procured from the stone, was placed in my 
hands for i ivestigation. Since that time I have carefully considered the 
circumstances of the case, and have become ultimately satisfied of its 
bona-fide nature ; that the inscription was neither a modern fraud nor 
the work of the wayward playfulness of the leisure hours of the sportive 
redskin. 

" Having been imbued with the belief that no deception was 
intended or practised, I entered upon the study of the markings with a 
mind totally and entirely free from prejudice. So far from beheving that 
the inscription was a relic of the pre-Columbian discovery of America, 
I had never given any credence to that theory. I therefore approached 
the subject entirely unbiassed in my opinion ; in fact, somewhat pre- 
judiced against the authenticity of any inscription on this Continent, 
purporting to emanate from the hardy and intrepid Norsemen. 

"The difficulty of interpreting these markings was greatly increased 
on account of the nature of the material in which the rubbing had been 
taken, and the fact that in the Runic alphabets the letters frequendy 
have many varying values and forms. But, like a kaleidoscope, word 
after word appeared in disjointed forms, and each was in turn repeated, 



RUNIC INSCniFTIOxW. - 23 

until at last an intelligible word came forth, followed by another and 
another, until a rea/ sentence with a meaning stood forth to my aston- 
ished gaze. ' Harkussen mev varu ' (' Haka's son addressed the men '). 

" Upon examining further, I found in the expedition of Thorfinn 
Karlsefne, in 1007, the name of Haki occurring among those who 
accompanied him. On this voyage, ' they came to a place where a 
frith penetrated far into the country. Off the mouth of it was an island, 
past which there ran strong currents, which was also the case farther up 
the frith: 

" I confess that I was staggered by the remarkable coincidefce, and 
began to waver ; and the finishing touches were placed to my unbelief 
when I observed the map, and saw how short the distance was from 
Iceland to Greenland, compared with the stretch of water from Norway 
to Iceland. It seemed more than probable that the fearless race that 
actually did cross the latter expanse of ocean, were not likely to be 
deterred from navigating the former. 

" As to the reason why such a memento should be left of the visit, 
of course no definite answer can be given ; but it is a fact well known, 
that memorials were often made or erected, engraved or placed at 
localities where events h-^.d taken place : and the address of the chieftain 
to the men may have been of some noteworthy matter, perhaps even to 
commemorate the fact of having landed at that spot." ' . 

There is a material error in this narrative. The rock referred to was 
discovered by Dr. Fletcher, not " on the shore of the Bay of Fundy," 
but upon his own property near the head of the north-western cove of 
Yarmouth Harbor, and upon the western side of the high hill near the 
channel leading from what is now known as the " Salt Pond," and 
about one hundred yards south of the stone dike which now excludes 
the tide-water from the extensive vsxwex marshes. The channel at " the 
dike " being quite narrow, there must have been originally " strong 
currents " there, running over the bar upon which the dike was built. 

The " island " would correspond to Bunker's Island, where the cur- 
rents are ver}- strong at the flow and ebb of the Bay of Fundy tides. 
If the Norsemen followed the North- American coasts from Greenland 
to Nova Scotia, when they reached Cape Fourchu near the entrance to 



24 WILSON'S ACCOUNT. 

the Bay of Fundy, and met there the strong currents and rough water, 
it was quite natural that they should make a resting-place in Yarmouth 
Harbor, and explore the " frith " to its head and confluence with the 
fresh waters of the Chegoggin River, about eight miles north-easterly 
from Bunker's Island, to which point of junction the tidal waters of 
Yarmouth Harbor probably flowed in the year 1007. 

The glaciers left their memorials in the vicinity of the " Salt- Pond 
Dike " some hundred thousand years before the Norsemen's visit ; for 
the huge boulders, some weighing hundreds of tons, deposited upon 
opposite sides of the channel inside of the dike, and especially at the 
little island, present most interesting evidence of glacial action. If 
upon one of the largest of these the inscription had been engraved, 
it might have remained there to tell its own story for eight centuries to 
come. 

In the second volume of " Prehistoric Man," published at London in 
1876, by Daniel Wilson of the University of Toronto, the learned 
author, after reference to other ancient inscriptions, sajs, " Dr. G. J. 
Parish has sent me \}l\& fac- simile of an inscription engraven in unknown 
alphabetic signs on a quartzose rock near the beach at Yartnouth 
Bay, which he assures me has been known for upwards oi forty-Jive 
years, and repeatedly submitted to scholars in the hope of finding an 
interpreter." 

The reader will observe the discrepancy in the three descriptions of 
the locality where this stone was discovered. It is scarcely credible 
that Dr. Parish, writing to Mr. Wilson ten or twelve years ago, would 
have mentioned "Yarmouth Bay," — a place laid down on no maps 
nor charts ; though it is possible he never saw the stone until it was 
removed to Yarmouth Town from its position near the Salt-Pond Dike. 
But any elderly person living near the dike can point out the exact 
locality ; and, no doubt, there are persons in Yarmouth who have 
reached or passed their ninetieth year, and who can remember puzzling 
over the inscription in their childhood. 

To preserve the continuity of the narrative, brief references may 
here be made to the later visits to the coasts of America, which led 
immediately to the colonization of the country by Europeans. 

Christopher Columbus, who, on a visit to Iceland in 1477, had 



THE CABOTS. 2$ 

heard of the western voyages of the Norsemen, with three small 
vessels sailed from Palos, Spain, on Aug. 3, 1492; and on Oct. 12 
he landed at San Salvador, one of the Bahama Islands. A few days 
afterward he visited some of the adjacent islands, reaching the north 
side of Cuba on Oct. 28. About the middle of January, 1493, he 
sailed for home ; and, having touched at the Azores on Feb. 20, he 
arrived in the Tagus on March 4. He sailed again from Cadiz on Sept. 
25, 1493, with seventeen vessels, and fifteen hundred persons of all 
descriptions ; and on Nov. 3 he arrived at Dominica. He discov- 
ered Jamaica in May, 1494; and in March, 1496, he embarked for 
Spain. -■ ' •""-•■ ■■ ^^ ■'■ •"'"■ ■'■":' ~ --"'■'■ 

On his third voyage, Columbus sailed from Spain with six ships on 
May 30, 1498. On Aug. 1 he visited the continent of America ; and 
in November, 1500, he returned to Spain. He sailed again from Cadiz, 
on his fourth voyage, on May 9, 150 1, and from the Canaries on May 
25, arriving at Martinico on June 15. On this visit he passed three 
years among the islands and upon the continent ; and on Sept. 2, 1504, 
he sailed for Spain. He died at Valladolid on May 20, 1506, in his 
sixty-fourth year. 

John Cabot, a Venetian, and his son Sebastian, — born, as is some- 
times claimed, at Bristol, England, in 1467, — in pursuit of a north- 
west passage to India, sailed from Bristol in the spring of 1497. On 
June 24 they landed at Newfoundland, whence they immediately 
returned to England, and made a report of their discovery. 

John Cabot having died, Sebastian Cabot sailed on his second voyage 
on May 4, 1498, and again reached Newfoundland. On his return to 
England, he is reported to have said that he had sailed as far north as 
the sixty-seventh degree of latitude, and that, finding no open water to the 
westward, he returned to the southward, and followed the coast as far 
as the thirty-eighth degree of north latitude. 

There is as much myth and mystery connected with Sebastian's 
voyages as with the early voyages of the Northmen. Yet Sebastian was 
said to have been born at Bristol, England ; and that fact may account 
for the extraordinary statement on p. 9 of Campbell's " History of 
Yarmouth," where, entirely ignoring Christopher Columbus, whose dis- 
coveries had led to John Cabot's expedition, Mr. Campbell says, " The 



26 ; FRENCH VOYAGES. 

first well-authenticated knowledge of the Ne7v World was made known 
by Sebastian Cabot in I4g8" ^ 

Americus Vespucius, born at Florence in 1437, sailed from Cadiz on 
May 30, 1497. He, too, wished to have it believed that he first dis- 
covered the American Continent, reaching it by way of the Gulf of 
Mexico ; and he so far succeeded as to secure the honor of giving his 
name to the continent. He made a second voyage in 1500, visiting 
Guiana and Venezuela ; and upo.i a third voyage, in 1 501, he sailed as 
far south as La Plata and Patagonia. 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert's expedition, consisting of five ships and two 
hundred and fifty men, sailed from Plymouth, England, on June 11, 
1583 ; arrived at St. John's, Newfoundland, and there set up the English 
standard. In 1607 Sir John Gilbert, with a fleet of war-ships, arrived 
at the mouth of the Kennebec River. These several discoveries and 
occupations of the Cabots and the Gilberts constituted what England 
maintained as her right to certain territories in North America, and to 
the fisheries upon the coasts. 

But the French, meanwhile, had been prosecuting enterprises of a 
more practical and useful character, mainly at private cost ; for the 
kings of France, while lavish of titles, granted little material aid to 
projects for colonization. 

It is related that, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, expeditions 
for the cod-fishery and whale-fishery, going forth from Normandy and 
Brittany, occupied the fishing-grounds of the New World, and that some 
of them entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and reached the Acadian 
shores. 

Among these adventurers were Jean Denys of Honfleur, who in 1506, 
with his cargo of fish, took home charts of the coasts ; and Thomas 
Aubert of Dieppe, "a hardy fisherman," who, in 1508, carried to 
France some Indians, whom he exhibited to " the curious and eager 
crowds." In 151 7 a large number of French vessels were employed in 
fishing at the mouth of the river St. Lawrence ; and there remains the 
tradition of the efforts of the Baron de Lery to colonize Acadia in 15 18, 
when, his voyage being protracted by adverse winds, and their food 
giving out, he was compelled to land upon Sable Island some cattle and 

' Appendix A. 



CARTIER AND POUTRINCOURT. 2/ 

swine, whose offspring saved from starvation some of the unfortunate 
men whom the Marquis de La Roche abandoned there in 1598. 

Jacques Cartier made his first voyage to the Bay Chaleur in 1534 : in 
1535 he ascended the St. Lawrence to Quebec, and he continued his 
explorations of the country until his return to France in 1542. 

In 1540 Francois de La Roque, Sieur de Roberval, "a valiant soldier 
and an able statesman," was appointed Governor-General of the newly 
discovered country. He arrived in Quebec in 1542 ; but the King 
requiring his aid in the war that year renewed with Germany, he was 
recalled to France. It was not until 1549 that the state of affairs at 
home permitted Roberval to return to Canada. He departed on his 
second voyage, which promised happy results. But it ended in disaster, 
— when, or in what manner, no one ever knew. ; ^ - 

The times continued generally unpropitious for colonizing projects, 
nor was any further venture made until the futile voyage of the Marquis 
de La Roche, in 1598. This was followed by the more successful efforts 
of Jean Biencourt, Baron de Poutrincourt, the distinguished founder of 
Port Royal, and De Monts, in 1604, which resulted in the permanent 
though often disturbed establishments at Port Royal, Grand Pr6, and 
Beau Bassin, and whence came, for the most part, the ancestors of the 
now flourishing Acadian communities in the counties of Yarmouth and 
Digby. 



CHAPTER II. 

Mr. Campbell's Claims to Infallibility examined. — Boundaries of Yarmouth County. — Lakes. 
— Pubnico : Origin of Name. — Marsh and Meadow Lands. — Climate. — Wild Game, — 
John MacMunn discovers Woodcock. — Acadia : Origin and Meaning of Name, — Champ- 
Iain's Visit to Yarmouth Harbor in 1604. — Did not describe Mud-flats as " Meadows." — 
Eel-grass, a Submarine Plant. — Old Limits of Acadia, 

LTNDER date of Jan. 30, 1886, Mr. Campbell, writing to "The 
J Yarmouth Herald," ' intimates that in the highly interesting series 
of letters Mr. Cameron is writing for "The Halifax Herald," he has not 
credited to the "History of Yarmouth" " ^/te leading facts bearing on 
the U Entremont family collected on many long journeys taken for the 
express purpose of gathering information on that as well as on all other 
subjects in my History of the County ^ Other readers of Mr. Cameron's 
letters have found there nothing to sustain Mr. Campbell's grievance, and 
some of them are at a loss to know what information is given in Mr. 
Campbell's History to have occasioned more than a single journey to 
Pubnico. 

Mr, Campbell cannot, at any rate, complain that his H' story is not 
given sufficient prominence in these notes, and their appearance may 
give him room to doubt that, " although it is [as Mr. Campbell puts 
it] now ten years since that History was published, no fact, as therein 
stated, has ever yet been successfully questioned" 

^ Some of these " facts," selected in the order of their occurrence in 
the pages of Mr. Campbell's History, are made subjects for comment 
in this chapter. 

Page 1. — "The present County of Yarmouth has seen several 
changes as regards its limits." 

A misstatement meets us at the threshold. The boundaries and 
limits of the County of Yarmouth remain to-day as originally constituted. 

' Appendix Aa, 



YARMOUTH LAKES, , ^9 

There have bpen no changes since it was set off from Shelburne as a 
separate county in 1784. 

Page 2. — "The south-western shore is washed by the waters of the 
Atlantic and the Bay of Fundy." " The Seal Island, commonly called 
the elbow of the Bay of Fundy." 

No part of the shores of Yarmouth County is within the limits of the 
Bay of Fundy, nor would any geographer style the Seal Islands the 
" elbow " of the Bay of Fundy. This error Mr. Campbell iias borrowed 
from Haliburton's History of Nova Scotia, and it is an instance of 
Sam Slick's romancing quality. The Seal Islands form a group, and the 
Bay of Fundy lies within a line drawn from Brier Island to Grand 
Manan. 

Page 2. — "There are nearly one hundred lakes, upwards of ninety 
of which have been fully explored : many of them are very beautiful, 
reminding one who has seen both of well-known English scenes." 

It would be hard to name one of the " one hundred lakes " which has 
not been a hundred times fully explored ; and it is mere pedantry to 
compare them with " well-Known English scenes." Haliburton's History, 
referring to the Yarmouth lakes in 1828, says, " Eighty have been 
already explored." Mr. Campbell has added ten to the number as an 
achievement of the next half-century. But upon Church's county map, 
published in 1864, at least a hundred and twenty-five lakes may be 
counted; and an article in "The Yarmouth Herald" of June, 1881, 
states the number at two hundred and forty-eight. 

Page 3. — " Pubnico, a corruption of the Indian Boguumkook. 
Argyle, or Abuptic (Indian, Pobbobteek). Salmon River (Indian,, 
Ponamagotty)." 

Bogbumkook, Pobbobteek, and Ponamagotty differ froui any Indian 
orthography usually met with. Pubnico is probably derived from the 
Indian Pauquunkauke, meaning, land from which the trees have been 
removed to fit it for tivation. The old French spelling is Pombon- 
coup or Poboncoup, from which the transition to Pubnico is easy. Bon 
coup is good French. Perhaps there may be an accounting for the first 
syllable that will give to the name Pubnico an origin wholly French. 

Page 3. — "The Yar (river), commonly called the Yarmouth, on 
which stands the county town, is somewhat larger than the Chebogue." 



30 MARSHES AND MEADOWS. 

There is no authority for the statement that the river at the head of 
Yarmouth Harbor was ever called the Yar, from the river in England 
of that name. The only name it has ever borne is that of Cape Fourchu 
River, and perhaps from the same reason that our cape was called Cape 
Fourchu, from its forked configuration. The river itself is forked, — 
the eastern branch leading past Milton, Hebron, and Ohio, nearly to 
Lake George ; the western branch leading through the " Salt-Pond " 
Dike to " Chipman's Corner," and there, originally perhaps, connect- 
ing at high tide with the sea-water flowing into Chegoggin River at 
a point now known as Chegoggin Dike. The " County Town " stands, 
not upon the river, but upon the lands adjoining Yarmouth Harbor. 

Page 4. — " In the opinion of competent judges, a comparatively 
small portion of the land is capable of profitable cultivation." 

No competent judge would pronounce this opinion, even with Mr. 
Campbell's qualifying phrase. The profits of cultivation depend upon 
the demand for the products of the soil. With an open market in 
the seaports of Massachusetts, Yarmouth- County farmers can success- 
fully compete with those of New England, and a free interchange of 
products would be mutually advantageous. 

Page 5 . — " There are considerable tracts of fair marsh-lands in the 
county, about five hundred acres of which are diked, producing heavy 
crops of hay." 

The diked lands alone exceed one thousand acres. But more valu- 
able than these are the thousands of acres of salt marsh-lands border- 
ing upon the Chebogue, Tusket, and Abuptic Rivers. Mr. Campbell 
makes no mention of the numerous and extensive tracts of fresh-water 
meadow-lands upon the Salmon and Tusket Rivers and their various 
branches, reaching almost from the head of tide-water to the Digby- 
County line. 

The value of these meadow-lands will be better realized when the 
Western Counties Railway begins to send off its branches in an 
easterly and north-easterly direction ; for then the farmers in the interior 
will have access to markets from which they are now debarred, and 
for the want of which a large proportion of the best lands in the 
county now lie idle. 

Page 7. — "The climate is humid and very variable, . . . and 



CLIMATE AND TEMPERATURE. 3 1 

healthy above the average. . . . The mercury seldom falls below zero 
in the winter, or rises above 80° during the summer. Every few years 
the mercury may descend to five or six below ; but the mean annual 
temperature, day and night, is 48°." 

This paragraph does not fully describe the climate nor the tempera- 
ture of the county. It might, to some extent, apply to the town of 
Yarmouth, situate immediately upon the Atlantic coast, and under the 
influence of the sea-breezes and ocean-fogs of the summer, and of 
the Gulf Stream in the winter months. It is very rarely that the 
mercury falls to zero upon the sea-coast of Yarmouth County ; while 
in the interior, ten miles or more from the sea, the temperature is 
lower in the winter and much higher in the summer months ; and 
the ocean-fogs, which owe their origin to the Gulf Stream, and hover 
about the coast with the prevailing southerly winds of July and August, 
extend only a few miles from the sea. The ocean-fogs have no 
unhealthy influence where they do prevail. 

Page 7. — Mr. Campbell adduces instances of the remarkable health 
and longevity of two Yarmouth-County families. He might have 
referred to another quality. Large families were the rule in the 
olden time. Dudley Porter, of Chegoggin, had twenty-two children, 
and James Doucette, of "Tusket Forks," twenty-nine children.' Mr. 
Campbell refers also to Paul and Simon D'Entremont, the one aged 
ninety, the other now ninety-seven, as instances of robust old age. 
It is narrated of Levi, son of Paul D'Entremont, that French and 
English mingled ' promiscuously in his ordinary conversation. Once, 
when chopping wood before his door, he is said to have thus warned 
some idlers standing near him : " Quand je coupe du bois, I want 
nobody autour de moi ; car si la hache slip out my hands, might 
kill somebody." 

Page 8. — " It is a curious fact that the English woodcock is 
rapidly increasing. . . . Civilization has well-nigh banished several 
valuable species (of game) from the county. The days are gone by 
when a local merchant can send ninety-five moose- skins to the 
Boston market, as one did a hundred years ago." 

As the settlement of the county advanced, and the original forests 

' Appendix B. 



32 FIELD-GAME AND FOREST-GAME. 

disappeared, the moose naturally retired to the interior, where they 
are still quite numerous, though not sought for food as they were a 
hundred years ago. On the other hand, the enthusiastic and accom- 
plished sportsman, and the pursuit of woodcock, are developments ot 
a high order of civilization. The presence of woodcock to-day does 
not prove that they were not here in equal numbers a hundred years 
ago. It does prove that citizen John MacMunn, who, soon after he 
joined our community in 1853, first discovered the existence of wood- 
cock in our fields, has, in his maturer years, had leisure for frequent 
visits to their haunts with dog and gun. 

A writer, in 1787, on "The Present State of Nova Scotia," who will 
be quoted more at length in a subsequent chapter, says of the moose, 
" Their amazing numbers we may in some degree estimate from those 
killed last winter : in one settlement alone they amounted to at least 
four thousand." 

So we see that a hundred years ago the moose were also hunted for 
their skins, like the buffalo on the Western prairies in more recent 
years, and with the same results. The Indians were wiser ; for of them 
it is recorded, "They were careful not to exterminate any species of 
game." 

Page 9. — " In 162 1, Acadia (or 'Cadia,' or ' Acadie,' as with vary- 
ing limitations that term was applied by the French) . . . was granted 
to Sir William Alexander, who gave to Acadia the name Nova Scotia." 

Some of the younger readers of Campbell's History jnay, perhaps, 
have never seen it stated that the name L'Acadier, formerly applied 
by the French, or Acadia, by the English, to Nova Scotia, was derived 
from the Micmac word acadie, nor its meaning explained. It occurs 
in the Indian names of many places ; as, for instance, in Chibbena^a//i>, 
Shubenarart'/>, ^xacadie, Chicabena^a^//**, etc., in the central and east- 
ern parts of the Province, and in the name of a place lying north-east 
of Tusket Forks, called by the Indians, 'Sa.wnacadie. Mr. Campbell's 
Indian " Soonecaty" on p. 20, may be the same word in his orthog- 
raphy corresponding with Ponamagotty, his corruption of Ponomacadie. 
^\xxvacadie is to be found also in Cape Breton, on the south side of 
Little Bras d'Or Lake ; and there is '^nacadie on the north shore 
of Bras d'Or Lake. 



CHEGOGGIN MARSH. . 33 

The frequent recurrence in Micmac geographical names of acadie, 
or syllables its equivalent in sound, led the French, in the seventeenth 
century, to give to the whole country, from the Kennebec to the Gulf 
and River St. Lawrence, the name L'Acadie. Fr. Eugene Vetromile, 
in his little book on the Abnakis, or the Aborigines of Acadia, says, 
" The word Acadie is Indian. Its origin and its meaning have always 
been a subject of investigation among the antiquaries, who generally 
admit it to be an Indian word, though they do not fix its meaning. 
Some of them have ventured interpretations, which, however, they 
abandoned after further consideration. I was at one time led to 
resolve Acadie into the two Abnaki words, aki, adie (land of dogs). 
Yet, after more recent investigation, I consider it more natural to trace 
it to the Micmac word academ (we dwell), or tedlacadem (where we 
dwell), that is, our village." 

It would seem, therefore, that the signification of acadie might be 
accepted to be a habitation, or dwelling-place, whether of fish, animals, 
or plants. 

Fr. Vetromile, quoting Charlevoix, says, " Acadia extended from the 
Penobscot River to Canseau, and thence to Gaspt^, Bay Chaleur, gashpe 
being an Indian word signifying the end." He adds that, " Acadia, 
thus defined, was possessed by only two Indian nations, the Etchimins 
and the Micmacs. The Etchimins occupied the waters of the Penob- 
scot, St. Croix, and St. John Rivers, and the most part of the shores 
of the Bay of Fundy ; and the Micmacs the rest of the territory, and 
even the southern and western coasts of Newfoundland." 

Page i — "It is certainly a highly flattering account of our mud- 
flats to describe them as meadows, and as rendering the place very 
agreeable. No doubt, to a casual visitor in the spring of the year, 
and when as yet the long, fresh green eel-grass was undisturbed and 
serried by the keels of vessels and the hoe of the clam-digger, it would 
present a much more pleasing object than it does now." 

Mr. Campbell here appears to have allowed his imagination to lead 
him astray ; for when Champlain refers to " une petite riviere, toute 
environnee de prairies^' he evidently means the western branch of the 
Cape Fourchu River, above the " Salt- Pond " Dike, at that time proba- 
bly connecting with the stream running through Chegoggin Marsh, and 



34 THE CLOVEN CAPE. 

which, at low tide, or at ordinary high tide, would present the appear- 
ance of " a little river surrounded by meadows." There is good 
geological evidence, too, that the Chegoggin River at one time had 
its outlet through what is now known as the " Salt-Pond," for it would 
be difficult otherwise to account for the deep channel inside of the 
dike, or the channel below the dike connecting at " The Crotch " 
with the main channel of Yarmouth Harbor. The mud-flats Mr. 
Campbell speaks of are a distinguishing feature of Yarmouth Harbor, 
and, no doubt, have not much changed since Champlain saw them 
when there were no "keels" to " serry" the eel-grass, for the canoe 
of the Micmac carried no keel. Eel-grass is one of those rare plants 
which grow and blossom entirely beneath the surface of the water. 
It is not visible to the eye unless when floating over it, nor does it 
flourish upon those parts of the flats which are exposed at low tide. 
It is, therefore, no obstacle to the " hoe of the clam-digger," nor can 
it be confounded with the growth Champlain saw in May, 1604, and 
recorded as one of the attractions of Yarmouth Harbor, 

Page 13. — "Jean de Laite says, 'Acadia is of a triangular form, 
and stretches from east to west between the harbors of Campseau and 
Cap Fourchu.'' " 

Canseau, now commonly spelled Canso, is said to have derived its 
name from the French navigator Canse, and eau (water). The French 
spelling, Campseau, suggests that the harbor was so called because 
it was a common rendezvous for vessels. 

Page 13. — "It is difficult not to believe that Ingogon and the 
'Cloven Cape' (the first translation we meet with of Cap Fourchu) 
are not Chegoggin and Yarmouth Cape." 

The " Cloven Cape " was that one called by Champlain Cap Fendu, 
now Cape Split, at the entrance to the Basin of Mines; and the 
" Ingogon " is now better known as the River Avon at the head of 
the Basin of Mines. 

Page 14. — " M. Beauharnois, Governor of Canada, in a letter to 
the French King, dated Oct. 10, 1731, says Acadie, according to its 
ancient limits, should only be that part of the large peninsula which 
is comprised and bounded by a straight line from Cape Camceau to^ 
Cap Fourchu^ 



ACADIAN LIMITS. 3$ 

This letter of M. Beitiharnois, if correctly quoted, conveyed his view- 
that L'Acadie was the territory between Capes Canseau and Fourchu, ex- 
cluding Cape Breton, New Brunswick, and Maine to the Penobscot, which 
were part of the country then known as L'Acadie. A line drawn from 
Cape Canseau to Cape Fourchu would barely touch the south-western 
part of Lunenburg County, and leave south of it about one-half the area 
now comprised by the counties of Queens, Shelburne, and Yarmouth. 

The limits, as defined by Charlevoix, have been already stated. 
On p. 3, " Nova Scotia Archives," is a copy of a letter, dated 
January, 1 715, with this heading: "Instructions for Mr. Peter Capoon, 
Commissr., and F^nsign Thomas Button, to proclaim His ^L'ljesty, 
King George, alt ye sev^eral ports of Mines, Shekenecto, River St. 
John's, Pasmacody, Penopscot, in the Collony of Nova Scotia, or 
L'Acadie." The letter directed them "with ye Sloop Caulfield to 
proceed on the said service and to proclaim His Majesty King George 
in ye best manner You can." 

Another authority which may be quoted is that of Paul Mascarene, 
a Huguenot, who was born in the South of France in 1684, was 
educated at Geneva, and afterward went to England where he was 
naturalized in 1706. In 17 10 he came to America, and assisted at 
the taking of Port Royal. In 1740 he was appointed Lieutenant- 
Governor of Annapolis, and became Administrator of the Government 
until the arrival of Gov. Cornwallis in 1749. In 1720 he wrote a 
description of Nova Scotia with suggestions for its settlement and 
defence, which was transmitted to the Lords of Trade, London. 

His letter begins as follows : " The Boundaries having as yet not 
been agreed on between the British and French Governments in these 
parts as stipulated in the loth Article of the Treaty of Utrecht, no jvst 
ones can be settled in this description. The extent of the Province 
of Nova Scotia, or Acadie, according to the notions the British have 
of it, is from the limits of the Government of Massachusetts Bay, in 
New England, or the Kennebec River, about the 44th degree of North 
Latitude, to Cape De Roziers on the South side of the entrance of the 
River St. Lawrence, in the 49th degree of the same Latitude ; and its 
breadth extends from the Eastermost part of the Island of Cape Breton 
to the South side of the River St. Lawrence. Out of this large tract. 



36 INDIAN PERSECUTION. 

the French had yielded to them at the above Treaty, the Islands 
situated at the mouth of the River St. Lawrence, and in the Gulf of 
the same, with the Island of Cape Breton." 

These descriptions indicate with sufficient exactness the then eastern 
boundary of the (lovernment of Massachusetts Bay, and it would have 
been better for the interests of the Maritime Provinces had (Ireat 
Britain never relinquished her claim to that portion of Maine east of 
the Kennebec. 

Page 14. — " In the month of December, 1735, ^^e Brigt. Baltimore 
put into Chebogue Harbor with only one woman on board when 
foun«^ All other persons who had been on board were supposed 
either to have been lost, or murdered by the Indians." 

Haliburton says that, " according to the story of the woman, Mrs. 
Buckler, the Baltimore sailed from Dublin, Ireland, for Annapolis, 
Maryland, with sixty or seventy convicts, who mutinied, killed the crew, 
and afterward each other, Mrs. Buckler only remaining alive. But her 
story was confused and contradictory, and she was supposed to have 
been concerned in the crime." 

There is no ground for Mr. Campbell's suggestion that these people 
were murdered by the Indians. The Micmacs of Nova Scotia, natu- 
rally of a peaceable disposition, have never been charged with a crime 
so despicable as the murder of a distressed or shipwrecked crew. They 
were very slow to learn the practices of the English freebooters, who 
then infested American waters.' 

In 1 744 the Governor of Massachusetts offered premiums for Indian 
scalps, — a hundred pounds currency for that of a male Indian of 
twelve years or upwards, fifty pounds for the scalp of a woman or child, 
and for a captive five pounds higher than for a scalp. 

In October, 1749, Gov. Cornwallis, by the advice of his Council, 
ordered " the Commanding Officers at Annapolis Royal, Mines, and all 
others within the Province, to annoy, distress, and destroy the Indians 
everywhere ; " and he offered a premium of " ten guineas for every 
Indian killed or taken prisoner, to be paid upon producing such savage 
taken, or his scalp (as is the custom of America) if killed." Here was 
refined barbarity. 

' Appendix C. 



CHAPTER III. ; . . ■ 

The Micmacs. — Acadian Settlement at Chegoggin. — Traditional Conflict at Tusket Lakes 

— Haliburton's Version. — Grant of Yarmouth Township. — Origin of the Name. — 
Privations of Early S'^ttlers. — Efficacy of " Oiling." — Shares of Lands varied in Area 

— Always exceeded Six Hundred nnd Sixty-six Acres. — Division of Bunker's Island. — 
Ranald MacKinnon not concerned in Expulsion of Acadians. — The Hersey Family. 

A SUBSEQUENT chapter will be devoted to the Aborigines of 
Nova Scotia, and incidentally to the Algonquin family of Indians, 
to which the Micmacs belonged. Meanwhile, therefore, other than 
general references to the Indians and their language will be elsewhere 
omitted. 

Page 17. — "Sixty years ago, in the memory of the late Abram 
Lent, they [the Indians] were sufificiently numerous to meet their friend 
and pastor, the late Abb6 Sigogne, at !3ainte-Anne's Chapel, Eel Brook, 
in a body of one hundred and fifty at a time." 

•Of course, Mr. Lent, who was a conscientious and truthful man, 
did not mean to say that the one hundred and fifty Indians lived in 
Yarmouth County. But the Indians were Roman Catholics, and they 
had their festival occasions, when, from Shelburne, Yarmouth, and Digby 
Counties, they used to gadier at Eel Brook as a central point, to meet 
their faithful friend, the Abb^ Sigogne. 

Page 21. — 
"PaidIndonPeterfori6»' MosMetc i|//. . . . ;^ " 2 " 
for 14^ lbs mos c i^ ... 1.9 

19 lbs of Mosmet . . . 2.4^ 

7^'^^ of mos meet c 3 copers per ilb, i.o^ 

Each of those items illustrates a curious orthographical variation." 

These " orthographical variations " may have amused their original 
deviser, like the " thirty out of fifty varieties " of Cape Fourchu upon 



3^ ACADIAN VILLAGES. 

p. II ; but it taxes one's credulity to believe that either collection is 
compiled literally from early manuscripts. 

Page 21. — "There is but little known of the Chegoggin settlement." 

Mr. Campbell omits to state that this site of a mythical French 
settlement at Chegoggin was at the head of the lide, and accessible by 
canoes, or the flat-bottomed boats used in those days, from either 
Chegoggin or Yarmouth Harbors. Hither the Atlantic tides 'flowed in 
those days ; and here the " little river surrounded by meadows," spoken 
of by Champlain, had its confluence with the fresh waters of the 
Chegoggin River. Here, too, at the head of the marsh where the salt 
and fresh water met at the first falls, was the place most favorable to the 
capture of fish with which all the rivers then abounded, and it therefore 
became a famous Indian camping-ground. 

Page 22. — Mr. Campbell here favors the reader with half a page 
from Dr. Parish's manuscripts which formed the foundation of his 
" History." More frecjuent literal quotations from the same source 
would have been acceptable in place of the mutilations so often met 
with. Strange, that, with such a model, we get so little entertainment 
from Mr. Campbell's History of Yarmouth. 

Dr. Johnson said of Goldsmith, " Nullum quod teiigit non ornaint" 

Substituting tntncavit for the last word, we have an apt motto for the 
foot of p. 200 of Mr. Campbell's book. 

Pages 21 and 22. — "There is but little known of the Chegoggin 
settlement. The fact, however, is well authenticated,. and may even yet 
be attested by the still visible cellars of the old French houses ; . . . 
the chapel and burying-ground being on the west side of the river." 

"The Chebogue settlement suffered in the same way as Chegoggin. 
On the eastern side of the river were the cemetery and chapel." 

There is neither evidence nor trustworthy tradition of an Acadian 
chapel at either Chebogue or Chegoggin. Nor, previous to 1755, was 
there a permanent settlement of any note in the county, except at 
Pubnico, and possibly at Chebec, now known as Tusket Wedge. 

An Acadian census of x 748 gives twenty families at " Peaubom- 
coup " and twenty-five families at " Tebok," the latter place having been 
sometimes understood to mean Chebogue. But if at all within the 
present limits of the county, these twenty-five families were more likely 



ACADIAN CHAPELS. 39 

living at the entrance, or upon the banks of the Tusket and Abuptic 
Rivers, where there were superior fishing privileges and more extensive 
marshes. 

Had there been an Acadian chapel previous to 1755 we would have 
found it at Pubnico, the oldest and the central settlement, between 
Chebec on the one side and Ministiguesh (Barrington Passage) on the 
other. 

Acadian history records but six Roman-Catholic chapels in 1753, — 
one at Annapolis, Cobequit, Mines, Canard, and two at Pigiguit ; the 
population of these districts having been, in 1 748, about ten thousand, 
and elsewhere in the peninsula of Nova Scotia only twenty-seven hun- 
dred more ; namely, at Beau Bassin, Chicnecto, Canseau, Chedabucto, 
and at some small settlements scattered along the eastern and southern 
coasts, the last estimated al six hundred, all told. 

What Mr. Campbell describes as old French cellars at Chegoggin 
are no doubt what remain of excavations made by the Indians for their 
winter stock of corn and dried fish. These storehouses were five or six 
feet deep and from five to fifteen feet wide. As a protection against 
rain and frost, the Indians covered them with poles, dried grass, and 
sods. 

Page 23. — This story of a conflict between the French and Eng- 
lish at Tusket Likes may serve as a tradition ; but any one familiar 
with the Tusket River knows that no '" boat despatched from an armed 
vessel" could ascend " Hatfield's Falls" at the foot of Lake Vaughan, 
three miles below where the scene of the massacre is located. To 
this day, these falls are not navigable to a ship's boat of any ordinary 
size. Small, flat-bottomed boats, constructed especially for such 
service, capable of carrying five or six men, and managed by skilled 
voyageurs, may be " poled " up the falls, which together are about one- 
third of a mile in length, and which, during the present century, have 
been materially " improved," to facilitate the downward passage of 
rafts of timber and lumber, and the capture of salmon and alewives 
on their upward passage. 

The story is so much better told in Haliburton's History, that Mr. 
Campbell should have adhered more closely to the original, which 
reads, " To this spot they the [French] fled for refuge when the 



40 ROMANCE OF THE LAKES. 

sentence of general transportation was passed upon them in 1755. 
But even the solitude and seclusion of this spot did not shelter them 
from the pursuit of their enemies. A boat, despatched from an 
armed vessel in the mouth of the Tusket, and guided by a native 
pilot, ascended the river and its chain of lakes, to invade this asylum, 
and advanced within a mile of the village. At a narrow strait, where 
the river is contracted to twenty or thirty yards in width, and the 
umbrageous branches of the sombre pines overarched the pass and 
enveloped it in shade, an ambuscade had been formed by the fugi- 
tives ; and the unsuspecting crew, surprised under the very muzzles 
of their assailants' guns, received a most desperate discharge of mus- 
ketry, which either killed or wounded the whole party. This petty 
triumph, though it might gratify revenge, and procrastinate their cap- 
tivity, only served to render their fate more certain ; and they were at 
last compelled to fly. Some escaped to the woods, and, becoming 
domiciled with the Indians, never after wished to return to the haunts 
and habits of white men ; but the greater part were captured, and 
transported with their families to New England. After the pacifica- 
tion of 1 763, they were permitted to return ; and the Acadians of 
Clare, Eel Brook, and Pubnico are chiefly descendants of these 
people." 

On p. 9 of his introductory chapter, Mr. Campbell says the notice 
of Yarmouth and Argyle was written by Dr. Farish, and inserted 
without alteration in Haliburton's History of Nova Scotia. Here, 
then, is a divided responsibility for the unaccountable statement that 
the x\cadians of Clare, Eel Brook, and Pubnico are chiefly descended 
from the former inhabitants of a little village at the head of Lake 
Vaughan (now John Raynard's homestead), as well as for that other 
statement in Haliburton's History that, " At Pubnico the Acadians 
and Indians subsisted for many years on eels" though the latter may 
have been an interpolation practised by some mischievous imp, and 
unwittingly published by Haliburton. 

But the story loses some of its rom.antic features in a common opinion 
that no such massacre occurred beneath the " umbrageous branches of 
the sombre pines." It is true that a war-ship lying at the Tusket Islands 
despatched an armed boat for an expedition up the river, which boat 



YARMOUTH TOWNSHIP. 4' 

did not return to the ship ; but a common opinion prevailed that the 
boat's crew decided to desert, and under cover of the night made their 
way to a Cape Cod fishing-craft also lying at anchor among the islands ; 
that the crew with their boat, arms, and ammunition were taken on 
board the " fisherman," and carried to a Massachusetts outport, where 
the crew made good their escape. 

Pages 29 and 30. — " This second grant of the whole township 
(100,000 acres), recorded on Jany. 8th, 1760, is immediately followed 
by another, recorded on the same day, granting to several parties men- 
tioned in the preceding grant of the whole, 27,000 acres. I confess 
when I read these several grants, and others with them, I had very great 
difficulty in reconciling them. But I have come to the conclusion that 
as grants cost nothing to take out, they were taken out at random, or on 
speculation." "■ '•* •'?^' =u ..;,;..i,..,.' ,,■.)>.,. ., --.;.,,;:»....*,, 

These speculations may be set at rest by the simple statement that the 
two grants, together 127,000 acres, were intended to cover the entire 
area of Yarmouth Township (except waters, marshes, reservations for 
highways, etc.) shown to be by the final grant of 1767, 129,638 acres. 
The grant of 27,000 acres, no doubt, covered the lands lying between 
" Hersey's Branch " and the main Tusket River, now known as the 
"third division," and containing, as shown by the plan of 1787, 29,075 
acres. 

Pages 30 and 31. — " The name of the township first appears in the 
grant made Sept., 1759, in which it is provided that the tract of land 
hitherto known as Cape Forchue, shall be ' a township to be called here- 
after and known by the name of the Township of Yarmouth.' This fact 
is interesting, as it affords, from the circumstance that about 100 out ot 
the 133 grantees of 1759 were inhabitants of New England, a presump- 
tion that the name was suggested by those who were already acquainted 
or identified with the Township and Town of Yarmouth, in Massachu- 
setts." : ■■■-:-- .;■- ■■ . : ; . ^-^ -r- ^-- ■ -.--.-- --:■ 

The county names, Halifax, Colchester, Cumberland, Guysborough, 
Kings, Queens, Annapolis, Digby, and Shelburne, give sufficient indica- 
tion of their English origin, as does Yarmouth that it was named from a 
titled personage, friend of the reigning monarch. It is, therefore, an 
absurd suggestion that the name came from Yarmouth, Mass., a town 



i^ EARLY SETTLERS. 

never of any great importance unless from the fact that Joshua Sears, 
Boston's wealthiest citizen " before the war," was born there, as well 
as Capt. Asa Eldridge who commanded Vanderbilt's famous steam- 
yacht " North Star" when the commodore went on his cruise across the 
Atlantic. 

The little village on Barnstable Bay did indeed have the additional 
honor of sending here three noble men, whose numerous descendants 
have always occupied high rank among our most useful and valued citi- 
zens ; but Lemuel, Theophilus, and James Crosby did not come here 
until 1777, while the township was named eighteen years before. 

Then, on p. 3, Mr. Campbell says that the Cape Fourchu River the 
English named the Yar, from which, he would there have it inferred, 
the county and town derived their name. 

Page 34. — "The infant colony (during the first winter) was reduced 
to the riiost dire distress. They had brought oxen, cows, calves, hogs, 
and horses with them ; but . . . these only added to their distress. The 
season was exceptionally severe, the ground remaining covered with 
snow four feet deep for some months. Before succor arrived, many 
had suffered beyond description from the extreme rigor of the season 
and the scarcity of provisions. Twenty-seven of the horned cattle 
died of hunger and cold. The others were killed for food. A curious 
confirmation of this tradition is found in an old ledger. In tlie spring 
of the next year, one person sent over eleven hides to the Boston market. 
... In the early spring, some were reduced to the necessity of try- 
ing to obtain sustenance from the hides of the animals they had killed 
and eaten. So extreme were their sufferings that one or two died of 
want." 

Sealed Landers, Ebenezer Ellis, Moses Perry, Jonathan Crosby, and 
Joshua Burgess came, with their families, in June, 1761. Elishama 
Eldridge and seven other families came later in the summer. They 
brought with them 6 oxen, 50 cows and calves, and 40 hogs. If there 
be any foundation for the above story, which may well be doubted, the 
first settlers were men of ample means ; for according to John Crawley's 
return to the government of the stock at Yarmouth and Chebogue in 
the second winter following, 1 763-1 764, Moses Perry had 9 cattle, 13 
sheep, and 6 hogs ; Joshua Burgess had 7 cattle and 8 hogs ; Jonathan 



TOWNSHIP GRANTS. 43 

Crosby had 2 cattle and 2 hogs; Ebenezer Ellis had 10 cattle, 12 
sheep, and 3 hogs ; Elishama Eldridge had 7 cattle and 2 hogs ; and 
Sealed Landers, the miller, had 8 cattle, but only one hog. 

Page 35. — "One of the party confessed in after years to a friend 
whose testimony is trustworthy that the sweetest meal she ever ate 
was made from the tail of a hide, which she cut off and cooked." 

The term " confessed " suggests that Mr. Campbell has overlooked 
the fact that epicures still often commence I heir feasts with ox-tail 
soup. 

Page 35. — "It is an uniform tradition that one of the men, half- 
starved and reckless of the result, ate so freely of biscuit, that he only 
just lived, even after laborious rubbing and oiling.'" 

Have Yarmouth physicians generally adopted this concise form 
to express the administering of castor-oil? 

Page 39. — "After eighteen months had elapsed and nothing had 
been done, on the 25th Sept., 1761, the Council appointed a com- 
mittee for dividing the forfeited lands in the Township of Yarmouth." 

After the expulsion of the French, the Nova Scotia Government 
were anxious to colonize the Province with British subjects, excluding 
Roman Catholics ; and accordingly immigrants were invited from the 
older American colonies. Hence the grants of 1759 and 1760, which 
becoming inoperative, a final grant was passed in 1767. But the 
terms of the grant were never enforced : the rent of " one shilling 
per annum for each 50 acres " was not exacted, nor were the conditions 
of enclosure and cultivation fulfilled from that day to this. Many 
thousands of acres covered by the grant of 1767 have never been 
improved nor enclosed, but are still held by the heirs of the original 
grantees, or by persons who have obtained their title through purchases 
from the grantees or their heirs. 

Page 40. — " A share consisted of 666 acres ; and whenever we 
use the word, it is in that sense." 

And whenever it is thereafter in that sense used, a blunder is 
repeated. The total area of Yarmouth Township was found to be 
153,107 acres; and deducting the area of the lakes, rivers, marshes, 
reservations for highways, etc., there remained for division 129,638 
acres. There were 128 applicants for lands; and to make an equitable 



44 SHARES OF LAND. 

allotment, it was found necessary to make the number of shares 149, 
exclusive of William Tory's grant. The government reserved four of 
these shares for church and school purposes. John MacKinnon had 
4 shares; eight grantees had each 2 shares; thirty had i^ share; 
seventy had i share ; nineteen had each half a share ; and there 
was one half-share left unappropriated. 

129,638 acres, divided into 149 shares, give 870 acres to a share. 
But as the lands varied in quality, and as the lots varied in size, 
ranging from less than 100 to more than 500 acres in area, in order 
to maintain, so far as was practicable, an equitable division in point 
of value, the number of acres to a share varied. Probably no two 
individuals received the same quantity of land. Some, entitled to 
one share, received in the neighborhood of 1,000 acres, while others 
received only about 750 acres to a share. The grantees of one share 
generally received four lots, or more, situated in different parts of the 
township. For instance, Abigail Robbins, widow of Benjamin, a 
grantee of one share, had one lot, 116 acres, extending from shore 
to shore across the end of Chebogue Point ; another lot midway 
between Arcadia Bridge and Salmon River ; another on the " old 
Kempt Road," and another overlooking the scene of the "ambus- 
cade" at Tusket Lakes, — together 916 acres. ' 

It is easy to see how Mr. Campbell fell into the error of describing 
a share of land in Yarmouth Township as 666 acres, an error three 
or four times repeated in the course of his book. 

" His Majesty's Royal Instructions " directed the establishment of 
townships to consist of 100,000 acres; and in applying these instruc- 
tions to Yarmouth, it was proposed to divide 100,000 acres into 150 
shares (666| per share), that being approximately the number of 
shares required to satisfy the claimants at the time. But after the 
boundaries of the township had been established, they were, by 
admeasurement, found to include 153,107 acres, when the division 
proceeded as described. 

It may be Mr. Campbell partly followed Haliburton, who, speaking 
of Yarmouth, says in his History, ''On 7th April, 1767, a general grant 
of the township was passed in 150 shares of 666 acres each, with 
reservations, etc., and reserving a space of 300 feet from high-water 



RANALD MACKINNON. 45 

mark in the harbors of Cape Fourchu and Chebogue for the use of 
the fisheries." 

Page 40. — " The committee . . . were evidently of opinion that 
the future town should be on what has always since been known as 
Bunker's Island, and, as far as they could, they provided that it should 
be so, by restricting the size of each lot to one acre." 

Whoever divided Bunker's Island did not " restrict the size of each 
lot to one acre." The area of the island was 34^ acres, and was 
divided into 24 lots, varying in size from three-quarters of an acre 
to two and three-quarters acres, which were granted to 19 individuals. 
Some of the grantees received more than one lot ; for instance, to 
Hezekiah Bunker were granted four lots containing i^ acres. > 

Page 41. — "They reserved all the islands in the rivers for the use 
of the fisheries ; and discretion for themselves to modify their general 
plan." ' • 

This suggestion of the committee was not adopted. .\11 the islands 
were granted to individuals, as may be seen on consulting the township 
plans at the office of the registrar of deeds. 

Page 47.— " Capt. Ranald MacKinnon served in the regular army 
with distinction, and afterwards in this Province, with energy, in com- 
pleting the expulsion of the French." 

This paragraph implies that Ranald MacKinnon was concerned in 
the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755. ^^ ^^^ nothing to do with 
that disgraceful affair. He came first to America in June, 1757, with 
his regiment, the " Montgomery Highlanders ; " and he was engaged 
during the five years following in New York and Pennsylvania, as will 
be shown later on. ' . , ; • . 

By a deed dated at Yarmouth, June 27, 1764, Ranald MacKinnon 
" gives and bequeaths to Joseph Moulaison 250 acres of the lands he 
now possesseth for his proper use and benefit, including in the same 
one-half my cleared lands, so long as he or his shall continue to live on 
the same." Joseph Moulaison was one of the Acadians who declined 
Winslow's invitation ; and it would rather seem, therefore, that' Ranald 
MacKinnon did what he could to re-establish Joseph in the land of his 
forefathers, and perhaps to re-instate hi»Ti in a property once their own." 

' Appendix D. 



46 . THE HERSEY FAMILY. 

Page 52. — " David Hersey, or, as it afterwards became corrupted, 
Hassey, lived near to Ephraim Cook, who built a saw and a grist mill, 
the former of which was managed by Hassey ; and was long afterwards 
known as ' Hassey's Mill.' " 

The name Hersey has nevet been changed to Hassey, as this para- 
graph implies. The Herseys form a numerous family in Yarmouth, and 
they spell their name Hersey. It may appear Hassey in some of the 
early records, just as Phenias Dur^^ey and Binjman Darling appear in 
the documents on pp. 41, 42. 

It will be noticed on p. 113 that David Hersey came to Yarmouth 
from Plymouth, Mass., in 1763. The Herseys, no doubt, were among 
the " Pilgrim Fathers " who arrived at Massachusetts Bay in 1620 and 
the following years. One of the first settlers of Hingham, Mass., in 
1635, was William Hersey; and English history records that one of 
the name came over to England with William the Conqueror in 1066. 
The Herseys to-day continue to be one of the prominent families at 
Hingham. Nearly a hundred years ago, a Dr. Hersey gave the money to 
build at Hingham the " Derby Academy," still a prosperous institution ; 
and John A. Andrew, the " War Governor " of Massachusetts, married 
a Miss Hersey of Hingham, and at one time lived there, occupying the 
"old Hersey House on the hill," near the steamboat-wharf. Their 
son, John F. Andrew, a Boston millionnaire, and a lawyer by profession, 
was, in 1885, a State senator, and in 1886 the Democratic candidate 
for the governorship of Massachusetts. 

Daniel Hersey of Hingham, born in 1786, was the first Grand 
Master in Massachusetts of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 
He died in 1858. 

The order was known in England in the seventeenth century, and 
was introduced into the United States in 1 819 by Thomas Wildey, born 
in Londori in 1782. The first lodge was organized at Baltimore by 
five Englishmen. It was called Washington Lodge No. i, and Thomas 
Wildey was the first Grand Master. The Odd Fellows in the United 
States now number over 530,000 ; the expenditures for relief, in 1884, 
were ;?2, 176,269, the receipts of the subordinate lodges amounting to 
^5.530,383- 



CHAPTER IV. 

Early Roads between Chebogiie and Yarmouth. — Why Chebogue was first spttled. — 
I'uritan Observances and Industry of the Preachers. — Why Acadians were e\i)elled. 
— Samuel S. Poole, M. P.P. — Survey and Plan of Township in 1786. — Trade Prac- 
tices in Early Times — Free Trade the Rule. — John MacKinnon's Advice to an In- 
former. — Henry Alline, a \ew-Light Preacher. — His Views and Eccentricities. — 
Alexander IJain. — His Relation to a Distinguished Highland Family. — Heroism of 
Gillies MacBane at Culloden. — Origin of the Campbells. 

THE list of grantees of the land of Yarmouth Township upon 
p. 56 of Campbell's History contains 127 names (not 132, 
as stated on p. 57), but the name of Benjamin Ellenwood, jun., is 
omitted. Of at least 50 of these grantees, there are no descend- 
ants bearing the name, now (1886) living in the county. A subse- 
quent chapter will contain a copy of the scheme of division, with 
the number and area of the lots of land assigned to each grantee. 

Page 57. — " Later on, we shall see that many, from various causes, 
finally lost their lands." 

The one chief cause was, that some of the grantees never came 
forward to claim nor dispose of their lands, which from time to time 
became occupied by new-comers, or by others who chose to take 
possession of them. But, as before stated, the conditions of the 
grants were never enforced, nor did the lands become escheated to 
the government. Indeed, until 1786, when a survey and plan of the 
township were made, no grantee knew where the greater part of his 
lands would be located, and, therefore, could neither occupy nor 
improve them. 

Page 59. — "Roads there were none." 

Campbell's History attaches no date to this remark. In locating 
the first highways. Sealed Landers's grist-mill was evidently an objective 
point, for Mr. Landers had displayed uncommon judgment in select- 
ing the site for his mill. 



48 FIRST HIGHWA YS. 

Samuel Goldsbury's plans of division of Yarmouth Township, 
matured in 1787, embodied all the highways established to that date. 
They include the existing road from Stanwood's Beach, via "Chipman's 
Corner," Chegoggin, to Milton, and thence southerly to Chebogue 
Point, with a branch through "Hilton's Head," leading up to the land- 
ing-place at Kelley's Cove. Although the reairns for a road were 
accepted in 1774, there seems to have been no connection then 
between the Cove road and the road on the western side of Chebogue 
River, which was laid down as extending from the bridge at Arcadia 
as far southerly as the government reservation No. 10, through which 
it passed to the borders of the marsh opposite the north end of 
Nickerson's. Island. 

This main thoroughfare was crossed by the road from Starr's to 
Vickery's Corner, and thence in a straight line along the east side of 
William Curtis's grant to the Chebogue River. From Starr's Corner 
it was laid out to the shore of Yarmouth Harbor on John Walker's 
south line. 

Upon Goldsbury's plan is also laid down the road from Moody's 
to Gowen's Corner, and thence in a straight line across the Che- 
bogue Road to the Salt Marsh. We find there the Wyman Road to 
Hibbard's Corner crossing the Cove road at this point, and follow- 
ing Eleazer Hibbard's north line to the head of the creek. This 
was designed as a road to Gilfillan's and Bunker's Island. It appears 
never to have been opened, although a reservation was made for it 
in 1787; and this observation will apply as well to the extension 
from Starr's Corner to Yarmouth Harbor ; from Vickery's Corner to 
the Chebogue River ; and from Ciowen's Corner to the borders of 
the Salt Marsh. 

Page 60. — " The first road laid out in the county ran from the 
head of the Salt Pond in Chegoggin to Milton Bridge, . . . through 
the present town past the Sand Beach and Cove to the corner of 
Hilton's Road. . . . The second that was laid out claimed precedence ; 
for it was called 'the Highway of the Town of Yarmouth,' and 
extended from William Curtis's house . . . down the west side of 
Chebogue River, past the Chebogue Burying-Ground and Rocky Nook 
to Chebogue Point. This was designed to be the great thoroughfare 



NON-PRESENT ISLAND. 49 

of the county. So man proposes, hut God disposes. If is not 
exactly so." 

The first settlers occupied the shores of Chebogue River because 
adjoining them were extensive tracts of salt marsh, at once offering 
winter fodder for their cattle, and because the lands there were better 
adapted to tillage than those upon Yarmouth Harbor. Hence the 
Chebogue Road became the first " great thoroughfare." But later 
comers, Barnard, Bond, Brown, Crosbys, Flint, Goudeys, Haskell, 
Huntington, Killam, Lovitt, Porter, Rose, Redding, Walker, and others, 
noting their superior advantages for commercial purposes, settled 
upon the lands near or adjoining Yarmouth Harbor, and so decided 
they should be the site for Yarmouth County Town. And yet, the 
fact remains, that the "road first laid out" was designed 'to be, as it 
ultimately became, the main business thoroughfare of Yarmouth. 

The section of road from Vickery's Corner to the Chebogue Point 
Road has, for the last sixty years, been maintained in more uniformly 
good condition than any other highway of equal length in the county. 
This condition was attained, not from the larger outlay of labor on the 
Chebogue Road, but from the fact that its easy grades and undulating 
surface, the nature of the soil which permitted the quick absorption of 
the rainfall, and the excellent material for road-making of which the soil 
was composed, combined to render the work of comparatively easy 
accomplishment and of an enduring character. 

Page 62. — " Such an institution [for fining the inhabitants for break- 
ing the sabbath], well enforced in these days, would yield a considerable 
revenue." 

That is, if " the institution " were founded upon the observances of 
the early Puritans of New England. 

Page 63. — " This looks like a formidable company of preachers for 
a very small population ; but in all probability there was this likeness to 
the apostles in all of them, ' they labored with their own hands.' " 

Since that day, the community would have been better served, and 
some of the preachers would have fared better, if they had, for a liveli- 
hood, united the labor of their hands with that of their heads. 

Page 66. — " This island, called corruptly Nonparison, got its name 
' NoN Prison ' from this circumstance : At the deportation about 1758, a 



50 SAMUEL SHELDOX POOLE. 

number of Acadians, who had been collected, ready to be taken to 
Boston, were . . . placed on this island, which was thought to be a safe 
place. But between wading and swimming, they managed to escape ; 
and . . . afterwards appropriately named it, in derision, ' Non I'rison.' " 

This island is now called Roberts' Island, and its old appellation was 
neither Nonparison nor Non Prison, but Non Present. When Prebble 
came with his ships to carry the prisoners off, they were not to be found. 

Page 75. — "General information is much needed among them 
[the French Acadians], and particularly a fair, impartial account of 
their own history in this Province. As an illustration of this, one of the 
most intelligent .\cadians, a gentleman and a magistrate, writing to me 
as late as 1872, says, with \\\q greatest simplicity and child-like confidence 
in the accuracy of his conviction, that all the French were scattered 
from the country because they ruould not take the oath oj abjuration 
against their own Roman-Catholic religion.^'' 

This intelligent gentleman was evidently better versed in the history 
of the Acadians, and possesr" ' a more correct knowledge of the true 
reasons for their expatriation and dispersion, than the Historian of 
Yarmouth. 

In 1758, when the Government, by proclamation, invited people from 
the other colonies to come to Nova Scotia and occupy the lands of 
the exiled Acadians, one of the articles was to this effect : " That as 
to Religion, full liberty of conscience is secured to persons of all 
persuasions, Papists excepted, — to Protestants under what denomination 
soever, according to their several opinions." (See pp. 26 and 28 
Campbell's History.) 

Not until 1783 were the laws repealed which forbade Roman 
Catholics to build a church or hold public worship in Nova Scotia, — 
a forced concession to Roman-Catholic refugees from the revolted col- 
onies and disbanded soldiers who settled in the Province at the close 
of the American war. 

Page 84. — " He [Mr. Poole] continued to represent Yarmouth, long 
after his physical strength was equal to the task, . . . Many amusing 
stories, more or less true, are yet remembered by the older generations, 
illustrating the several features of his character." 

When at length, about 1830, Mr. Poole became through old age dis- 



DIVISION OF LANDS. %i 

qualified for public service, the electors deemed it wise to select another 
candidate, and Capt. Reuben Clements was chosen. Mr. Poole, how- 
ever, was unwilling to give way, contested the election with Capt. 
Clements, and was defeated. But it is related with " more or less " 
truth, that the old man still claimed the seat by right of long possession, 
and was so much cast down at the thought of losing it, that, with tears 
in his eyes, he implored Capt. Clements not to dispossess him ; and 
Capt. Clements, in the goodness of his heart, and with the aquiescence 
of the electors, retired from the field, and Mr. Poole was returned 
as member for another term. Mr. Poole was then eighty years old. 
He died before the end of the term, when Capt. Clements succeeded 
iiim. 

So little real strife did political contests engender in Yarmouth only 
half a century ago ! 

Referring to the instructions (p. 95 Campbell's History) for the 
final division of the lands, they are not easily understood unless there is 
an error in the transcript. It seems likely that the word " improved " 
in the eighth line of the preamble should read unimproveJ, for then the 
meaning would be clear. The first clause of the preamble refers to 
the division of the lands " actually occupied or improved ; " and as there 
might be conflicting interests, the dividing lines were to be equitably 
established by "twelve lawful men," duly sworn. The second clause 
directs that the unimproved lands be "divided by ballot;" that is, the 
township having been previously surveyed, and all the lands divided 
into lots of varying size and quality, the choice of lots was to be deter- 
mined by a drawing from a ballot-box by the 128 persons or their repre- 
sentatives, among whom the lands were to be divided, each person being 
required to select lots in each of the three divisions to make up his 
quota, equal to the average of 870 acres to a share. 

Pages 95 and 96. — " We have already referred, at some length, to 
the escheatment of certain lands on the grounds of desertion or non- 
residence between 1767 and 1787. Similarly, by order of the Supreme 
Court, in 1797, ten years after the partition of the township, an escheat- 
ment of 'sundry lots of land belonging to sundry persons respectively in 
arrears in payment of their shares and proportion of the expense of 
executing the partition ' was made." 



52 DIVISION OF LANDS. 

Notwithstanding the proceedings so indefinitely detailed on pp. 
92-96, no lands of original grantees were "escheated" by order of the 
government. But they show that the decisions of the Supreme and 
other courts of Nova Scotia were no more deserving of public respect 
in the last than they have sometimes been in the present century, — that 
their decrees were often influenced by personal or political considera- 
tions ; in fine, that the courts — creatures of the politicians — were only 
too ready to bow to the controlling power of the day. 

The apportionment of the lands was not fully completed until 1787, 
when, after full surveys, a perfect plan of division of the entire lands of 
the township was executed, copies of which in public offices in Yar- 
mouth are still the guide in all land transactions. But the proceedings 
of 1787 were entirely confirmatory of those of 1767, and the names 
of the grantees upon p. 56 of Campbell's History remain unchanged 
in the papers accompanying the plans of 1787. Yet it is true that 
certain parties arriving in Yarmouth between 1767 and 1797 made 
repeated though unsuccessful attempts to dispossess some of the original 
grantees, and, without purchase, to obtain their lands for themselves. 

In 1767 the lands had been granted to two classes of persons, — 
I St, to those actually resident in the township, who had already settled 
upon the lands near Yarmouth Harbor and the Chebogue River ; 2d, to 
persons who had gained distinction in military, naval, or official service, 
and who were rewarded with grants of lands ; and the government were 
disinclined to listen to proposals to deprive such i)ersons, or their heirs, 
of lands granted in recognition of patriotic service. Siill, it happened, 
that in making the final surveys in 1 786, and in defining the boundaries 
of the lots in some parts of the township, certain expenses were incurred 
which the proprietors were held liable to pay ; and when, after a lapse 
of ten years, owing to the absence or indifference of a few of the 
grantees or their representatives, these charges were not liquidated, an 
order of the Supreme Court was obtained for the public sale of certain 
lots to the highest bidder. 

The lands at that day possessed no great value in money ; and the 
old residents having already all they could u'ie or desired, the new- 
comers were in some instances enabled to obtain what they wanted at 
a mere nominal price, so low as to be not worth mentioning here. 



JOHN MACKINNOX. 53 

Even to-day, there are thousands of acres of unimproved lands in the 
Township of Yarmouth (not to speak of the county) as good as any 
hitherto occupied for cultivation, which may be purchased for one dollar 
an acre, and, indeed, for less when remote from the travelled highways, 
or in sparsely settled districts of the township, some large tracts being 
indeed the very lands which the new-comers obtained from the dispos- 
sessed grantees or their heirs by the Supreme Court process they set in 
motion, and which have ever since remained a wilderness. 

Page 97. — "In the year 1764 Walter Sollows built the first vessel 
that was launched in the county, on Fish Point in Cape Forchue 
Harbor." 

Mr. Lawson's Record of Shipping says that it was John Sollows who 
launched, in 1 764, the first vessel built bv the English. But, no doubt, 
many small craft had been built by the French during their earlier 
occupancy. Walter Sollows was born May 12, 1768. 

Page 100. — "1764. Credent iox peas ■i.sik.i diwiS. past resaits in full 
for ever. — J[^ " 7 " 4. . . . The ruling passion for gain was, how- 
ever, irresistible //; one case, for, on the very next folio, a fresh account 
was hopefully opened." 

Mr. Campbell seems to have mistaken the meaning of the terms 
used in closing the old account. They implied that there should be no 
further allusion to the items which had led to a disagreement. The 
ready opening of the new account was evidence, on both sides, of a 
Christian spirit ; and it seems a harsh judgment to style "a ruling passion 
for gain " a necessity of their very existence, — the frequent interchange 
of commodities between the settlers of 1 764, numbering only about fifty 
families, and scattered over a wide extent of territory. But little money 
passed in the trade transactions of 1 764, and harmonious co-operation 
was the rule. Discord came with the introduction of new elements at 
a much later period. 

P.AGE loi. — "Lieutenant Ranald McKinnon, as early as 1766, wa 
appointed Collector for the Impost, Excise, and Licence Duties for the 
Townships of Barrington and Yarmouth in the room of John Crawley 
resigned." 

Ranald MacKinnon died in 1805. His son. Major John Mac- 
Kinnon, was afterwards appointed Collector of Customs for Argyle 



54 HENRY ALLIA'E. 

Township. In those days there was little desire at headquarters in 
London and Halifax, where returns were made, to hamper the trade 
of the outports, just struggling into existence, by a rigid exaction of 
imposts. On the contrary, free trade was the rule ; and the Customs 
Offices, then under the control of the Home Government from whom 
appointments emanated, were maintained rather for the purpose of 
exercising a supervision of the movements of vessels, than for levying 
taxes upon their owners or patrons, and therefore seizures for smug- 
gling were infrequent. It is related, that, on one occasion, a Lower- 
Argyle man called at the Major's office, and, intimating that smuggling 
was going on in his neighborhood, he inquired of the Major what he 
would get for watching and giving information. '•' I will tell you," 
replied the Major, " what an informer generally gets. The ill-will of 
his neighbors; — no thanks from anybody; — and he may think him- 
self lucky if he doesn't get a damned good kicking besides." The 
Major's Highland blood could not brook an informer. 

Page 103 et seq. — •' At the end of that time (1781), Henry Alline, 
an itinerant preacher of the body then lately organized, and known 
as NEW LIGHTS, visited Yarmouth. . . . He set forth doctrines 
which no sane person could now be found to believe or defend. . . . 
His views gradually gained a footing. They were at first wild and 
repelling, yet singularly fascinating to all who hailed the rise of . . . 
a system which gave the widest liberty of speech, and the greatest 
diversity of practice." 

In the "History of the Baptists," by the Rev. I. E. Bill, published 
in 1880, from an article said to have been written by Father Manning 
(Baptist), occur these passages : — 

" His [Henry Alline's] ideas on some theological ibjects were 
crude and unsatisfactory ; but on vital points, such as the entire depravity 
of the human heart, and salvation only by grace through faith in 
Christ Jesus, he was clear as the morning light. . . . He was a bright 
and shining light through the dark regions of Nova Scotia. . . . Mr. 
Alline was brought up a Congregat'onalist, and from that community 
he never separated. His notions of church discipline were confused 
and indefinite. The external order of the gospel, and particularly 
baptism and the mode of it, he professed to view with great indifference. 



ALEXANDER BAIN. 55 

He baptized but little himself, and never condescended to go into 
the water, but was willing his followers should practise whatever mode 
they chose. If they could be easy in their minds under the entire 
omission of the ordinance, he considered rather their felicity than 
neglect ; but if their minds dwelt much on baptism, he advised them 
to go forward in what mode they chose, that they might thereby quiet 
the trouble of their minds." 

Mr. Campbell has succeeded in discovering " an organized body 
known as New Lights," but he has not told us where he found them. 
The researches of other people have not disclosed a distinct sect nor 
an " organized body " known by that name. The followers of the 
Rev. George Whitefield, an ordained Presbyterian clergyman, who 
visited New Engla;id occasionally, and died at Newburyport, were 
called, in derision, " New Lights," by the Congregationalists and people 
of other denominations. 

Henry AUine dievi at Northampton, N.H., in 1784, aged thirty-five. 
In the annals of that town he is styled an " eccentric preacher." 

Page no. — " By memory is meant, for example. Bunker's Island, 
a trace — the only one — of Hezekiah Bunker." 

Other traces of Hezekiah Bunker will remain so long as the plans 
of the township lands are consulted at the office of the Prothonotary 
or Registrar of Deeds, and so long as old title-deeds remain, or new 
ones are written, conveying lands " originally granted to Hezekiah 
Bunker." The fourth in the chain of lakes connected by the eastern 
branch of the Cape Fourchu River, and situate at Ohio, is called 
"Bunker's Lake ; " but that probably derived its name from Paul Bunker, 
one of whose lots of land lay near its foot. 

Page in. — "There is a romantic interest attached to the early 
history of Alex. Bain, or, i7iore properly, McBain. His family emigrated 
from Scotland about the year 1 761-2; and the vessel in vtrhich they 
came, was lost somewhere near St. John. His father, mother, and 
sister were lost ; while he, a child of eight, escaped, by clambering 
along a fallen mast. He was brought to Yarmouth in 1762, by John 
McKinnon, on Chebogue Point, who also brought him up." 

Avoiding the harsher terms which might not be considered out 
of place, one may at least question the propriety of Mr. Campbell's 



56 THE MACBEANS. 

intimation that the Bain family of Yarmouth would spell their name 
" more properly McBain." The shipwrecked boy Alexander Bain, of 
1762, doubtless spelled his name as his father did, and as he himself 
had been taught by his mother to spell it. 

Alexander Bain is to-day a name highly honored in Scotland, borne 
by a gentleman born at Aberdeen in 1818; in 1845 he was appointed 
Professor of Natural Philosophy in Anderson Universit\ iiasgow ; in 
1857, Examiner in Logic and Philosophy in London I niversity ; and 
in i860, Professor of Logic in the L'niversity of Aberdeen. He is 
the author of several standard works on metaphysics which enjoy a 
world->/ide fame. James Bain and Joseph Bain of Scotland are also 
names well known to the literary world. 

An earlier James Bain was an ensign in the " Montgomery High- 
landers," the third British regiment organized in the Highlands of Scot- 
land, and the first one after " the affair of '45 ; " whose commissions 
were dated Jan. 4, 1 75 7, and a regiment which was destined to distin- 
guished service in America. Ranald MacKinnon of Argyle joined the 
same regiment as ensign, and Duncan Bayne was one of its lieutenants. 
These three young gentlemen joined the regiment at its first organiza- 
tion in January, 1 75 7. The " Montgomery Highlanders " will be 
referred to in a subsecjuent chapter. 

Donald Bane, son of King Duncan, was himself King of Scotland in 
1093. 

William Bain joined the " Fraser Highlanders " as ensign at the 
re-organization of that regiment in 1775. 

James MacBean in 1820 was major in the Seventy-eighth High- 
landers. 

William MacBean (Victoria Cross) was lieutenant-colonel of the 
"Sutherland Highlanders," organized in 1800, and known as the Ninety- 
third Regiment, which won signal honor in the Crimea and at Lucknow. 

Sir William MacBean, K.C.B., was, in 1843, colonel of the " Gordon 
Highlanders," organized in 1794; and in 1869, Forbes MacBean was 
lieutenant-colonel of the same regiment. 

All the names here adduced are spelled as they are found to be in 
current history, and as their oimiers doubtless spelled them; and they 
are all representatives of the same great Highland clan, the MacBeans, 



GILLIES MACBANE. 57 

MacBanes, or MacBains. They derived their name from their living in 
a mountainous district, and from the GaeHc word, variously spelled Ben, 
Ban, Beann, Bainn, Bean, Bain, and Bane, literally meaning white, or 
beautiful, and, when applied to a mountain, signifying its snow-covered 
top. They are considered to be a branch of the clan Macintosh, or, as 
some of themselves believe, of the Camerons. 

A division of the MacBeans fought under Lochiel in 1745, but a 
larger number were found on the side of the Stuarts under Ciillies Mac- 
Bane of the house of Kinchoil in the Macintosh battalion. This gigan- 
tic Highlander, who was six feet four and a half inches in height, dis- 
played remarkable prowess at the battle of Culloden. 

James Logan in his work "The Scottish Gael," published in 1831, 
says, — 

" In the disastrous battle of Culloden, the heroism of Gillies Mac- 
Bane was most eminently displayed, and was worthy of a better fate. 
This gentleman was major of the regiment of the clan Macintosh ; and 
when the Argyle militia broke down the park wall, which enabled them 
to attack the Highlanders in flank, the brave Gillies stationed himself in 
the gap, and, as the enemy entered, they severely suffered from the 
irresistible strokes of his claymore. At last, finding himself opposed 
singly to a whole troop, he set his back to the wall, and defended him- 
self with the fierceness of desperation, keeping the enemy long at bay, 
and killing an almost incredible number. Some officers, admiring his 
valor, endeavored to save his life ; but Gillies fell vvliere he had slain 
thirteen of his foes. According to some accounts, the number was 
much greater." 

The following verses are said to be from the pen of Lord Byron : — 

" The clouds may pour down on Culloden's red plain. 
But the waters shall flow o'er its crimson in vain ; 
For their drops shall seem few to the tears for the slain, 
But mine are for thee, my brave Gillies Macbane. 

Though thy cause was the cause of the injured and brave, 
Though thy death was the hero's, and glorious thy grave, 

^ With thy dead foes around thee, piled high on the plain, 

My sad heart beats o'er thee, my Gillies Macbane. 



58 THE CAMPBELLS. 

How the horse and the horsemen thy single hand slew ! 

But what could the mightiest single arm do? 

A hundred like thee might the battle regain ; 

But cold are thy hand and heart, Gillies Macbane. . 

With thy back to the wall, and thy breast to the targe, 
Full flashed thy claymore in the face of their charge : 
The blood of their boldest"that barren turf stain, 
But alas ! thine is reddest there, Gillies Macbane. 

Hewn down, but still battling, thou s .nk'st on the ground; 
Thy plaid was one gore, and thy breast was one wound ; 
Thirteen of thy foes by thy right hand lay slain ; 
Oh ! would they were thousands for Gillies Macbane ! 

Oh ! loud and long-heard shalt thy coronach be, 
And high o'er the heather thy cairn we shall see ; 
And deep in all bosoms thy name shall remain. 
But deepest in mine, dearest Gillies Macbane. 

And daily the eyes of thy brave boy before. 
Shall thy plaid lie unfolded ; unsheathed thy claymore ; 
And the White Rose shall bloom on his bonnet again, 
Should he prove the true son of my Gillies Macbane." 

Mr. Campbell is concerned that the branch of the family to which 
our first Alexander Bain belonged, throwing aside all superfluities, 
preferred their form of spelling the name to that chosen by others, and 
among these to the form McBain which Mr. Campbell himielf professes 
to prefer. But it will be allowed that the form. Bain, has had strong 
support, and with good reason too, both in civil and military life. 

The Bains, on their part, might inquire why the name Campbell is 
so written with its superfluous letters, instead of in the older and simpler 
form Cambel, or Kambel, as it appears in ancient Scottish chronicles. 
Some claim the name to have been derived from de Campo Bello, a 
Norman knight, who came to England with William the Conqueror, 
a'companion, perhaps, of the ancestor of the Herseys of Little River. 



THE CAMPBELLS. 59 

It is alleged, in opposition to this account, that, in the oldest form 
of writing the name, it is spelled Cambel, or Kambel ; and it is so found 
in many ancient documents which are preserved in the British Museum. 
Other writers assign a very different origin to the name. " It is per- 
sonal," they say, " like that of some other of the Highland clans, being 
composed of the words. Cam, bent or crooked, and Bcul, mouth ; this 
having been the most prominent feature of the great ancestor of the 
clan, Diarmid O'Dubin, or O'Duin, a brave warrior, celebrated in 
traditional history^ who was contemporary with the heroes of Ossian." 

Keltic says, "The name Campbell is undoubtedly one of consid- 
erable antiquity, and the clan has long been one of the most numerous 
and powerful in the Highlands ; although many families have adopted 
the name who have no connection with the Campbells proper, by blood 
or descent. The origin of the name, as well as the founder of the 
family, remain still a matter of the greatest doubt." 

And James Logan, in his standard work already quoted, says, "The 
Bains, or Baynes, of Tullach, an old and respectable family of Ross-shire, 
like several other Highland Septs, nevrr prefixed Mac to their names : 
but they must be accounted members oi this clan (the MacBeans)." 



CHAPTER V. 

• 

Land Reservations for Church and School Purposes. — Privateers of 1812-1815. — Foreign 
Trade of the Port. — Not established by Anthony Landers. — The Men he brought to 
Yarmouth. — Their Influence on the Community. — Thomas .Allen: his Enterprise and 
Usefulness. — Yarmouth, Mass., in 1650 and 1817. — Mr. Campbell's Views on Confed- 
eration controverted. — Joseph Howe's i^peech in Parliament when proposing Public 
Monument to Herbert Huntington. — Chebogue and Yarmouth. — .Superior Advantages 
of Chebogue for Settlement. — Maintenance of Bridges. — Balance of Trade Theory. — 
How it works. 

1).\GES 120 and 121. — " In the spring of 1807, the old Episcopal 
Church was raised. . . . On the preceding Michaelmas Day, Sept. 
29, 1806, the first parish officers had been appointed. ... As men 
who were looking ahead, the churcli wardens and vestry resolved to 
obtain grants of land for glebe and school purposes. And in the 
month of August, 1807, the rector went to Halifax on that business, 
bringing back with him the grant and plans of the lots assigned. For 
many years very strong feeling existed in the town on the subject, the 
popular conviction being that their church brethren had no legal right 
or title. Nor were they forward to prove that they had.^' 

These lands were the government reservations of xid"], four shares 
in the Township of Yarmouth, 3,938 acres, for church and school pur- 
poses. That these lands should be afterward claimed and held for the 
exclusive use of a small body of Episcopalians, was a grievance to 
Dissenters; and it was a long time before the "church party" were 
permitted to hold them in peaceable possession. Eventually the oppo- 
sition subsided. The lands were sold from time to time, and the pro- 
ceeds applied to the exclusive use of "Trinity Parish." The schools 
were entirely ignored; and just about the time, 1862, a portion (about 
two acres) of one of the lots in the central part of the town was sold 
for the benefit of the Episcopal Church, realizing upwards of $4,000, 
the residents of the school-district in which that lot was situated, raised 



PLEASURE-CARRIAGES. 6l 

by private subscription, almost wholly among themselves, about $16,000, 
and, upon a lot of land quite near the church-lot, built the " Yarmouth 
Seminary," referred to on p. 167, Campbell's History, the: eing at that 
time not a single public-school building in the Township 01 Varmouth. 

Page 125. — " In the year 1831, there were 140 pleasure-carriages in 
Yarmouth; and by the census of 1871, it appears there were 1,438, 
besides 2,916 other veh'cles in the county." 

This enumeration of 4.354 vehicles must have included every thing 
from an ox-cart to a wheelbarrow; for, in 187 1, there were in Yarmouth 
County only 3,200 houses and 18,550 inhabitants. 

If the two first pages of chapter 15 of Campbell's History fairly 
describe the highways of Yarmouth at the beginning of this century, the 
importation of a " pleasure-carriage " in 1 799, and the attempts to use 
it in 1804 and 1805, so graphically described by Mr. Campbell on 
p. 124, were, to say the least, imprudent. 

" But pleasures are like poppies spread, 
You seize the flower, its bloom is shed : 
Or, like the snow-falls in the river, 
A moment white — then melts forever ; 
Or like the borealis race, 
Thatyf// ere you can point their place ; 
Or like the rainbow's lovely form, 
Evanishing amid tlie storm." 

The fact, however, is, that Mr. Campbell had no proper warrant for 
saying that there were 140 "pleasure-carriages" in Yarmouth in 1831, 
nor 1,438 in 1871 ; for it may be doubted if in 1876, the year his book 
was issued, there were a dozen vehicles in Yarmouth which could be 
correctly classed as pleasure-carriages. 

The importer of the carriage in 1 799 was the only physician in 
Yarmouth, and therefore the first resident likely to need a carriage. 

Page 130. — "Without being able to assert positively how many 
Yarmouth vessels were taken by American cruisers, we have been able 
to trace seven distinctly. On the other hand, we took at least ten of 
theirs, — a ratio, if the tonnage were proportionate, which viust have 
tended to the final prosperity of the county." (!) 



62 EARLY SHIP-OWNERS. 

The "Record of the Shipping of V'armouth," also published in 1876, 
gives upon the lists of vessels owned at the port in 181 2-1 8 15 the 
names of 22 prizes, 1.85 1 tons, not all, however, captured by Yarmouth 
privateers. The total shipping- of the port in 1815 is stated at 49 
vessels, 2,441 tons. The same l)Ook gives the names and tonnage of 
Yarmouth vessels captured by American privateers in 181 2, 18 13, and 
1 8 14. These were nine vessels, 807 tons. No matter what the dis- 
parity in the numbers or tonnage of the prizes, the war of 181 2 could 
not have been otherwise than disastrous to the commerce of the port. 
No nation or community ever yet prospered through the seizure in time 
of war of private property, either by land or sea.' 

Page 134. — "The names of Robbins, Lovitt, Baker, Ryerson, Moses, 
Killam, Dennis &: Doane, (ioudey, Moody, and very many others, tell 
us of the successful extension of our foreign shipping interests. But to 
none of them . . . belongs the honor of having, so to speak, originated 
the foreign trade of the port. That honor belongs to a man whose 
name does not appear in our lists, — Anthony Landers, a native of Sun- 
derland, England, whose spirited and extensive operations in ship- 
building merited a more successful issue." 

No one should publish a list of the names of men foremost in 
developing the shipping industry of Yarmouth, and omit those of 
Marshall, Gardner, Tooker, Barnard, Cann, Clements, Flint, Durkee, 
Kelley, Rogers, Haley, Hilton, Scott, or Allen ; for either of them 
deserves as prominent a place as those Mr. Campbell mentions, and 
they are the men with the Lovitts, Killams, Moodys, and Dennises who 
really originated and successfully developed " the foreign trade of the 
port." Not a single name on either list deserves more honorable men- 
tion than the name of Gardner ; for the men of that family not only were 
themselves the enterprising owners of vessels engaged in foreign trade 
during the first twenty years of the present century, but from the begin- 
ning of the century until shipbuilding fell among the " lost arts " in 
Yarmouth County, they were known as the builders of many of the 
largest and finest vessels built for themselves, or, in later years, for other 
leading ship-owners. Perhaps it may not be far out of the way to say 
that the number, if not the aggregate tonnage, of the vessels built in 

• Appendix E. 



ANTHONY LANDERS. 63 

Yarmouth County by the (lardners, e(iuals one-fourth that of all other 
vessels built there from 1800 to 1870. Ten years later the building of 
wooden sailing-ships ceased to be a business generally worth prosecuting. 

Anthony Landers neither originated, nor to any great extent engaged 
in, the foreign trade of the port. The vessels built for him from 181 1 
to 1830 were of a class too large to participate in any foreign trade 
Yarmouth could profitably follow at that period. His vessels were 
probably built for sale in the English market for the most part ; and 
the almost universal failure of those engaged in it, both in Yarmouth 
and Digby Counties, has followed the history of that enterprise. Mr. 
Landers appears to have met the fate of all the rest. He was evidently 
a man of great enterprise, and of an order of intelligence differing from 
what prevailed in Yarmouth when lie first visited the county. If he 
could have been content to settle down in Yarmouth and allow his 
ship-building and ship-owning business to grow with the natural growth 
of the place, and at the same time to follow those other enterprises 
in which he showed a tendency to indulge, viz., in developing the 
agricultural resources of the county, and in elevating the social and 
religious status of its people, the benefits he would have conferred on 
Yarmouth are to-day incalculable. 

Page 136. — "He [Anthony Landers] may justly, I conceive, be 
called the father, if not the founder, of our foreign trade, which is 
the main source of the continued and increasing prosperity of Yar- 
mouth. . . . But fickle as she is said to be, Fortune was more than 
usually so with this man. . . . He became beggared in the initiating 
and prosecuting of an enterprise in which thousands are now becoming 
rich." 

Anthony Landers is here again called the " father, or founder, of 
our foreign trade." With his Bittern of 188 tons, he came first to 
Yarmouth in 1808. But years before that our ship-owners were largely 
engaged in foreign trade. 

The " Record of Yarmouth Shipping " shows among the new ves- 
sels owned at the port, in 1808, the Lady Sherbrooke, 290 tons; in 
1807, the Penelope, 156, Trafalgar, 105, and the Jacob and Benjamin, 
104 tons; in 1806, the Falkirk, 181, and the Lord Nelson, 103 tons; 
in 1802, the Arabella, 103 tons; in 1801, the 'Joseph and Lois, 103 



€4 ANTHONY LANDERS. 

tons; in 1797, the Industry, 133 tons; and also in and before 1808, 
seven schooners, averaging 81 tons, and sixteen averaging 65 tons, 
nearly all of which vessels were engaged in foreign tra(ie. 

Mr. Lawson's " Record " shows that Anthony Landers built his 
first vessel in Yarmouth, the Peter Waldo, 259 tons, in 181 1. }}ut 
Samuel Marshall, a leading Yarmouth merchant since 1787, built in 
1809 the Claude Scott, 261 tons; and in the same year we find the 
names of four other new vessels, averaging 1 1 1 tons. With the same 
results the comparison may be extended to 18 13 when .\nthony Landers 
built his second vessel, the Thales, 260 tons, and, further, during the 
entire period he remained in Yarmouth. 

Page 140. — "It is hard to determine how much is due to the 
late Anthony Landers ; but among other things with which he may be 
credited, is the introduction and advancement of ti-e Methocist body 
in this county. The now thriving settlement of Hebron was very 
largely Mr. Landers's property." 

There is very little foundation for the statement that the " now 
thriving village of Hebron was very largely Mr. Landers's property." 
The value of Mr. Landers's possessions at Hebron at any time would 
not have exceeded eight thousand dollars, and that chiefly consisted in 
the large house he built for his private residence. The substantial 
. growth of Hebron took place long after Mr. Landers had left the 
county, and it was but in a small degree attributable to his influence. 
After the Beaver River and Ohio roads were opened up, Hebron 
Corner became naturally a business centre, and the building of the 
Baptist Church there in 1834 led some of the elderly people to cluster 
around it. 

But Anthony Landers's friends need not look to Hebron for a 
monument of his usefulness and enterprise. These took a far wider 
range. To aid him in his operations, he brought from England a 
number of vigorous young men who were valuable accessions to the 
community. Among these were Thomas Winter, William Bullerwell, 
Joseph Stoneman, George Allen and Thomas Allen, and George W. 
Brown. 

Yarmouth, from its first settlement, has never had a more indus- 
trious and useful citizen than the late Thomas Allen. For the twenty 



THOMAS ALLEN. 65 

years, 1840 to 1S60, that he was prominent among our ship-owners, 
the vessels bearing iiis flag, mostly built for him by Nelson (lardner, 
sen., were looked upon as models in their class, — as a little neater 
in style and finish than those of his neighbors at Milton, or of his 
friends at the other end of the town. 

As overseer of highways, Thomas .■\llen constructed the first well-built 
piece of road in Yarmouth County, — that from Starr's Corner to the 
" Devil's Half-Acre." The good taste and skill he displayed in laying 
out his grounds, the admirable order everywhere apparent about his 
Milton homestead, afforded a practical illustration of what one man 
could do to change the aspect of a neighborhood. 

When the lands were bought for the " Mountain Cemetery," Thomas 
Allen's supervision was sought, to reduce them from a wilderness con- 
dition ; and next, to lay upon the grounds the plans that had been 
prepared by H. W. S. Cleveland, an eminent landscape engineer from 
Massachusetts. Thomas Allen's services were sought because there was 
no one else in Yarmouth at that time who could have done the work 
so well. 

It was Thomas Allen's enterprise that, some twenty years ago, brought 
James Pilling to Yarmouth from Liverpool, England ; and the transfor- 
mation Pilling effected in the Milton landscape will long attest Thomas 
Allen's usefulness to the community to which Anthony Landers had 
introduced him. 

A tablet to Sir Christopher Wren in St. Paul's Cathedral bears this 
inscription : — 

SI xMONUMENTUM QUCERIS. CIRCUMSPICE. 
Jf you seek his monument, look around. 

After performing a grand work among us for near fifty years, Thomas 
Allen has gone to his well-earned rest. But his memorials are widely 
and deeply impressed upon the Yarmouth landscape ; and the evergreen 
foliage, overshadowing many a quiet path of his tracing, will long endure 
as fitting monuments to him. 

Page 148. — "Here [Beaver River, 1829] the first Temperance 
Society in Nova Scotia, or, according to some, in Nr^-rh America, or, 
according to others, in the world, was formed." 



66 YARMOUTH, MASS. 

There is a little town on I'arnstaljle Hay, Mass., founded in 1639, 
called Yarmouth, with the town of Der.nis as its nearest neighbor. In 
1675, they together had a population of yoo ; in 1765, of 1,740; in 
1790, of 2,678. In i860, Yarmouth alone had a p(;pulation of 2,752, 
which in 1870 had fallen to 2,423; and in 1880, the year of the last 
census, Yarmouth had only 2,1 73 inhabitants. 

The historian of that town has no better suggestion to <;ffer for the 
adoption of the name, than that it may have been remembered that 
some of the " I'ilgrim Fathers," before their adventure across the 
Atlantic, embarked at Yarmouth, Englanrl, for Holland. .\s an instance 
of the relation of money to labor and building materials in 1650, he 
quotes a contract for " a new ho^ise to be thatche<l, studded, and 
latched, except daubing, for ^10, including 29 acres of land." haubing 
was filling up the crevices with clay and mortar. In the same year, 
" a Town meeting voted to pay the .Minister half in specie, and half in 
com at 3/- per bushel and Rye the same." He says, " Lawyers were 
not tolerateil in the colony;" and adds, "The year 181 7 witnessed 
a great temperance reform in the town. The formation of the Boston 
Society for the I'revenlion of Intemperance was followed by the organi- 
zation of a similar one here, said to be the second of the kind estajjlished 
in this country. The first meeting was held March 6, 181 7, when a 
constitution and by-laws were adopted, and at a subser|uent meeting 
an organization was effected. The conditions of membership woulfl not 
be considered very exacting in these days. *No member of this Society, 
e.xcept in case of sickness, shall drink any distilled spirits or wine, in any 
house in town except his own, or the one in which he resides.' ' No 
man shall offer or furnish, except in case of sickness, any inhabitant 
of the town any distilleri spirits or wine, whether they be visitors or 
laborers, but shall use his influence to discourage the ruinous jiractice.' " 
Economy seems to have been the chief aim of these reformers. 

I'agf, 150. — "The name of Hebron was given to that settlement, 
as before said, by Capt. Landers, 'riiat i^<as his properly where he 
hoped to spend the remainder of his days — the centre of his ship- 
building operations. His house was at first a[)art from all others ; but, in 
the course of years, the junction of the CJhio roafl with the main [>ost-road 
became a desirable place of business, and was called Hebron Corner." 



MORE-RUM DJiUOK. 67 

As large proijerties nearly as his rnvn, an.! occupied as farms, 
3 " .(led Anthony Lanrlers's property when he honght it, — the Trask 
farm on the south side, and the olfl Saunders property on t! north side, 
which John Mrown lioiight in 1819, and oi f npied from 1824 to i8;{6. 

The property bought by Anthony Landers had Ijeen occupied as 
a farm, and harl a house and orcharrl iipf)n it ; the house remain- 
ing just opposite Hebron (Corner f';r some fifty years afterwarrl. 
'Ihere was no propriety, therefore, in Mr. ('ampjjell's statement that 
" iiis house was at first apart from ail others ; " and it may Ijc adderl 
tliat Mr. Landers had nr< nearer neighbors while he remained at 
Hebron tlian tliose he found there. 

The road from FIel)ron Corner through Ohio and past liie eastern 
side of Lake (ieorge is laid down uj)on (Joldsbury's [)laii of 1787. 

Wv.v. 151. — " They refuserl to go on till the needful was forthcom- 
ing. The surveyor in rharge of the work told them to drink from 
the l>rook till they got more: hence the name, ' More-Rum IJrook.' " 

" .More- Rum I'rook " is a watering-place for horses in the woods 
about a mile west from Tusket iiridge. It deriveil its name from 
the f irrumstan' e, that, while the horses were drinking, travellers usefl 
the o]Ji.ortunily offered l)y the excellent si)ring-vvater to take another 
glass of grog. Hrog is rum and a little water, the usual and favorite 
tieverage in " ye cdden time." Ihe rum rame rlirect from the West 
Inflies, and was sold by the honest dealers of those days pure, as it 
came from the shi]). Travellers over the I usket Road generally had a 
bottle at hand, and the rum was so strong as to re'juire the admixture 
of a little water to make it palatable. 

Kxhilarating substances, which, indulged in to excess, would jiro- 
diice intoxicating effects, have been in use among all peoples, in all 
ages known to history. Their use, in some form, satisfies a natural 
desire of mankind ; and, in a well-ordered state of society, if " temper- 
ance reformers " would be themselves reasonable and moderate in their 
exhortations and in the rules they wouUl prescribe for the use of 
nature's bounties, society might at length become united in a rleman»l 
for the elimination of hurtful prpjierties from all kinds of food and 
drink, and for regulations which would at least tend to insure their 
harmlessness and purity. 



68 CANADIAN CONFEDERATION. 

Page 154. — "Reuben Clements [in 1836] represented the Town- 
ship of Yarmouth. . . . Miner Huntington was a surveyor by profes- 
sion. . . . Herbert Huntington was three times elected county member, 
viz., in 1836, 1840, and 1844, having before served for several years 
as member for the old county (Shelburne). . . . He was appointed 
in 1^30, by the House of Assembly, one of two delegates to lay before 
the Home Government the grievances of the Province." 

Reuben Clements represented Yarmouth Township from 1835 to 
1847, when, declining re-election, he was succeeded by Thomas Killam. 
Herbert Huntington, having been one of the representatives of Shel- 
burne County since 1S30, was elected for Yarmouth County five times, 
viz., in i'^36, 1840, 1843, 1847, and 1848, when, having accepted a seat 
in the Executive Government with the office of Financial Secretary, 
requiring the confirmation of his constituents, he was again returned 
without opposition. It was in iSjg that Mr. Huntington, with Willin-n 
Young (afterward Chief Justice) as co-delegate, was sent by the House 
of Assembly to England. 

Miner Huntington, and Herbert Huntington after him, for a long 
series of years held the position of Surveyor of Crown Lands ; and their 
labors in that capacity were rewarded by the entire approbation of the 
public. Often called upon to settle disputed boundaries, their decisions 
met a ready acquiescence. 

Page 158. — "The principle of confederation, in some form or 
other, was for years before the union icith Canada, a favorite theme 
with many politicians, including the late Herbert Huntington and 
'jFoseph Howe. The following extract from a lettei of the late H. 
Huntington, referring to the contemplated repeal of the union between 
Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, about the year 1840, is to the purpose : 
' I am for a general confederation of all these colonies. We are quite 
too weak to obtain justice as we now are.' " 

Page 160. — "And when we say this, we best exhibit, and that 
without words, the intense dislike with which the people had been 
brought to view a measure, which, but for the mode of proceeding 
adopted by the Government, as the opposing party alleged, might 
possibly have been passed as a popular measure." 

These two paragraphs, and others which accompany them, have the 



HERBERT HUNTINGTON. 69 

appearance of deliberate misrepresentation ; and, as Mr. Campbell 
lived in Yarmouth while the controversy raged, the}' are without 
excuse. 

It was in 1844 that an extra session of the Nova Scotia Legislature 
was called, to consider a proposition for the separation of Cape Breton 
from Nova Scotia, in opposing which Mr. Huntington expressed the 
opinion quoted. He saw that, rather than a separation from Cape 
Breton, a closer union of all the British North-American colonies was 
desirable, in order that they might be the better able to secure the boon 
of self-government, for which all the colonies were then contending. 
But when, in 1847, after long and vigorous agitation, the system of 
••'Responsible Government" had become firmly established in the British 
North-American colonies, a demand for the confederation of all the 
colonies was never entertained in Nova Scotia. 

Nor was the proposal for a union of the maritime provinces with 
Canada ever seriously entertained until 1866, fifteen years after Mr. 
Huntington's death, when, through a series of infamous intrigues, and 
through political treachery that has had few parallels in history, Nova 
Scotia lost her independence, and was forced into an unnatural alliance 
with Canada. 

It is a base imputation upon the memory of Herbert Huntington, to 
insinuate, that, if he had lived until 1866, he would have been found 
abetting the traitorous measures of Tupper, Archibald, McCully, and the 
rest. On the contrary, had Herbert Huntington lived until 1866, the 
scheme for confederation would never have been consummated. Just 
because Joseph Howe, in 1866 and 1867, lacked the co-operation of 
such men as Herbert Huntington, that " brave, determined man of broad 
chest and iron frame, who would have died rather than bow to Gesler's 
cap," did the conspirators succeed in their desperate and infamous 
scheme. 

Joseph Howe wrote the epitaph upon the monument to Herbert 
Huntington, which stands in the " Mountain Cemetery."' 

The leader of the Government in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly, 
Mr, Howe moved the resolution appropriating the money for the monu- 
ment. In a graceful speech, the Hon. James W. Johnson, the distin- 

' Appendix F. 



^0 JOSEPH HOWE'S EULOGY. 

guished leader of the Opposition, seconded the resolution, which passed 
unanimously. 

Mr. Howe said, " It is the custom of civilized countries to perpetuate 
the memory, and to record the virtues, of those who have rendered 
eminent service to the State ; and even among barbarous nations, some 
rude cairn marks the spot where sleeps the warrior whose voice was 
respected in the council, whose arm in battle was strong. To the 
dead such memorials are of little worth ; but they are of value to 
the living. The rising generations study the history of their country 
in the monuments which grace its surface. They emulate the virtues 
which their forefathers have regarded as a sacred obligation to 
record. 

" The gentlemen who have been recently returned to this Assembly 
may not be so familiar as the old members of the House are, with the 
peculiar characteristics and eminent qualities of the man to whom this 
resolution refers. For twenty years he served his county and his country 
faithfully. During the whole of that time he acted under our personal 
observation. Every phase of his character was familiar to us. We saw 
him tried in every conflict, — by every vicissitude of colonial public life : 
and I think that gentlemen on all sides will agree with me, that for 
varied information, unbending integrity, and a rigid adherence to what 
he believed to be right, no man ever was more deservedly distinguished 
than the late Herbert Huntington. Self-taught, his store? of knowledge 
were yet various and ample ; trained in the Legislature, and in a com- 
munity where agricultural and commercial pursuits blend, his mind was 
practical, his knowledge suited to circumstances as they arose. To 
permit a man like this to slip out of our ranks without a recognition of 
his services, or a word to his memory, would not be creditable to this 
House, nor would such neglect be very encouraging to the rising intel- 
lect of our country. Let us place over Huntington's remains, then, 
some tribute to his worth. Let the country he served stamp her appro- 
bation on the spot where his body moulders. There may be novelty in 
the proposition ; but if this is the first monument erected by Nova Scotia, 
let us hope it may not be the last. Any elaborate or e\pensive work of 
art I do not contemplate nor propose. It would be in bad taste. A 
simple shaft of Siielburne granite, with his name upon it, would be an 



CHEBOGi'E RIIER. /I 

ornament to his native town, and an appropriate memorial of plain 
manners, enduring virtues, and unbending integrity." 

A simple shaft of Shelburne granite, therefore, marks the spot where 
Herbert Huntington was buried. He was first called to public life as 
representative for Shelburne while Yarmouth was united to that county, 
and Yarmouth chose him as her first representative after the division. 
A steadfast Liberal in politics and religion, the mutual confidence which 
at first subsisted between him and his constituents, remained unimpaired 
until his death. 

Pages 184 and 185. — "The three principal are Water Street, Main 
Street, and William Street. . . . Main Street is, in some sense, as the 
name suggests, the leading thoroughfare. This street is nearly fn'o miles 
long. William Street, the most easterly principal thoroughfare, is a fine 
straight street, and promises to be the most desirable part of the town for 
private residences." 

It seems a strange classification which gives William Street pre- 
cedence over Argyle, Forest, Parade, Vancouver, Chestnut, Elm, or 
some other streets that might be named. Nor is it true that William 
Street is the most desirable for private residences. For many reasons it 
is less desirable than either of the other streets named. The three 
churches there may, in Mr. Campbell's view, have overbalanced its 
defects as a residential quarter. 

Main Street is, /;/ every sense, what its name implies. The town of 
Yarmouth extends from " Bain's Corner " to " Amasa Durkee's north 
line," a distance of three miles nearly. That, then, is the length of 
Main Street. I'he width of the town east and west is about one and a 
half mile. 

Page 185. — "Nothing at first, or for thirty years, gave any distinct 
intimation of the future importance of the town, where it now stands. 
The "Town Point" at Chebogue is one, among other proofs, of man's 
intention that the present town should be a subordinate settlement. 
And so it long continued." 

Various considerations favored the earlier settlement of the shores of 
Chebogue River. There was the first landing-place in 1761. Navigable 
from Chebogue Point to Arcadia Bridge, a distance of six miles, it was 
everywhere sheltered from devastating gales. Exposed to the direct 



72 MILTOX BRIDGE. 

rays of the morning sun, and protected from the blighting influence of 
the west and south-west summer-winds, the lands on the western side 
of Chebogue River were, for these and other reasons, better suited for 
cultivation than those upon either side of Yarmouth Harbor. 

The salt marshes of the Chebogue River supplied immediate subsist- 
ence for their cattle ; and the soil of the uplands was free from stone, 
and easily drained as compared with Yarmouth lands. Still, a refer- 
ence to the location of the early setders, given upon pp. 111-115 of 
Campbell's History, shows that, in 1787, the families at Yarmouth were 
forty-four in number, just equal to those at Chebogue. 

Later, the superior advantages of Yarmouth Harbor for prosecuting 
a foreign trade, established the pre-eminence ; for here was the natural 
outlet for the products of the saw-mills from Milton to Lake George, 
which supplied the material for a profitable intercourse with the West 
Indies, and other markets nearer home. 

Page 187. — "This building [the new Presbyterian Church], which 
is in the Romanesque style, and which will be capable of meeting all 
the wants of the congregation, takes the place of that which was erected 
in 1841." 

Mr. Campbell here seems to gently intimate that the new St. John's 
Church is too large for the congregation. 

Page 190, Note. — "In 1798 the Milton district could not repair 
its OiOii Utile bridge, and the surveyors of other districts were directed by 
the Sess' ns to help them." 

The. are to-day few bridges, exclusively in the Township of Yar- 
mouth, larger or more important than the Milton bridge was in 1 798 ; 
and to build a new bridge there, or make extensive repairs upon an old 
one, would have been a serious burden to the few men then living within 
two miles of it. Moreover, Sealed Landers's grist-mill stood upon the 
western side of the river, while four-fifths of the population of the town- 
ship lived on the eastern side. It was, therefore, important to the " other 
districts " that the Milton bridge, a part of their " principal thorough- 
fare," should be kept in passable repair, or a new bridge built if a spring 
freshet had carried the old one to sea. 

It may also be borne in mind that over three-fourths of the original 
river-bed has been occupied by stone abutments filled in with gravel, 



TRADE OF YARMOUTH. 73 

antl that the Milton bridge in 1S76, which Mr. Campbell might then 
well call a "little bridge," was a far different structure in 1798. 

Again, even to this day, bridges in Yarmouth County, or elsewhere 
in Nova Scotia, are neither built nor wholly maintained by the road 
districts in which they may happen to be situated. The principal ones 
are subjects for special appropriations of county or provincial moneys. 

Page 197. — "In 1873 the value of all the fish, fresh water and 
salt, caught in the county in that year, was about $450,000." 

These figures may be supposed to indicate the value of the fish 
caught in 1873 by the crews of vessels and boats belonging to the 
county, in addition to the value of the products of the river fisheries. 

In 1880, Yarmouth had engaged in the fisheries 105 vessels and 
543 boats, employing 5,691 men, the craft being valued at $260,000. 
The value of the fishery products of that year is stated in the returns at 
$669,572. 

Page 198. — "The gross imports amount to about $700,000, the 
jtrincipal and most valuable part of which consists of materials for 
fitting and furnishing ships. The gross annual exports, which consist 
chiefly of lumber and fish, amount to about $300,000. Looked at 
in this way, ... we seem to consume more than we produce. But if, 
as is at once fair, and necessary for getting at the truth, the annual 
production of vessel property be brought into the account, as a kind 
of export, allowance being made for the value of the imported material, 
such as rigging and the like, the amount of property annually sent out 
of the port, amounts to about $1,500,000." 

The above figures are misleading. In recent years, there has been 
no such disparity in the exports and imports of the county as they 
imply ; nor do the Custom- House books ever give the full value of the 
exports of a district. 

The latest government reports thus state the exports and imports 
of the port of Yarmouth for the financial year ending June 30 : — 

1884. Exports . $708,597 Imports .... $681,452 

1885. " . 627,779 " .... 515,162 

These figures may perhaps include the value of the exports and 
imports of Maitland, Tusket Wedge, Tusket, and Pubnico, which have 
some direct foreign trade. 



74 TRADE OF YARMOUTH. 

Nor is it correct to say tliat materials for building and equipping 
ships have been the " principal and most valuable part " of the imports 
of the county ; for, large as has been the item they furnished, it has 
always been exceeded by the value of imported breadstuffs and other 
provisions. 

Custom-House returns never fairly show the '• balance of trade," 
so-called, of a jjort or of a country. A cargo of fish, invoiced at 
Yarmouth at S6,ooo, may bring in the West Indies $S,ooo net. The 
return cargo of salt from Turk's Island may cost $300 ; the exports 
and imports will appear in the Custom-House books at S6,ooo and 
$300 respectively. 

A cargo of lumber, invoiced at Yarmouth at $1,500, may yield in the 
West Indies $2,500; the return cargo maybe sugar, costing Sio,ooo. 
The gold, represented by the bill of exchange which balances these 
transactions, does not appear in the Custom-House books. 

Or, a cargo of fish, costing at Yarmouth $5,000, may yield at Porto 
Rico $8,000 net, which may be invested in sugar, and entered for duty 
at the Yarmouth Custom House, the profit on the return cargo paying 
the expense of the voyage. Here the Custom-House books would 
show exports, $5,000; imports, SS,ooo ; balance of trade against Yar- 
mouth, $3,000 ; and so illustrate our extravagance. But if the return 
cargo of sugar be carried direct to St. John, or be lost at sea, the 
Custom-House books would show exports, $5,000; imports, ;/;/,• the 
transaction, in either event, contributing to the favorable "balance of 
trade " at the end of the financial year, upon which a class of news- 
papers and members of Parliament supporting the government would 
expatiate. 

Mr. Campbell's figures show $1,200,000 as the value of new ship- 
ping produced, and annually "sent out" from Yarmouth. Now, for 
the ten years ending Jan. i, 1876, the shipping added to the port 
averaged 14,750 tons per annum, which, at $50 per ton, would be 
$737,500. But this included ships purchased abroad, and those built 
in Digby and Shelburne Counties for Yarmouth owners, which exceeded 
one-half the annual total. Not one of these ships was built for sale 
abroad ; and their value, while on the books of registry at Yarmouth, 
would contribute to the " aggregate value of the property, real and 



TRADE OF YARMOUTH. 75 

personal, of Yarmouth Township," estimated by Mr. Campbell, on p. 199, 
at " well-nigh ten millions of dollars." And so Mr. Campbell demands 
of the newly acquired ships the double duty of swelling the sum of 
annual exports while still figuring in the aggregate value of the real 
and personal property of the county. 

Again, the ships newly built or acquired by purchase have to supply 
the place of those lost, or of the old ships sold abroad ; so that while 
the tonnage added to the port for the 10 years endmg 1876, amounted 
to 147,472 tons, the net increase was only 54,730 tons, or 5,472 tons 
per annum ; and although the tonnage built or ac(iuired in 1872 was 
29 vessels, 16,284 tons, the net increase in that year was only 750 
tons. The figures for 1869 show a parallel condition." 

Page 199, Note. — "But nothing is plainer than that tl.e township 
is more than fivf hundred per cent richer than it was a hundred years 
ago." 

To have written twenty-five hundred per cent (if either phrase 
were a proper one ) would have been nearly as easy, and still less than 
the actual proportions existing between the valuations of 1776 and 
1876 would warrant. 

There are many other statements in the pages here reviewed, alike 
open to correction, which have been, doubtless, often discussed at 
family gatherings in Yarmouth County. Some of these have been now 
passed over because to treat the subjects fairly would require more 
space than can be spared ; others, because, being of minor importance, 
they have been readily set aside by most readers of the book. 

But Campbell's History, the second printed book of any note 
hailing from Yarmouth, has other defects which detract from its merits 
as a model for the youthful aspirants for literary fame the Yarmouth 
common schools are now sending out. Some of these will form the 
subjects for the next chapter, partly with a view of inciting the aspirants 
aforesaid to a free criticism of home productions whenever they may 
appear, or from whomsoever they may proceed. 

' Appendix CJ. 



CHAPTER VI. 

A Literary Curiosity. — Critics open to Criticism. — Isagogin and Ingo^en. — Miliceles 
and Micmacs. — Obsolete Adjectives. — Printers' Pi. — Rules of Construction. — Una- 
vailing .Sympathy. — ''For the More Part." — H. G. Parish. — Rev. Harris Harding. — 
Adventure with the Pleasure-carriage. — Early Settlers Descendants of Puritans. — 
Their Churches at Chebogue and Yarmouth. — The Tabernacle. — Influences leading 
to its Construction. — Mrs. Ruth Ellis lays the Corner-stone. 

IN opening chapter 19 of his History, Mr. Campbell intimates that 
the early settlers were not distinguished for literary proficiency ; 
that their spelling and handwriting, even for the age in which they 
lived, were indifferent. In another place he says that the orthography 
of their early records " acknowledged no laws known to Johnson or 
Worcester ; " and, to illustrate the correctness of this opinion, he 
prints examples upon pp. 41, 94, 98, 168, etc. Indeed, upon p. 
41 he says that he inserts the oldest public record "as a kind of 
literary curiosity;" and upon p. 80, to show the illiteracy of the 
times, he even quotes from a document issued from the Provincial 
Court of Vice-Admiralty at Halifax, and says of it, " The construction 
of the sentences composing this declaration is somewhat difficult to 
analyze ; but the thing intended to be set forth is plain enough.''' 

His " History of Yarmouth " might, therefore, be expected to be 
free from the defects the author laments in others : the more especially 
as it is heralded as " the result of an invitation issued by the governors 
of King's College, Windsor, for Essays on County Histories, under 
the thoughtful and liberal intelligence of the Akins foundation." 

Mr. Campbell should have added a note explaining the meaning he 
intended to convey by the words, " thoughtful and liberal intelligence." 
The " thing intended to be set forth " is hardly " plain enough," though 
it may be guessed. A gentleman prominent in Campbell's History, the 
late Dr. H. G. Parish, when once presiding over the Court of Sessions, 



LITERARY CRITICISM. 77 

was appealed to for an interpretation of a statute somewhat obscurely 
expressed. He found himself in a difficulty, and remarked that he 
"wished the people who made the laws would write the meaning 
underneath." 

A book, written by an Episcopal clergyman, sent all the way from 
England, and bearing the ivipriinattir of the governors of King's 
College, might certainly be expected to be free from errors in grammar 
and etymology a Varniouth school-boy could correct, and to be written 
in a style intelligible to the people whom it chiefly concerned, but whose 
general qualifications the author seems to have rated not far above those 
he ascribes to the early settlers. 

On a few pages following, reproduced in the order of their occur- 
rence, are some of the passages in Campbell's History which the 
ordinary reader stumbles over. 

Page vn, Introductory Chapter. — " Although not as deeply inter- 
ested or as directly concerned in all the details of the County of 
Yarmouth as if he had been born in this county, and had listened from 
childhood to the story of its settlement and subsequent progress, the 
author has always considered it a duty as well as a pleasure to gather 
up particulars illustrative of the character and institutions of the 
people," etc. 

It may be remembered that the first sentence of chapter i of 
Campbell's History required correction. So here, in illustrating another 
peculiarity of that author's work, it may be noted that the first line of 
the introductory chapter contains a grammatical error. 

Page ix, Same Chaffer. — "Throughout the three volumes of Mr. 
Murdoch's valuable repository of facts for some future historian of 
Nova Scotia, lie scattered references to this county." 

Mark the modesty of the author who places at the head of his own 
pages " History of Yarmouth," and who styles Murdoch's History of 
Nova Scotia "a valuable repository of facts for some future historian .'' 

Page 5. — " The river, being thus shut up, forced a new opening for 
itself; and, in 1810, it was again closed by a good dike, with substan- 
tial sluices ; and the abatteau was protected by a long pier running out 
seaward." 

Here we have the terms "dike," "abatteau," and "long pier," to 



7'i M/UCETES AND MIC MACS. 

denote one structure. The description was complete with the words 
" good dike." Vet some emergency may have called for the " pad- 
ding," as printers sometimes style similar superfluities. 

Page 9. — " In 1621 Acadia (or 'Cadia,' or .Vcadie as with varying 
//w//(?/'/('//j that term was appliedby the French) . . . was granted," etc. 

Here is one of the conundrums Mr. Campbell has set Ijefore the 
reader, to guess in what sense he has used the word " limitations." 

Page i i , Note. — " Excepting such places where the pure French 
form, or where cornipt anglicized forms ciuoted in documents are used, 
the form adhered to throughout this work is Cape Fonhtie." 

Cap is a noun masculine, and the terminal e to the adjective is bad 
French. The " pure French form," Cap Fourchu, anglicized, should be 
simply Cape Fourchu, as, indeed, it is spelled by those who have regard 
to philological propriety. 

Page 16. — "It is impossible to say when this county was first 
visited, or /^t?//!?//, if we may u-jc that expression, by Indians. As far 
back as any facts are recorded (witness the corruption of the Indian 
' Isagogin' into ' Ingogen'), their presence is traceable. Ikit whether 
there were any considerable numbers of them, is equally indeterminate. 
Nor can we tell 7i>het}ier of the two tribes by whom the Province gen- 
erally was inhabited, viz., the Milicetes and the Micmacs, was the one 
that penetrated west ; or, if there were members of both tribes." 

Ethnologists class the North-American Indians among the nations 
of the earth, and Mr. Campbell does not tell us why he questions their 
claim to that distinction. Whether Yarmouth County was inhabited by 
human beings a thousand or a hundred thousand years ago, it may be 
well left for science later to determine. 

What bearing have the words in parenthesis on the rest of the 
sentence, and what has the change from Isagogin to Ingogen to do with 
the question when the county was first peopled by Indians ? 

Undetermined, or unsettled, might be substituted for " indeterminate ; " 
and any other modern writer would, in the next sentence, prefer tvhich 
to " whether." If " whether " must be dragged in, it should follow the 
colon. Still, Mr. Campbell has some authority for its use in Matthew 
xxiii. 1 7. 

Spenser wrote, " Whether of them should be the lord of lords ; " and 



INDIAN EXCURSIONS. 79 

Dryden, born in 1631, says of Spenser, who died in 1599, " Notwith- 
standing his obsolete language, he is still intelligible." 

" Tribes by lohom " is ungranimatical. " Milicetes " and " Micmacs " 
should be " Milicete " and " Micmac ; " that is, if the " Milicetes " were 
ever in Nova Scotia. Hut who were the Milicetes, and whence came 
they? Perhaps Mr. Campbell has discovered one of the "ten lost 
tribes of the house of Israel." Or, perhaps Mr. Campbell has some- 
where seen a reference to a small community of Micmacs who dwelt 
near the Bay Chaleur, and from some peculiarity were called Malachites. 

Page 19. — "But with the exception of the before mentioned act 
of violence, the worst effects of their excursions [the Indians] appear 
to have been mothers frightened for their frightened children, and their 
scanty meal bags levied upon by self-invited guests. But on the otiier 
hand if they difl black mail the settlers' pantries, they supplied the'T 
larders . . . (with) game of all kinds as well as fresh fish." 

"Excursions" should be incursions. "Before-mentioned" and 
" black-mail " are compound words, a little matter Mr. Campbell or 
the compositor overlooked ; and " black-mail," as a verb, is as yet a 
novelty. 

Page 21. — " There is but little known of the Chegoggin settlement. 
The fact, however, is well authenticated, and may even yet be attested 
by the still visible cellars of the old French houses." 

Fewer words would express this better ; e.g., " Little is known of 
the Chegoggin settlement, but the old French cellars are still visible." 
On p. 108, Mr. Campbell says he inserts the inscription upon the 
monument to the Rev. Harris Harding, '^ alt/iom^h of a somewhat wordy 
nature." 

The jumble of words in the preceding sentence of p. 21, beginning, 
'■ But objections having been made," etc., resembles what printers call 
" pi." ■ 

Page 23. — " When sufficiently near, so complete was the attack, 
their assailants, by the first volley, killed or wounded the whole party." 

Assailants are the attacking or invading party. .As this story goes, 

' " But objections having been made to Landre and his company settling at Chebogue in 1739, 
shows that already a well-understood ownership of the land there situate existed, apart from the 
implied existence of diked marsh-lands in that locality." 



So ACAD/A.y FRENCH. 

the assailants were the boat's crew sent to assault the Acadians in their 
quiet retreat. 

" The stei-n and sanguinary facts around which there is a romantic 
interest," a few lines farther on are reduced to a " tradition," related, 
as has been already shown, with Variations. 

Pagp: 25. — "One inference which has been made from the fact of 
the sufferings endured by the new-comers during the first season arose 
out of their ignorance of the requirements of the county during the 
winter season, as much as from their scanty supplies." 

In this sentence the construction is faulty and the sense obscure. 
Eac. leader may interpret it at will. Perhaps Mr. Campbell meant to 
say that they suffered during the first season because they had not made 
sufficient provision for the long and severe winter. 

Yet it should be remembered that they came from a district where 
the winters are longer and mere severe tlian at Chebogue, and with 
fewer natural resources for supplying food. 

Page 26. — "After the French Acadians had been deported, many 
of them into New England, the fact that there was a vacant Province, 
abounding with valuable lands, wild and cultivated, well supplied with 
water-power, and whose rivers, harbors, bays, and shores abounded with 
all kinds of fish, where nothing was wanted but inhabitants to take 
possession, could not have been long unknown, or undesired when 
known." 

In this sentence, " fact " is the long-forgotten antecedent of " unde- 
sired." Mr. Campbell tried to say, that, as soon as it became known 
to the English colonies that there were valuable lands, wild and culti- 
vated, lying vacant, and where the waters abounded in fish, people were 
found ready to con.e to the Province and take possession. Mr. Camp- 
bell probably used the word " shores " to cover the clams. 

Page 35. — "The truth is, there is ground for fearing that some of 
those who suffered most, were also those who had done least for them- 
selves. But, even if it were the operation of an inexorable law of 
nature that effect follows cause, we feel a deep sense of sympathy with 
those who suffered so much then, but who can suffer no more in this 
world." 

Or, in plain English, " If the poor people did suffer for the want 



M IS /'LACED SYMPATHY. 8 1 

of provisions during tlie first winter, some dying from starvation, tiie 
truth is, they brought their misfortune upon themselves, because they 
did not remember that food is essential to human life. We deeply 
lament their sufferings at that time, but they are now where they no 
longer suffer from the same cause." 

Mr. Campbell must himself explain how he sympathizes " with " 
people who died more than a hundred years ago. 

But is not this whole story of starvation, and eating hides, and of 
" one or two dying of want," entirely apocryphal ? History records that 
the thirteen families brought with them six oxen, fifty cows and calves, 
and forty hogs. They would seem a sufficient security against starva- 
tion for a single winter ; and the " four feet of snow remaining on the 
ground for months " would have insured a constant su[)p]y of fresh 
meat, to say nothing of tlie game and fish with which the woods and 
waters abounded. It may be safely said, that, since that winter, snow 
covering the ground four feet deep, and remaining for mor^hs, except 
in drifts, has not been seen at Chebogue.' 

Page 4- — "Nothing is plainer than that /t^r the more />art,\.\\Qy 
were poor nen." 

This phrase, " for the more part," occurs not less than thirteen times 
in Campbell's History; the modern phrase,/^/- the wo^t part, not once. 
'• The more part " was in vogue in the time of King James, as see Acts 
xxvii. 12. Has Mr. Campbell any other authority for its use? It 
reijuires an acquaintance with Luke's original manuscript to determine 
whether Mr. Campbell can hold him responsible for the phrase. 

" In words, as fashions, the same rule will hold, 
Alike fantastic if too new or old : 
He not the first by whom the new are tried, 
Xor yet the last to lay the old aside.'' 

P.AGE 48. — The style of the paragraph beginning on this page with 
"The scenery in this locality is marked l)y uncommon and varied 
beauty," so closely resembles that of the late Dr. H. G. Parish, that the 
whole paragraph might be mistaken for a literal quotation from his 
manuscript, were it not for tlie following passage which Dr. Parish 

■ Appendix H. 



82 REV. HARRIS HARDIAG. 

could not have written : " In the foreground are the bridge over the 
quietly flowing and winding river, with one or two cottages half hidden 
by the foliage." 

Page 77. — "We cannot expect that after the division of the town- 
ship, the influx of new settlers would continue to ^o\\ so very markedly.' 

It is a pleonasm to write " the influx would continue to flow ; " 
"new" and "to flow" may both be spared; and "markedly" is a 
novel, but harsh and awkward, word, rarely used, and never likely to 
meet general acceptance. It seems to be a word which neither Johnson 
nor Walker, nor Webster nor Worcester, would recognize, although it 
may have been seen in their day. And the phrase " so very markedly " 
is not the least remarkable feature in this remarkable sentence of 
Mr. Campbell. 

Page 86. — " The mention of Shelburne reminds us that in the year 
1784, the former County of Queens was circumscribed, by having the 
Townships of Shelburne, Barrington, Argyle, and Yarmouth set off as 
a separate county." 

The word circumscribed here is an impropriety. The limits of 
Queens County were already defined. Mr. Campbell tried to say that 
in 1784 the County of Queens was divided and a new county established 
called Shelburne. 

Page 106. — "His parents were Episcopalians- but in early life, 
when thinking about religion, he [Rev. Harris Harding] vibrated, for 
some time, between the Methodists and the New Lights ; and finally he 
connected himself with the latter." 

A man of hberal and independent mind, and not approving the 
restraints and formalities of the Episcopal Church, Mr. Harding tried 
a middle path with the followers of John Wesley without finding the 
rest he sought ; and gradually loosing himself from his early attach- 
ments, he at length became confirmed in an alliance with the Baptists, 
which he ever afterward maintained. 

Page 124. — "In the year 1799, Col. J. N. Bond brought into 
Yarmouth the first pleasure-carriage — a chaise — which was ever seen 
in the county ; but its melanclioly end was somewhat discouraging to 
intending importers. It lay unused till 1804, when Mr. Bell, Col. Bond's 
father-in-law, tackled it up, and, having got in, was immediately thrcvn 



THE PLEASURE-CARRIAGE. 83 

out. It remained undisturbed till the next year, when Col. Bond once 
more put in the horse, intending to take some of his family for a drive. 
He first got in, in order to try it; but it tried him and the cliaisc both. 
The horse ran off, and turning into tlie open graveyard in front of the 
Cape Forchue meeting-house, the chaise struck a tree, which threw him 
out, and broke the carriage into pieces." 

The first pleasure-carriage, imported in 1799, lay idle till 1804, when 
Mr. Bell "tackled it up." (Mr. Campbell should tackle his dictionary.) 
Mr. Bell "got in," and was at once "thrown out." It was a lively 
pleasure-carriage. The playful horse was brought out in 1805, and then 
Col. Bond "got in, in order to try it." Try what, — the horse, or the 
carriage? It seemed all along that the pleasure-carriage was on trial, 
and that the repeated " it " referred to the carriage alone. But when 
we had read " it tried ///;// and the chaise both," it seemed that the 
pleasure-carriage was in tow of, and had telescoped, the chaise. Finally, 
the runaway horse plunged in among the tombstones of a graveyard, 
when the chaise struck a tree, threw out the colonel, and broke the 
carriage into pieces. Here the chaise seemed to be the champion. 

Looking back over the lines to re-assure ourselves, we find the horse 
assuming a new importance, and that we had been reading of the difficul- 
ties attending "breaking " colts in Yarmouth Town in 1805, when "the 
road itself was a series of lines after Hogarth's own heart, round 
the undrawn stumps of forest giants." (See p. 116.) 

The colonel's skill enabled him to avoid the stumps with which the 
crooked path was studded ; perceiving which, the horse, after a lively run 
of nearly half a mile, made a sudden bolt into the old graveyard with 
the evident intention of landing pleasure-carriage and its occupant in a 
common grave. The tombstones standing out at every angle from the 
hummocky surface of the ground, and the scrubby spruces, — obstacles 
more dangerous than the " undrawn stumps," — triumphed over the skill 
of the driver and the strength and comeliness of the carriage, as the 
intelligent but desperate animal had foreseen. 

Hence the " melancholy " catastrophe, the account of which closes 
the fourteenth chapter of Campbell's History of Yarmouth. 

Page 167. — "Whatever objections the present system may be 
thought to lie under, or grievances to which in individual cases it may 



84 THf-: TAIiERNACLE. 

give rise, the testimony of our eyes, etc., . . . i)rove, that at no time were 
the means of echicating our children so complete, so able to bear 
favoraljle comparison, or to stand critical examination." 

Here is faulty construction. It is as easy to say in half as many 
words, " Though objections and individual grievances may arise under the 
present system, the inspector's reports and our own observations prove that 
never before were the means of education more favorable or complete." 

PAr;F. 1 89. — " .At some distance to the northward stands the Taber- 
nacle Church, notewf)rthy as embodyinr^ viore correct details of ecclesi- 
astical architecture, when it was built in 1.S50, under the energetic 
ministry of the Rev. F. Tomkins, than any other similar structure in the 
Province." 

In this sentence one is puzzled to know whether the word more is 
intended to qualify "correct," or " details." Do the words "similar 
stnicture " mean Congregational Church, Dissenters' Church? Or does 
Mr. Campbell intend to convey his opinion that the Tabernacle, in 
1850, embodied a highe"- order of ecclesiastical architecture than any 
other church in the Province? .A. "similar structure" would be another 
Tabernacle. 

The early settler; of Yarmouth Township were mostly descendants 
of the Puritans and " PilLrim Fathers " of the Massachusetts Colony ; 
and, amid the new homes they were establishing, a house for religious 
worship was tssent 1 to their peace of mind. So, in i 766, only five 
years after the first arrivals, we find them building their first church 
at Chebogue, and, in i 7.S4, their second one in Yarmouth, uj^on a lot 
of land adjoining the homestead of the Rev Nehemiah Porter, the 
Congregational minister of 1767. 

Not until 1807, when the first Episcopal church was begun on 
" Butler's Hill," were the people of any other denomination numerous 
or strong enough to undertake building a church for themselves. 
Indeed, it may be said that, this one excepted, the Congregationalists 
furnished churches for the whole people for nearly sixty years. They 
associated with themselves their I'resbyterian friends at Chebogue arri 
Yarmouth, as well as the P.aptists and " New Lights ; " sometimes, in 
the'r exceeding liberality, going so far as to permit their pulpits to be oc- 
cupied by Presbyterian and ilaptist ministers, to the exclusion of those of 



THE TABERAACLE. 85 

* 

their own faith ; and, as the outcome of this free use of their pulpits, the 
Congregationalists, in more than one instance, lost both pulpit and church. 

These last events led to their building die Tabernacle, when, warned 
by previous experience, documentary evidence, which will bear the 
strictest scrutiny, secured to the Congregationalists a title to the land 
upon which the building stands. Tiiis land formed a jjortion of the 
homestead of the Rev. N'ehemiah Porter, before referred to ; and it 
seemed fitting to his granddaugliter, Mrs. Ruth Ellis, wife of Deacon 
Joseph Ellis, of pious memory, that a portion of her inheritance shoiild 
become the site of a Congregational church. .Accordingly, in i.S4<S, 
she conveyed to the properly constituted authorities, as a free gift, the 
land adjoining her residence upon which the Tabernacle stands. 

To this gift of land succeeded an organization to provide funds to 
build a church, which, in due time, were procured. The church was 
to i)e l)uilt by voluntary contributions : there was to be no proprietorship 
in pews, — a principle then for the first time introduced in Yarmouth. 

Mrs. Ellis, eijuipped with a silver trowel presented to her by the 
members of the Ladies' Needlework Association, herself laid the corner- 
stone. The Rev. Frederick J. Tomkins (from London), a wonderfully 
well-equipped minister, gave life to the enterj^rise, and labored with 
constant assiduity until the church was corrpleted, still not unmindful of 
the example of the apostles who " labored with their own hands." 

The architect was Mr. John Panter of Pirooldine, Mass., whose 
lamented son, some fifteen years later, built the Yarmouth Seminary, 
and the beautiful residence of the late Capt. Nehemiah K. Clements. 
.\nd in all these successive improvements of the cenuiry, from 1767 
to 1867, we trace the influence of Nehemiah Porter, the Congregational 
minister, in making history for Yarmouth. 

The early settlers of Yarmouth were men of humble station, 
farmers, fishermen, or seafarers, inuretl to unremitting toil. In early 
life they had been beyond the reach of the educational advantages so 
freely offered in these days to the youth of Old England, New England, 
or Nova Scotia. I>ut they were men well fitted for the work they took 
in hand ; and, in view of the results achieved, it does not become late- 
coiuers to cast reflections upon ^he methods, rough though some of 
them may have been, by which their work was done. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Tlie Micmacs a Ilranch of the Algonquin Family. — Their Territory. — The Micmacs a 
Superior Kace. — Styled by Algonquins '• Our Ancestors of the East." — Character and 
Customs of the -Vcadian Indians. — Their Deference to the French Missionaries. — Their 
Hospitahty and Peaceable Disposition. — lieauties of the Indian Language. — Structure of 
Indian Words. — Examples. — Longest Word in the Indian Language. — Longest in any 
L.inguage. — Cieographical Names in Vai mrmth County ending in acadie. — Origin and 
Meaning of Chebogue, Ci.egoggir, Chebec, Tusket. Mispouk, and Kigigiuk. — The Tusket 
River. — Iti Attractions for tlie Tourist and Sportsman. — John Eliot, the Indian 
Missionary. — His Indian Liible aud Testament. — The Lord's Prayer in Two Dialects. 

IF one could procure the materials for a history of the original 
inhabitants of Yarmouth County for a {t\\ hundred years previous 
to the arrival of the French colonists, a highly interesting story might 
he written. The early French missionaries have left many valuable 
records of their experience with be aborigines of Ac dia ; and the 
researches of later writers have added important contributions to a 
knowledge of the character, customs, ana language of the Algonquin 
family of Indians to which the Micmacs belong. A few pages devoted 
to the Indians may not be, therefore, considered out of place ; and they 
may tend to elucidate some names applied to localities in Yarmouth 
County and elsewhere, or to confirm the meanings somedmes heretofore 
attached to them. 

The aborigines of North America, east of the Mississippi, were 
divided into four great families, — the Eskimos, .Algonquins, Dakotahs, 
and Muscolgees. 

The Eskimo territory extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean, and as far south as Labrador and che shores of Hudson's Bay. 
The Algonquins were bounded north by the Eskimos, and occui^ied 
the Atlantic shores from Newfoundland to Virginia, the territories west 
to the Mississippi and north to its sources, and the Red River and 
Saskachewan territories. 



THE MIC MACS. 87 

The Algonquins were subdivided into four nations, one of wliich, the 
Abnakis, occupied the Atlantic coast as far west as the Kennebec ; and 
the branch of this nation called the Souriqtiois, or Micmac, occupied 
the south-eastern and eastern shores of New I5runswick, the whole of 
Nova Scotia, and the coasts as far north as the St. Lawrence, as well as 
the adjacent islands. 

The title, Micmac, was applied to the Souriquois by the French on 
account of the professed occult powers of their numerous and famous 
medicine-men. Abnaki, sometimes spelled Abanaqui, or Wabanaki, 
means our ancestors, or our ancestors of the East; and the title was 
given to that people by the other tribes, and not by themselves. It is 
said th"" bear marks of an original people, in name, manners, and 
language, and show a civilization which must be the effects of antiquity 
and a past flourishing age. An early missionary says, " They claim to 
have been created where they were, and that the Great Spirit, having 
made them and their land as a masterpiece, made the rest carelessly." 
The entire Algonquin family called the inhabitants east of the Kennebec 
our ancestors of the East. 

An anonymous writer, in 17S7, on "The Present State of Nova 
Scotia," quotes a remark of the Indians to the French in their first 
efforts to colonize the province : " Our fathers lie buried here : shall we 
say to the bones of our fathers, Arise, and go with us into a foreign 
land?" 

He thus speaks of the Indians of Nova Scotia : " A small dose of 
liquor never satisfies them. They drink it unmixed until they can drink 
no more. Their language is exceedingly expressive, and contains few 
words, arising from a quick and lively sensation if visible objects, which 
prompts them to express, as it were in a moment, ideas that would take 
time and reflection in us to paint to the life ; whilst their surprise or 
indignation gives birth to thoughts or expressions, warm, astonishing, 
and sul)lime, a thousand examples of which might be given by persons 
acquainted with their dialect. 

"They believe all men equal. Their principal abhorrence of a 
civilized way of life seems to arise from what they oi)serve among people 
who style them barbarians, whose corruptions and false ideas of things 
they affect to despise, and none more so than the respect paid to riches. 



88 THE ETCIIIMINS. 

wliirli, as tlicv remark, arc frcfjiinitl y possesserl by the most. \vf>rth,lcss 
o( mankind." 

He adds this \)V-.\ lor tin: Indian : " Let not men horn nnder liappier 
climates, anrl in tlur bosom of nvili/.ed nations, where learning and 
scien< e have long been cnltivated, and gradnally brouglit to maturity, 
<ira\v rash inferences from wiiat has I)een said of tlieir manners and 
customs, as if they were a |>ef)])Ie wholly immersed in barbarism, enemies 
to improvement, and incapable of instruction. On the contrary, let it 
l>e consirjered, that the leading i haracteristics which distinguish man 
from the beasts of the field in s(j eminent a degree-, even in his natural 
state, are in a peculiar manner stamped ujion them. The most perfect 
notion of right and wrong, ct subordinuion to (lod as governor of the 
imivetse, and submission to his will, are but a small part of that kntnvl- 
edge whi< h they possess from nature; and whilst we deplore the dark- 
ness in which they are still buried, let us not forget that very few ages 
have elapsed since the greater part of Kurope was in a similar state ; and 
that the same means that have been used by I)ivine I'rovidence to rescue 
so many nations from the de|)ths of ignorance is perfc ily adequate to 
the same purpose again, since neither good natural aliilities, nor yet 
a desire to be instructed, are wanting for bringing to perfection such a 
desirable event." 

i\f. Moreau, iti his " Histoire cle I/.\ca<lie I''ran<,aise," jiublished at 
Paris in I'Sj^, relates, "I'lioii the right bank of the Kennebec River 
there was an encampment of Indians, which was the principal residence of 
the Jesuit missionary, Father .Sebastian Raslcs. Their f:hurch had been 
destroyed i.i the last war, and the tribe had been too jioor to rebuild 
it. The governor of Massachusetts thought he .saw a favorable oppor- 
tunity to secure to the Knglish cause the allegiance of the .Miiiakis. 
He proposed to them to supply the money and the workmen tf) rebuild 
their church, provided tliey would consent to be serverl by a Protestant 
minister. 

" His offer was with one voice rejected: 'Your words astonish me,' 
rejiiied the Indian chief, 'arid I wonder at the offer yen make. When 
you came here, you saw me a long time before the I'Vench governor. 
But neither they who ( anie before you, nor have your ministers, ever 
spoken to me of prayers, nor of the (ircat Spirit. 'I'hey looked at my 



ACADfAN IXDIANS. .S9 

furs, my bcaver-skins, ;iti(l tiiofjsc-skiiis : tliat scciiicd all tlicy cared 
about. 'I'hat i:s what they ea^^erly looked for. I r:(jiild not liring enou^'h 
of them ; and when I brought them a very large lot, 1 was their great 
friend. And that was all. 

" ' i>ut cue day I lost my ranoe, and then lost my tr.i< k. I wandered 
a long time by chance, and at last 1 < ame near (^uelie*. to a large < ami) 
of the ;\bnakis where the />/(irk RoOf', were teaching them. As soon 
as I got there, one of tlic /i/iirk Ruhts f:ame to see me. I was loade<I 
with fnrs : the l''ren< h lUaih /iW^/' woiiM not even look at iheni. lie 
spoke to me at lirst of the (ire;it Sjiirit, of heaven and hell, and of 
[)rayers, which was the only w.iy (o get to heav<-n. I was pleased to 
listen to him, and I likid hi-, talk so well that I stayrd a long time at 
the camp to hear him. \Cs, his prayers j)leased me, and I engaged 
him to teach me. I asked for baptism, and received it. .At Inst [ came 
back to my own conntry, and I told them what had happened to me. 
'i'hey envied my good fortune, and wanted to shar(-' m it. 'I'liey went 
to find the liluck Robe, and ask ff)r baptism. That is tin; way the 
i'reiich have treated me. If, when yon harl first seen nu:, you ha'I 
talked to mi- of prayers, I would have had the bad luck to pray like 
you, for I would not have been able to tell if y<jur prayers were good. 
S(j, I say to you, that I shall hold to the prayers of the I'Vench. I like 
tlieni, and I will hold on to them till the worM burns up and comes to 
an end. Yon may, then, keep your money, your workmen, and your 
minister. I do n(jt want to sjieak of them any hjpger, and I will say 
to the French governor, Father, send me away from them.' " 

.Another writer says of the Indians of Acadia, "They were skilled 
in agriculture, and ingenious artisans, excellent physicians, and they 
displayed great ingenuity in entrapping wild animals. In war they 
exhibited unexampled bravery. In their domestic relations ti.ey were 
(juitc as ha|)py as their Furojjean ciiiKpierors. Whatever the husband 
procured by hunting belonged to tlie wife, and whatever the wife raised 
ill the field belongeil to the husband. The boys were; early taught to 
hunt and fish, and the girls to raise f:orn and wcrave nets. Children 
were imnrht to respecl the at^ei/. New corniields were usually broken 
up by a mirthfiil gathering of all residing in the vicinity." 

('olonel Fry, commandant at I'ort (iumberland, arldressing the 



90 THE INDIA X LANGUAGE. 

governor of Nova Scotia, in 1761, wrote of the arrival there of a French 
priest, Father Manache, who said of the Indians, " They were all of one 
nation, and known by the name of Micmacs ; they were very numerous, 
amounting to tliree thousand souls ; that he had learned their language 
since he had been among them, arid had found so much excellence in 
it that he was rvell persuaded if the beauties of it were knoion in 
Europe there would be seminaries erected for the propagation of it ' " 

Dr. Trumbull of Hartford, Conn., writes, "The original character 
of many Indian geographical names has been lost by their transfer to 
a foreign tongue. Nearly all have suffered some mutilation or change 
of form. In many instances scarcely a trace of the original can be 
detected in the modern name. Some have been separated from the 
localities to which they belonged, and assigned to others to which they 
are etymologically inappropriate. Every Indian name described the 
locality to -wliich it roas affixed. 

" With few exceptions, the structure of these words is simple. 
Nearly all may be referred to one of three classes : — 

" I. Those formed by the union of two elements which we call 
adjectival or substantival, with or without a location suffix at, in, near 
by, etc. 

" II. Those which have a single element, the substantival, or 
ground-word, with its location affix. 

"III. Those formed from verbs, or pardcipial or verbal nouns, denot- 
ing the place where the action of the verb is performed. At least nine- 
tenths of all Algonquin names belong to Class I. or II. 

" The same name may be found in the early records written in a 
dozen different ways. Most of the Indian local names were written by 
men who cared nothing for the meaning, and knew nothing of the 
language to which they belonged. Of the few who had learned to speak 
one or more of these languages, no two adopted the same way of writ- 
ing them ; and no one, John Eliot excepted, appears to have been 
at all careful to write the same word twice alike. In the seventeenth 
century men took considerable liberty in spelling their own surnames, 
and very large liberties with English polysyllables, especially with local 
names. Scribes who contrived to find five or six ways of spelling 
Hartford were not likely to preserve uniformity in iiicir dealing with 



FATHER RASLES. 9' 

Indian names. A few letters more or less were of no great conse- 
(luence; but generally the writers tried to keep on the safe side by 
putting in as many as they could find room for." 

Father Rasles, a Jesuit missionary, who lived among the Indians 
for upwards of thirty years, in a letter dated at Norridgewauk, Oct. 1 2, 
1723, says, "On July 23, 1689, I eml)arked cit Rochelle, and, after a 
good voyage, arrived at Quebec on Oct. 13, in the same year. I at 
once applied myself to a study of the language of the savages. It is 
very difficult ; for it is not sufficient to study the words and their mean- 
ing, and to acquire a stock of words and phrases, but we must acquaint 
ourselves with the turn and arrangement of them as used by the savages, 
and which can only be attained by intercourse and familiarity with these 
people. I then took up my residence in a village of the Abnaki nation, 
situated in a forest a few leagues from Quebec. This village was inhab- 
ited by two hundred savages, who were almost all Christians. It was 
among these people, who pass fo7- the least rude of all our savages, 
tliat I went through my apprenticeship as a missionary. My principal 
occupation was to study their language. It is very difficult to learn, 
especially when we have only savages for our teachers." 

Under date 1691, Father Rasles writes, "II y a un an que je suis 
parmi les sauvages, je commence a mettre en ordre en forme de dictio- 
naire les mots que j'apprens." ("When I had been a year among the 
savages, I began to arrange in the form of a dictionary the words I 
learned.") 

The original manuscript of Father Rasles' dictionary is in the library 
of Harvard University, and it appeared in printed form in 1833. Some 
of the words which are given on this and following pages, are taken from 
Father Rasles' dictionary, and among them may be found a key to the 
origin of some local names in Yarmouth County. 

Nehantic Point of land on a tidal river. 

Cheputnaticook Low land near the river. 

GuNASQUAMCOOK Long bar joining the island. 

Kamiskwanangachit Place where they spear salmon. 

Angwassagin Place where there is drift-wood. 

Mattawankeag Bar of gravel dividing the river. 

MINIPESSUNK Plenty of rain. 



92 IXDIAN NAMES. 

Chatemac Great rock. 

Androscoggin Andros (Gov.) gathering. 

Ammoscoggin Many fish coming. 

Agomowin Harbor. 

Matchibigwadusek Water bad to drink. 

Keespougwitk Land's end. Yarmouth. 

Kigigiak, or ) 

r Great establishment. 

KiGICAPIGIAK ) 

MiTrHiKAN (Meteghan) Wooden fence. Weir. 

Ac.ouAM Smoked fish. 

Agouiden Canoe. 

Akoihi Brandy. 

Opin i'otato. 

Acadie Place of abundance. 

WoNGUM Crooked. 

OrllGUNDr, or ) 

> Good river. 

Ulasteka ) 

Nebt, Begat, ") 

\ Water. 

Muskeg ) 

Meenum Blueberry. 

Odei.min Strawberry. 

Mouskegegemin .... Swamp-berry, or cranberry. 

Shepaug River in Connecticut. 

Shippook Lake in Connecticut. 

TuCKQUT Terminal many Indian names. 

Paug Still, or standing water. 

Maskebeg.\t Swift-running water. 

Tekebi, or ) 

„ ^ Cold water. 

Tekebegat j 

Nahamon An eel. 

Nahumkeag Place for eels. 

Pent.\guet, or 



1 



_, , Broad water. 

BOAMTUQUET 

Mashapaug Large pond. 

MiNNEPAUG Still deep water. 

Shetucket Rough river. 

Palttukesit Falls of the tidal river. 

We<juetukquesit Head of the tidal river. 

TuKSEiT Broad tidal river. 

OussiKKAT River which grows smaller, 

OusKiTSioui The chief river. 

OusKiTsiMATZASSESE River that is rough outside. 



INDIAN WORDS. 93 

NiKETAOi'KSiT The great forked t'Jal river. 

MousKEGOUAKOC K River where there are fish. 

MousKEGOUiAHOUGOOK River where there are many fish. 

OuiGOUAM Camp, wigwam. 

Skoutam Trout. 

Skoutamouk Many trout. 

Nahamouk Many eels. 

OURIKIZEGAT Fine day, or fine weather. 

Matsikizegat Bad weather. 

louTsr Mouic hine.na We will camp here. 

OUATSOUSEM/>.SI F'iU my pipe. 

PiouA.v The wind drives the snow. 

NoLUMBEGA Still Water below falls. 

Xeganniannaubook Ancients of past times. 

Mehwasque Very cold weather. 

Chic Near, close by. 

Mis, Missi Great. 

TUK, Tic Tide. 

Ut Place. 

Cha, Che, She, as a prefix, mean great, large, or violent, as the context requires. 

Words like the two following, the one of eleven, the other of twenty, 
syllables, provoked Cotton Mather to say, " Indian words are long 
enough to tire any scholar in the world. One would think they had 
been growing ever since Babel unto the dimensions to which they are 
now extended." 

\VuT'AP'pis'siT'TUK'QUS'suN'.\o.\'wEKT'L-NK'nuoH'. He kneeled down to him. 

XuP'PAHK'NUH'TO'PE'PE'NAU'WUr'CHUT'CHUH'nuo'KA'.XEH'fHA'E'NIN'NU'.MUN'NO'- 

NOK.' ' Our well-skilled looking-glass makers. 

KeTCHINIVVEsX ) 

\ The Great Spirit. 

ketchinixha.m ) 

.Matchi.nuwesk ) 

■ The Evil Spirit. 

.Match IN ixHAM ) 

THE SEASONS. 



SiQUAM Spring. 

Nekumge Autumn. 



NiBAN Summer. 

Peboon Winter. 



' The longest word known has been lately exhumed. It is Llanfairpwillgwngyllgertrobgllgerchwyrn- 
byllgogerbwllzantivsiliogogogoch. This awful word of seventy-two letters and twenty-two syllables, 
the name of a village in Wales, means, " St. Mary's white hazel pool, near the turning pool, near the 
whirlpool, very near the pool by Llantsilio, fronting the rocky islet of Gogo." .\nd it is a short word 
after all, for its meaning cantiot be expressed in the same number of letters or syllables in any other 
language under the sun. 



94 



IXDIAN WORDS. 



THE DAYS OF THE WEEK. 

Sunday Sande. 

Monday Amikawasalokka 

Tuesday Nisidaalokka . 

Wednesday NesetaaLokka . 

Thursday Ieotaalokka . 

Friday Skehenatook . 

Saturday Katausande 

Etsi Taubawanikessughenakkiouighissan, signifying a week; or, from seven 
days to sez'tn days it is the festival of Sunday. 



First working-day. 
Second working-day. 
Third working-day. 
Fourth working-day. 
The Day of the Cross. 
The day before Sunday. 



January 
February . 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September . 
October. . 
November . 
December . 



THE MONTHS 

Onglusamwessit . . . 

Takuaskaikizoos . . . 

Puhodamurkizoos . . 

Amusswikizoos . . . . 

KiKKAIKIZOOS . . . . 

muskoshikizoos . . . 

Atchittaikizoos . . . 

WlKKAIKIZOOS . . . . 

Mautchewodokkizoos . 

Assebaskwats . . . . 

Abonankiswikizoos . . 

Ketchikizoos . . . . 



OF THE YEAR. 
Moon when it is hard to get a living. 
Moon when there is crust on the snow. 
Moon when the hens lay. 
Moon when we catch fish. 
Moon when we sow. 
Moon when we catch young seals. 
Moon when the berries are ripe. 
Moon when there are eels on the sand. 
Moon when there are moose and berries. 
Moon when ice is on the banks. 
Moon when the frost-fish come. 
The long moon. 



PHASES OF THE MOON. 

Naugusa She is born. 

Nenaghil She grows. 

Kegandemaghil She will soon be full. 

Wemeghil She is full. 

Peuinem She is past full. 

Utsine She begins to die. 

Pebassine She is half dead. 

Metchina She is nearly dead. 

Sesemina She is nearly dead. 

Nepa She is dead ; or, no moon. 

OF THE DAY AND NIGHT. 

USPAUSWiwi Daybreak. 

Tsekwut It is day. 

Paskoue Noon. ' - 

Pedugusse Past noon. 



INDIAN LOCAL NAMES. 95 

Nakile Sunset. 

Magi-angouille Twilight. 

Keglnpesede Evening. 

PiSKU Night. 

Agumenetepoket Before midnight. 

Epassieiepoket Midnight. 

Agwametepoket After midnight. 

Pitsetepoket The night will soon be over. 

SouRiQUOis, The Micmacs Good canoe-men. 

Eskimos Eaters of raw flesh. 

The numerals in the Indian dialect according to Lescarbot, writing 
in 1610 : — 

NUMERALS. SOURIQUOIS. EtCHIMINS. 

I Nagout Bechkon. 

II Tabo NiCH. 

Ill Chicht Xach. 

IV Neon Tau. 

V Nan Prenchk. 

VI Kamachin Ch.achit. 

VII EROEGUENIK COUTACHIT. 

VIII Megu Merchin .... Erouiguen. 

IX Echkonadek Pechcoquem. 

X Metren Peiock. 

The Indian names Ponamagotty, Soonecaty, Anglaseawagatty (Camp- 
bell's History, p. 20), would be improved by changing the terminals to 
acadie, thus : Ponomacadie, Anglaseacadie, Shunacadie, when they would 
harmonize with other Indian names ending in acadie. Passamaquoddy 
does not look so well in print, nor sound so well, as the original Passam- 
acadie. It is said that the word pappoose is not Indian, but was origi- 
nally the Indians' imperfect pronunciation of the English word babies. 
But some writers give it as Indian, — papoos, pcuppoos, pappoosee 
nippapoos, according to fancy. 

The Indian name for Salem, Mass., was Nahumkeag, place for eels. 
It is often found spelled Naumkeag. If, for the sake of old associa- 
tions, it is thought advisable to preserve the original signification of 
the name, the village of Eel Brook might at some future time be called 
Naumkeag, when it would come into line with Pubnico, Abuptic, Tusket, 
Chebec, Chebogue, and Chegoggin. _ _^ .^.^ 



96 INDIAN LOCAL NAMES. 

Che is the prefix of many Micniac names. We have it in Chebogue, 
Chegoggin, Chebec, Ciiebucto, Chezetcook, and Chedabucto. Cheti- 
camp is probably Frencli, derived from chetif and camp, and meaning 
a poor camping-ground, or a poor encampment. We have its equiva- 
lent in Mirami^/// and Ri^///bucto. 

Chic is almost as frequent. It occurs in Chicaben, Chicnecto, 
Chicoutimi, Chicopee, and Chicago. Cheputnaticook is the Indian 
name for the north-west branch of the St. Croix River, N.B. There is 
a Chegoggin River in Guysborough County, a Chebeague Island in 
Casco Bay, and Chimenticook is a branch of the River St. John in the 
north-west corner of the Aroostook territory. 

In the InJian names, examples of which have been given in these 
notes, variations in the spelling are observed, where the sounds of the 
syllables are nearly the same. This has arisen from different persons 
using different forms to express the same sounds ; just as in the seven- 
teenth century English spelling was capricious and unsettled, or as in 
the eighteenth century, in the time of the early Yarmouth settlers, when 
any clerk or recorder was a law unto himself. 

Analyzing some Yarmouth-County names, we therefore find that 
Mispouk Lake is from Mis, great, and paiti^, Stillwater; whence also 
came Muspeg, Muskeg, etc., as applied to swamps. Chebogue is from 
Che and paug, Great still river. Chegoggin, Great encampment, 
referring to the old Indian village at the head of tide-water, which must 
have been one of the best camping-grounds in the western part of Nova 
Scotia. Chebec, meaning " the Narrows,'' was the Indian name for 
Tusket Wedge ; and " the Forks " the Micmacs called Nictahk. 

The origin of Tusket is quickly recognized when we read Tukseit, 
Oussikkat, Ouskitsioui, or Niketaouksit. The name, Niketaouksit, the 
great forked tidal river, is very applicable to the Tusket ; more so, 
perhaps, than to any other river in Nova Scotia. 

The first branch is the Salmon River, running northerly into Digby 
County, until it there passes some of the sources of the other Salmon 
River, which has its outlet near the mouth of St. Mary's Bay. The 
next is Hersey's Branch, which leaves the main river at Gavel's Falls, 
and runs northerly till it nearly meets the tributaries of the Sissibou 
River. The Great Tusket, diverging more easterly at Gavel's Bridge, 



THE TUSKET RIVER. 97 

sends off its next great branch at "the Forks" Bridge, which branch 
runs thence south-easterly until it crosses the Shelburne-County line. 

The next branch, the Kigigiak, or Kegshook, nins north-easterly 
through, and for miles beyond, Wallebec Lake, for a considerable 
distance in company with the Clyde River of Shelburne County. 

Two miies north of the Kemptville Bridge the Tusket again 
branches ; the main river taking a still more easterly course away 
beyond the Blue Mountains into Digby County, and the other branch 
running northerly also into Digby County, where it separates into two 
considerable streams, one of which extends as far northerly, at least, as 
the latitude of Sissibou Bridge. 

The head waters of these branches of the Tusket River are at varying 
distances from the sea, — from thirty to sixty miles, — and, excepting 
occasional carrying-places, where the falls make rough and rapid water, 
all these branches are navigable to flat-bottomed boats. These notes 
are written from a familiar acquaintance with all these branches of the 
Tusket River during the last forty years, derived from passing over them 
in boats from the head waters with a skilled voyageur, and making the 
descent to Tusket village, ten miles from the sea. 

Upon some of the branches, there is scarcely an obstruction for the 
whole distance ; in many places the " rapids " are half a mile or more 
in length, and may (with care) be "run" in perfect safety; while every- 
where from the rippling water, and especially where it meets the still 
water of the lakes, abundance of fine trout and an occasional salmon 
add a zest to an excursion through magnificent lake and river and forest 
scenery, not surpassed by any in the maritime provinces or New England. 

In the olden time the Tusket River was the natural and favorite 
habitat of salmon, alewives, shad, and other valuable food-fishes. The 
catch was only limited by the needs of the sojourners upon its banks ; 
and although the inroads of a later civilization have largely broken up 
their favorite haunts, of all the rivers upon the North-Atlantic coasts 
of America, the Tusket continues to be the one first visited by salmon 
in the spring. Moose, caribou, and useful fur-bearing animals, abounded 
in the forests ; while limitless flocks of wild geese, ducks, and other sea- 
fowl, in their annual migrations, made these .Acadian waters their first 
resting-place on their Northern journeys, and the waters where they 



98 JOHN ELIOT. 

lingered longest in the fall before taking their final departure for the 
South. 

Here, then, was a " happy hunting-ground," the home of the abor- 
igines whom the Algonquins styled " Our ancestors of the East;" nor 
is it strange that amid such scenes the Micmacs developed a degree of 
civilization unattained by any other tribe of North-American Indians. 
They welcomed, and freely fraternized with, the French when they first 
appeared upon these shores ; and the Micmacs readily yielded to the 
persuasive teachings of the Jesuit missionaries who accompanied the 
early voyagers from France. The French immigrants who followed met 
the most hospitable treatment ; and if they had been permitted to colo- 
nize Acadia, undisturbed by the English in their peaceful occui«tion 
it would be no part of history to-day to record only plaintive reminis- 
cences 

" of the gentle race 

That has passed away forever." ■ 

History preserves unfading records of one Protestant missionary of 
the Massachusetts Colony who was free from the rebuke of the Indian 
chief upon the banks of the Kennebec, — 

JOHN ELIOT,— 

who was born at Nasing, near Waltham, in Essex, England, in 1604. 
He was educated at Jesus' College, Cambridge, where he took his 
Bachelor's degree in 1623. He came to America, landing at Boston 
on Nov. 3, 1631. He lived in P.oxburj', where he was married in 
1632 ; and he was pastor of a church in Roxbury for more than fifty- 
seven years, until his death in 1690. 

He devoted himself to the study of the Indian language, residing 
with therri sometimes for weeks together ; and after two years he was able 
to preach to them in their own language. In 1653 he published a 
Catechism for the Indians, the first one in their language. In 1661 he 
published a New Testament in the Indian language. It bore this title : — 

WUSKU WUTTESTAMENTUM 

NUL-LORDUMUM JESUS CHRIST : 

- -- NUPPOQUOHWUSSUAENUMUM. 

' Appendix I. 



THE IXDIAN BIBLE. 99 

In 1663 '■''= Indian Bible was published. Its title was, — 



MAMUSSE 

WL'XN'EETLPANATAMWE 

UP-IiII!LUM GOD 

NANEE>\VE 

NUKKOXE TESTAMENT 

KAH WONK 

WUSKU TESTAMENT. 



NEQUOSHKIXNUMdUK WUTTINNEt'MOH CHRIST 
NOH ASOUWESIT 

JOHN ELIOT. 



CAMBRIDGE 

1663 

Literally translated: The whole Holy; His Bible God, both Old 
Testament and also New Testament. 

This was the first Bible printed in America. Not till the middle 
of the next century was the Bible in the English language printed 
in this country. 

The following is the Lord's Prayer from Eliot's Catechism, in the 
language of the Massachusetts branch of the Algonquin family. 

" Nooshun kesukqut wunneetupantamunock koowesionk. Peyan- 
mooutch kukkeitassootamoonk. Toh unantaman ne' nnajokheit neane 
kesukqut. Asekusukokish petukqunnegash assaminean yeu kesukok. 
Ahquontamaannean nummatsheseongash, neane matchenahikquagig 
nutahquontamanounanog. Ahque sagkompaguninnean en qutchhuaon- 
ganit webe pohquohwussinan wutch matahitut ; newuteke keitassoo- 
tamoonk, kutahtauun, menuhkesuonk sohsumoonk, niicheme kah 
micheme. Amen." 

The Lord's prayer in the dialect of the Etchimins of the Kennebec 
is thus rendered : — 

" Nushinen Wajok ebin tchiptook delwigin mequidemek Wajok n'teli- 



lOO THE INDIAN PRIMER. 

danen tchiptook ignemwick ula nemulek uledechinen. Natel Wajok 
deli chkedoolk tchiptook deli chkedulek makimiguel elnieh. Delamu- 
kubenigual echemieguel apeic nequech kichkook delamooktech pene- 
(juunenwin nilunen ; deli abikchiktakichik wegaiwinametnik elpkel 
Nixham abikchiktwin eUveultik melkeninnech winnehudil mu k'tygalinen 
keginnkamkel winnchiguel twaktwin. N'delietch." 

Tlie following is the Apostles' Creed in the dialect of the Massa- 
chusetts Indians translated by John Eliot : — 

" Nounamptan God wamemanuhkesit wutooshiman noh kezteunk 
kesnk kah ohke ; kuhnounamptan Jesus Christ ummohtomegkeonsheh, 
nussontimoumun ; noh wompequoomuk nashpe wannepanatamwe 
Nashananit ; noh neetuonont peenompae Maryoh ; chequnuhtamup nup- 
poonk utagwe Pontius Pilate, pametunkupunuuntup, nuppoup kah 
pofekinop, woumsu en chepiokkomukqut, nishikqunukok omokkuwonk 
wutch nuppunat, kah waabu en kesukqut kah na ut wutappin ; adt wuttin- 
ohkounit God wame manuhkesit wutoushiman ; na wutch pish peyan 
wussumonat nu weeswe pamontogig kah napukeg. Nounamptan 
wunnase tupanatamwe. Nashananit nounamptan mumusse wannutu- 
panatamwe mocuwakkomonganuou ; kah ummooukomuongannou 
waneestupanatogig, kah ahquontamoodtuonk matcheseongash ; kah 
muhhogkoue, kah micheme pomantamoonk ut kesukqut." 

From the Indian Primer, by John Eliot, 1669. The only perfect 
copy of the original known to exist is in the library of the University of 
Edinburgh. The type was set in part by "praying Indians," and the 
dialect is that of the Natick tribe. 

M. Rameau, in his book " Une Colonie Feodale," published at Paris 
in 1876, says, — 

" Certainly, of all the Indians, the Abnakis most nearly approached 
the European, and especially the French, character ; above all other 
tribes they were docile and faithful ; endowed with a brilliant courage 
and with a loyalty rare among Indians, they displayed an unwavering 
fidelity to the men and to the ideas to which they became attached. . . . 
These savages always lived in perfect accord with the Acadians. We 
have seen from the interesting narrative of Lescarbot that their relations 
with the French were iriendly from the beginning : this reciprocal 
attachment failed not for a single day. The Acadians sometimes com- 



INDIAN FIDELITY. lOI 

plained of the Indians living so near to them, and of their importunity ; 
but never, during the century and a half of French rule, did one hear of 
altercation, of aggression, of pillage, nor of a single act of violence. 
Perhaps the history of no other colony presents a similar phenomencr,." 

Dit M. Moreau en " Histoire de L'Acadie Frangaise," publi^e a 
Paris en 1S73, — 

" Oh I combien auroit et6 diff^rente de ce qu'elle est la condition 
des indigenes, si Dieu avoit permis que la puissance Frangaise se main- 
tint sur les rivages Aniericains ! et quel autre spectacle les populations 
Stabiles dans les immenses bassins du Saint-Laurent et du Mississippi 
auroient donn^ au monde ! II est impossible de penser, sans une 
profonde douleur, aux miracles de charity dont la supr^maiie Anglaise a 
interrompu le cours." 

The chapter may close with the reflections, ending perhaps with 
indignation, this passage is so well calculated to arouse. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Champlain's Early Career. — His Skill as a Navigator. — Compared with Julius Cxsar. — 
French Colonization of .\cadia. — Marquis de La Roche in 1 59S. — De Xlonts, Poutrin 
court, and Champlain in 1604. — Champlain explores the Coast from Liverpool to 
Ste. Marie's Bay, calling at Yarmouth in May, 1604. — The Colony first settles at 
Ste. Croix. — Removes to Port Royal in 1605, — Claude de La Tour and his Son Charles 
at Port Royal in 1610. — .\rgairs Raid in 1613. — Sir William Alexander's Colony at 
Port Royal in 1622. — Claude de La Tour created a Baronet ot Nova Scotia. — Charles 
declines a Similar Honor. — Gov, John \Vinthrop"s Massachusetts Colony of 1630. — Met 
by Capt. Lovett off Cape Ann, and ascorted to Salem. — Acadia restored to France in 
:63i. — Alexander abandons Port Royal. — Alarm in Massachusetts Bay. — Razilly and 
D'Aulnay foiuid a Colony at La Hfeve in 1632. — Charles de La Tour builds a Fort at 
St. John. — Razilly dies, and D'.Aulnay succeeds to the (iovernment of Acadia. — He 
removes his Colony to Port Royal. — .Acadia divided by the King of France between 
D'Aulnay and Charles de La Tour. — Conflict between them. — Encouraged by the 
English (if Massachusetts. — D".\ulnay captures La Tour's Fort. — Death of MaAime 
de La Tour. — De.ith of D"Aulnay. — CIii.rles de La Tour marries Madame D'Aulnay. — 
Devotion and Influence of French Missionaries. — The .\bbe Sigogne. — Port Royal 
from 1650 to Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. 

CONTINUING the narrative from the close of Chapter I., a brief 
sketch will now be given of the early efforts of the French to 
colonize Nova Scotia down to 1713, when it was finally ceded to Great 
Britain. The account is drawn from various sources where authors, 
describing the same events, difter in some particulars ; and, where dis- 
crepancies occur, it is often difficult to decide whose accounts are most 
reliable. The reader, therefore, may find dates not always agreeing with 
those of other writers, and, perhaps, opinions of persons and their move- 
ments not at all times coinciding with those already formed. French 
writers and English writers, treating of the same events or individuals, 
may be carried away by enthusiasm, or be influenced by prejudice, — 
a remarkable instance of which will be given in the respective views of 
M. Moreau and James Hannay in their summing up of the character 
of D'Aulnay. 

No French writer of *\e seventeenth century may be more fully 
trusted than Champlain, who united to his wonderful skill as a navigator 



SAMUEL DE CHAM PLAIN. 103 

the ability to describe with the utmost fidelity and precision the sea- 
coasts and countries he explored. He may be compared with Rome's 
great general, the accounts of whose brilliant campaigns were written by 
himself upon the fields where he won his victories, and which, nearly 
two thousand years aftenvard, are admired for their fulness of detail and 
elegance of style. 

Samuel de Champlain, son of Antoine de Champlain, a sea-captain, 
was born at Brouage, near Rochelle, about 1567. Brouage was the 
centre of a district extensively engaged in the manufacture of salt by 
the evaporation of sea-water. In hii youth, Champlain had considerable 
experience in the coasting-trade in vessels employed in distributing salt 
along the coast of France and other Continental countries, as well as to 
English ports. Late in life, when addressing the Queen of France, he 
said, " This is the art which in my early years won my love, and has 
induced me to expose myself to the tempestuous waves of the ocean." 

In 1599 Champlain was placed in command of the French ship 
St. jfuliaiif of five hundred tons, chartered by the Spanish for an 
expedition to America ; and, accompanied by a fleet, he sailed for 
the West Indies in January, 1599. On arrival at Porto Rico, the 
fleet was separated into three divisions ; Champlain visiting many of 
the islands, and at length the continent. He harbored at Vera Cruz, 
whence he proceeded to the city of Mexico, remaining there a month. 
Eventually, the fleet, according to agreement, met at Havana, whence 
they sailed for Spain, arriving there in March, 1601. 

Champlain, who was styled Geographer of the King, prepared an 
elaborate report of the expedition with sixty-two illustrations, which 
remained in manuscript two hundred and fifty-seven years. In 1859 it 
was translated and printed in London. In this report, Champlain sug- 
gested a canal across the Isthmus of Panama in words of the following 
purport : •' One might judge, if the territory, four leagues in extent, 
lying between Panama and the Chagres River, were cut through, he 
could pass from the South Sea to that on the other side, and thus 
shorten the route by more than fifteen hundred leagues. From Panama 
to the Straits of Magellan would constitute an island, and from Panama 
to Newfoundland another, so that the whole of America would be in 
two islands." 



I04 MAROi'IS I)E LA RoCHIl. 

1598. — The first attempt to colonize Nova Scotia was made by 
the French in 1598. The Marquis de La Roche, a nobleman of 
Hrittany, obtained a royal commission with exclusive powers of gov- 
ernment and trade. He fitted out a small vessel with a crew of sixty 
men, forty of whom were convicts gathered out of the prisons of 
France, and sailed for the northern coasts of America. The first 
land he made was Sable Island ; and, having there landed the cunvicts, 
he proceeded to reconnoitre the coasts of Nova Scotia, for the purpose 
of selecting a location for his intended settlement. But a furious 
gale, continuing ten or twelve days, drove him off the coast ; and, 
either from necessity or design, he returned to France, abandoning 
the forty men left on Sable Island. He landed at Brittany, when 
the governor of the province put him in prison : why, history does 
not say. And, though the manjuis was soon released, he did not 
return to Nova Scotia ; and five years afterward, when a vessel was 
sent to rescue the men left on Sable Island, only twelve remained 
alive. 

1603. — A Huguenot gentleman, Pierre du Ouast, Sieur de Monts, 
Governor of Pons in Saintonage, wlio for recreation had made a 
voyage to the St. Lawrence several years before, obtained from Henry 
IV. a charter, constituting him king's lieutenant in L'.Acadie, with all 
necessary powers for a colonial settlement. His grant covered the 
whole territory between the fortieth and forty-sixth degrees of north 
latitude. He secured in addition the exclusive right of trade in the 
region of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence. 

1604. — Early in .April, he had gathered together about a hundred 
and twenty artisans of all trades, who were embarked in two ships, — 
one of 120 tons, commanded by Capt. Morel, and under the direc- 
tion of Sieur de Pont (irav^, a rich merchant of Honfleur, who had 
already been engaged in the St. Lawrence fur-trade ; the other, a ship 
of 150 tons, in which De Monts himself embarked with several noble- 
men and gentlemen, and with Capt. Timoth^e of Havre de Grace as 
commaiv r. De Monts invited Champlain to accompany him, to 
which the king consented on condition that he should prepare a 
faithful report of his observations and discoveries. Jean de Bie icourt, 
Baron de Poutrincourt, and Louis Hebert, an, apothecary irom Paris, 



DE MOXTS AND POUTRL\CVCRT. 105 

sailed with De Monts, vvlio left Havre on April 7, tlie other ship 
following in three days, to meet at ("anseau. IJut having taken a 
more southerly course than first intended, on May 8 De Monts 
made the Nova Scotia coast, and anchored at La Heve, so named 
from a high, rocky bluff a little north of Havre de Grace, known as 
Cape de la Heve. The word IIcvc seems to have a local meaning, 
as may be inferred from the following excerpt: "A name in I-ower 
Normandy for cliffs hollowed out below where fishermen search for 
crabs" (Littre). 

On May 12 the ship \i\\\. in at Liverpool Harl)or, where they 
found (.afjt. Rossignol of Havrj carrying on a contraband trade with 
the Indians. De Monts arrested the captain, and confiscated his 
vessel, by way of compensation naming the harbor Port Rossignol. 
The next day they anchored at Port Mouton, where they lingered 
for a few weeks awaiting tit ^^s from I'ont Cirave, who had in the 
mean time arrived at (Janseau, the rendezvous agreed upon. Here 
he found some Basque ships engaged in the fur-trade with the Indians, 
which he seized, and sent the caj)tains to De Monts. The vessels 
were confiscated, and sent to Rochelle. 

The vessel which had been taken from Capt. Rossignol was 
despatched to Canseau to i)ring the supplies Pont (Irave's ship carried, 
which lx;ing transferred, I'ont (irave proceeded through the Straits of 
Canseau to the St. Lawrence to trade with the Indians. 

In the mean time, Champlain, in a vessel of eight tons, with 
.M. Simon, a miner, and ten men, had been sent to reconnoitre the 
coast towards the west. Touching at several points along the coast, 
they doubled Cape Sable, visited the Seal Islands and the islands in 
Argyle Sound, and explored the Tusket Islands, where Champlain 
made himself familiar with the dangerous ledges and rapid currents. 
He put in at Yarmouth Harbor, which he describes as " verj' con- 
venient for vessels at its entrance ; but its remoter part is entirely dry 
at low tide, except the channel of a little stream completely bordered 
by meadows, which make the place very pleasant. There is good 
rod-fishing near the harbor." 

Proceeding on his voyage, Champlain next explored St. Mary's 
liay, where Smion discovered " several mines of both silver and iron." 



I06 DE MOyTS A.XD POUTRINCOURT. 

He then returned to Port Mouton, and gave De Monts a careful and 
minute account of his discoveries. 

De Monts immediately proceeded to St. Mary's Bay, where he left 
his ship ; and in a small vessel .with Champlain, Poutrincourt, Simon, 
and others, he proceeded to explore the Bay of Fundy. They entered 
and examined Annapolis Basin ; then, coasting along the north-western 
shores of Nova Scotia, they entered the Basin of Mines. They next 
proceeded to the head of the Bay of Fundy, and, skirting the south- 
eastern coast of New Brunswick, visited St. John Harbor, and finally 
passed up Passamaquoddy Bay to the mouth of the River St. Croix, 
selecting De Monts' Island as the site for the colony. The ship and 
•:he colonists at St. Mary's Bay were ordered to join them, and Cham- 
plain was instructed to design and lay out a plan for the town. On 
Aug. 31, 1604, the vessel which had brought out the colony, and the 
one taken from Capt. Rossigncl, sailed for France, Poutrincourt going 
with them for re-enforcements and supplies. 

1605. — Having wintered at St. Croix, they concluded the shores 
of the Annapolis Basin were preferable for a setdement ; and in August 
the colony abandoned St. Croix, and removed to Port Royal, most 
of their buildings being taken down and carried there. Champlain 
and Pont Grave were sent forward to select a place for the colony ; 
the site chosen being on the north side of the basin opposite Goat 
Island, near the present site of Lower Granville. The dwellings v^re 
arranged in the form of a quadrangle with an open court in the 
centre, while gardens and pleasure-grounds were laid out by Champlain 
in the in.mediate vicinity. 

Poutrincourt not having returned, in the fall De Monts sailed for 
France for supplies, leaving Pont Grave and Champlain at Port Royal ; it 
being agreed that if he did not return by the middle of July following, 
Pont GravtJ should make arrangements for the return of the colony to 
France by the fishing-vessels to be found on the Grand Banks. During 
the winter the little colony suffered much from sickness and unac- 
customed privations ; and De Monts not returning as expected, the 
whole colony, on July 17, 1606, set sail in two barks, and proceeded 
for Cape Breton. 

But De Monts had not been remiss. He had despatched a vessel 



DE MONTS AND POUTRIXCOURT. 10/ 

of a hundred and fifty tons, called the Jonas, w i fifty men, and 
ample supplies for the approaching winter. While Pont Grav^ and 
Champlain with their two vessels and the retreating colony had run into 
Yarmouth Harbor for repairs, the Jonas passed unobserved, and at 
length anchored before the deserted settlement at Port Royal. A boat 
was at once despatched from the Jonas to reconnoitre the inlets along 
the coast, and fortunately intercepted the departing colony near Cape 
Sable, when they joyfully returned to Port Royal. 

Poutrincourt, appointed lieutenant-governor of L'Acadie, had re- 
turned in the Jonas; and with him came Marc Lescarbot, a young 
attorney, who had already distinguished himself as an author. Poutrin- 
couri: at once set about restoring order at Port Royal ; and soon after 
the Jonas was unloaded, Pont Grav6, and many of those who with him 
had experienced the hardships of the preceding winter, departed in hei 
for France. 

Although the season was late, Poutrincourt sent some farmers and 
gardeners five miles up the river, to the site of the present town of 
Annapolis, to test the s^ J, which was there free from stone, by planting a 
great variety of seeds ; and the plants were found to grow with great 
luxuriance, though the season was too late for them to mature. On a 
former visit to Port Royal, Poutrincourt had conceived a great admira- 
tion for the Annapolis basin, the protected situation of the lands, the 
fine scenery, and the rich soil. He had a strong desire to bring his 
family there, ind make it his permanent abode; and with this view he. 
had received from De Monts a grant of the region, and his title to it had 
been confirmed by Henry IV. 

But De Monts wished lo plant his colony in a milder climate, and 
he had enjoined on Poutrincourt to continue the explorations for a site 
still farther south. Accordingly, on Sept. 5, 1606, Poutrincourt and 
Champlain, in a vessel of eighteen tons, sailed from Port Royal. They 
visited St. Croix ; Cape Ann, whose chief harbor, now Gloucester, they 
named Beauport ; passed Cape Cod, and explored the islands of Vine- 
yard Sound, and then touched at Wood's HoU, whence they returned to 
Port Royal, arriving there on Nov. 14. This voyage ended Champlain's 
explorations of the Southern Acadian coasts. 



I08 AfAKC LE SCAR EOT. 

1607. — In May the Jonas returned from France, and brought 
intelligence, that owing to the influence of the fur-traders, whose vessels 
and cargoes had been seized, P/e Monts had been deprived of his 
monopoly. This was a great -disappointment to the colony at Port 
Royal, for that had been their chief reliance for the reimbursement of 
the heavy expenses already incurred. Poutrincourt was compelled to 
break up the colony. The main portion left Port Royal on July 30, 
with orders to call at Canseau. Poutrincourt remained until Aug. 11, to 
await the ripening of the grain, a sample of which he wished to present 
to the French king. They finally sailed from Canseau on Sept. 3. On 
the 26th they made the coast of Cornwall, and on Sept. 30 arrived at 
St. Malo. 

Lescarbot says, Port Royal was so called '■'■pour sa deaitte,'" and the 
River St. John because they arrived there on June 24, the festival of St. 
Jean-Baptiste. He writes, " lis entrerent en ladite Baye Saincte-Marie 
par un passage etroit qui est entre la terre du Port Royal et u!ie lie dite 
LTle Longue." This was written in 1606, and it is the oldest historical 
reference to Long Island and the Petite Passage. He writes, " Bien est 
vray qu'il y a quelques autres bancs, qu'on appelle Banquereau et le 
Banc Jacquet, mais ils sont separez du Grand Banc de Terre-Neuve." 
It seems there was fog about the coasts in those days ; for Lescarbot says, 
" We passed the entrance to Port Royal the first day, and the next day 
the fog overspread the sea and encompassed us for eight days, during 
which it was as much as we could do to reach Cape Sable, vyhich we did 
not see." — " We arrived at a port four leagues from Campseau, where a 
good old man from St. Jean de Lus, named Capt. Savalet, was engaged 
in fishing. He received us with all the courtesy in the world. The 
Port, which is a small but good one, having no name, I have given it 
the name Savalet upon my geographical chart. The good man told us 
this was his forty-second voyage. He was wonderfully satisfied with his 
fishery ; he told us he made fifty crowns a day, and that his voyage 
would be worth 10,000 francs. He had 16 hired men; his vessel was 
80 tons, and would carry 100,000 dried codfish." 

1609. — Le Sieur de Poutrincourt still held his proprietary rights at 
Port Royal, and in the autumn of this year he resolved to return and 
make another effort to establish a colony. He procured a small vessel. 



DEATH OF FOUTRINCOURT. 109 

and loaded lier to the water's edge with merchandise, provisions, and 
military stores (she was so deeply laden, says Lescarbot, that from her 
deck they could wash their hands in the sea) ; and he sailed from Dieppe 
on Feb. 26, 16 10. Poutrincourt was accompanied by a number of 
influential persons, and by his eldest son, Charles de Biencourt. It is 
believed that in this vessel came also Claude Turgis de Saint Etienne, 
Sieur de La Tour, a French Huguenot, allied to the noble house of 
de Bouillon, who had lost the greater part of their estates in the civil war. 
His son, Charles de La Tcur, a boy of fourteen years, came with him. 

1610. — The weather was tempestuous, and the winds adverse. They 
ran off to the southward, and met calms they thought worse than tem- 
pests. On May 1 1 they got soundings on the Banks ; and, still pursuing 
a southerly course to avoid th_ relds of ice, they arrived at Pentagoet at 
the mouth of the Penobscot. ;. Jinainii.r there a few days to refit and 
recruit, they proceeded along the coast, touching at St. Croix, and on 
June 30 arrived at Port Royal, where they were joyfully welcomed by 
the Indians. 

Three weeks afterward, Poutrincourt sent the vessel with his son 
Charles back to France for further supplies, and with instructions for his 
immediate return. Charles arrived at Dieppe on Aug. 21, to learn that 
their great friend and patron, Henry IV., had been assassinated three 
months before. This unfortunate event delayed his departure. He 
sailed from Dieppe in a vessel of fifty tons, on Jan. 26, 161 1 ; but meet- 
ing adverse winds, he put in at an English port, where he was detained 
till Feb. 16. On April 19 he arrived on the Grand Banks; and on the 
29th, off Canseau, he ran among fields and mountains of ice twelve 
leagues in length. On May 21 he arrived at Port Royal, having mean- 
while called at Canseau. 

161 1. — In July, Poutrincourt himself returned to France, leaving 
his son Charles de Biencourt in charge of the colony, which con- 
sisted then of only twenty-two persons besides two Jesuit missionaries. 
Poutrincourt did not return to Port Royal. He entered the service of 
the king, and was killed at th° s''ege cf Mery-sur-Seine in 1615. 

1613. — The little colony prosuer'-d until 1613, when it was broken 
up by an expedition under the pirate Argall from the London colony in 
Virginia. But (says Hannay) Charles de Biencourt refused to abandon 



no SIR WILLIAM ALEXANDER. 

the colony, and, with a few chosen companions, maintained himself there 
for the remainder of his life. One of the friends who shared his exile 
was Charles de La Tour. Sometimes they lived with the Indians, some- 
times at Port Royal ; but of their adventures, little is known. Biencourt 
died in 1623, when he bequeathed to Charies de La Tour his rights at 
Port Royal, and appointed him his successor in the government of 
the colony. Claude de La Tour continued at Port Royal until the 
attack of Argall, when he established a traJing-post at the mouth of the 
Penobscot, which the English from Massachusetts took from him in 
1623. 

1621. — On Aug. 5, 1621, James L of Great Britain granted to Sir 
William Alexander the lands lying between the Massachusetts Colony 
and Newfoundland. The charter was issued Sept. 10. 

1622. — In March, Sir William Alexander provided a ship at London, 
which he sent round to Kirkcudbright where he hoped to recruit a body 
of emigrants. The inducements held out were inconsiderable. Pur- 
chasers of land only were to have a right in the soil. Farmers might 
obtain leases. Artisans were to receive free holdings, but during their 
lifetime only. None possessing ordinary comforts at home were likely to 
incur the risk of emigrating to unexplored wastes on inducements so 
meagre. Only one artisan, a blacksmith, and one educated person, — a 
Presbyterian minister, — consented to join the expedition. The other 
emigrants were laborers of the lowest grade. 

The vessel sailed in August, 1622 ; made Newfoundland, and pro- 
ceeded for Cape Breton, but was driven back to Newfoundland in a 
storm. There they resolved to pass the winter while the vessel was 
despatched to London for fresh supplies. 

1623. — On June 5 the ship St. Luke arrived at St. John's with 
additional colonists and supplies. Meanwhile the minister and black- 
smith had died, and the others were earning a scanty subsistence as 
fishermen. On June 23 they sailed from St. John's ; but, impeded by 
fogs and contrary winds, they did not see the land for two weeks. They 
then sailed along the coast, which they partially surveyed. Reaching 
Port Mouton, they discovered in its vicinity three harbors, in one of 
which, four leagues west of Port Mouton, they landed, naming the place 
St. Luke's Bay. Two leagues farther on they found another harbor wit!i 



S/A' CLAUDE DE LA TOLR. Ill 

a fine river, known as Port Hebert (named for De Monts' apothecary. 
Louis Hebert). Having cruised twelve leagues fartiier, they terminated 
their explorations at Port Xegro. On their return they further examined 
Port Mouton, and then hastened to Newfoundland. There the St. Luke 
shii)ped a cargo of fish for the home-voyage ; and. finding other 
vessels, the explorers returned to England. 

1625. — About this time Charles de La Tour married a Huguenot 
lady : but of her family, or how she came to Nova Scotia, history has no 
record. But she was a lady of euiinent ability, and she now holds rank 
among the heroines of history. Soon after his marriage, Charles de La 
Tour removed from Port Royal to Port La Tour, where he built a fort. 
He was living there in 1627, when war again broke out between France 
and England ; and by his father Claude, who was returning to France, 
he addressed a memorial to the French king, asking for aid in defending 
Acadia against the English. The king granted the request, and fitted 
out several vessels under the command of Roquemont and Claude de La 
Tour ; but just as they reached the shores of Nova Scotia, they were 
captured by an English force under the command of Sir David Kirk, 
a French Protestant ; and La Tour was sent a prisoner to England. He 
was, however, soon released, and made the acquaintance of Sir \Mlliam 
.Alexander. 

1628. — In this year, Sir William Alexander the younger was intro- 
duced to court, knighted, and constituted knight-admiral of Nova 
Scotia. About the end of March, with a fleet of five vessels and seventy 
colonists he left Scotland, and all arrived safely at Port Royal. Soon 
afterward Sir ^^'illiam Alexander returned to England, leavins: the 
seventy colonists at Port Royal ; and on his return the next summer, he 
found that thirty had died, and that the prospects of the colony were not 
satisfactory. 

1629. — In the autumn of this year Claude de La Tour was intro- 
duced to the English court, and married as his second wife one of the 
Queen's maids of honor. On Nov. 30 he received a patent as a 
baronet of Nova Scotia; and, on the payment of a sum of money, 
he obtained from Sir William Alexander a grant of the western part 
of what is now Nova Scotia, extending from the River Avon on the 
north coast to Margaret's Bay on the south. When accepting these 



112 GOVERXOR ir/XTHROr. 

lands and title, Sir Claude bound himself to become a good and taithful 
subject of the British sovereign. In May, 1630, he sailed for Nova 
Scotia, and at length harbored at Port La Tour. 

To his son Charles de La Tour, who commanded the French garri- 
son there, he bore a patent of baronetcy, with a commission authorizing 
his continuance in office on his submitting to British rule. Indignant at 
an offer which implieJ treachery 10 nis own government, Charles 
rejected the proposal, and offered to defend th*^ fort with his life. 
Returning to his ships, Sir Claude again earnestly entreated his son to 
surrender. Meeting a second refusal, Sir Claude landed nis men. For 
two days he vigorously attacked the fort, but was compelled to return to 
his ships. Throwing himself on the clemency of his son, Sir Claude 
and his wife received permission to reside in the neighborhood, but were 
prohibited from entering the fort. 

Sir Claude de La Tour afterwards joined the Scotch colony at Port 
Royal under the care of Sir William Alexander the younger, who had 
built a fort on the north side of the river opposite Goat Island, where the 
first French settlement had been made in 1 604. 

1630. — On Dec. 21, 1620, the Mayflower with the "Pilgrims," 
loi in number, arrived at Plymouth Bay, Massachusetts. In 1629 
a colony of 400 " Puritans " arrived from England, and founded 
the town of Salem ; and the next year there came about 1,000 more 
with John Winthrop at their head, and these soon afterward settled 
Boston, Roxbury, and the adjacent towns. 

John Winthrop, appointed first governor of the Massachusetts Colony, 
and bearing the charter from the British Government, sailed from 
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, on April 8, 1630, in the ship Ari-''^ella, of 
350 tons. He was accompanied by three other ships, the Talbot, 
Ambrose, and yewel. On June 6 they sighted Cape Sable ; and on 
the 8th, Mount Desert. Off Cape Ann, on June 12, they were met 
by a shallop to escort them to Salem, having on board Mr. Endicott, 
afterward governor, Mr. Skelton, and Capt. Lovett, said to be the 
ancestor of the Lovetts of Beverly, to which family belonged the 
Andrew Lovitt who came to Yarmouth in 1765. Gov. Winthrop's 
diary, from which some literal extracts will be presently given, mentions 
Edward and William Hilton as among the first settlers of Portsmouth, 
N.H., in 1632.' 



GOVERNOR LA UNO V DE RAZILLY. II3 

1631. — Acadia was restored to F"rance, and Sir William Alexander 
received intructions from Charles I. to destroy the fort at Port Royal, 
and abandon the place to the French, In the same year Charles de La 
Tour was appointed lieutenant-general. He invited his father to Port 
La Tour, where he built a house for him, an invitation Sir Claude 
accepted. 

1632. — Isaac de Launoy de Razilly, of an ancient and noble family 
of Touraine, and a relative of Cardinal Richelieu, was sent out to take 
command of Acadia. He brought forty families to engage in agricul- 
ture and the fisheries. He went first to Port Royal, but afterward 
established his colony at La Heve to be nearer the fishing-grounds. He 
was accompanied by two men who were associated with him in the 
enterprise. The one, Charles de Menou, Seigneur D'Aulnay, belonged 
to one of the noble families of Bas-Berry, and was a relative of Razilly : 
the other, Nicolas Denys, was an enterprising merchant, who had joined 
the expedition in order to study the resources of the country, and 
supervise the agricultural operations of the colony. The colonists soon 
discovered ihat to prepare for cultivation the forest-lands at La Heve 
was a tedious process, and that the fisheries yielded quicker returns. 
Lescarbot had written, though in another connection, near thirty 
years before, " Cette chasse est beaucoup plus certaine que celle 
des bois." 

1632, Jan. 17. — "The governour having intelligence from the east 
that the French had bought the Scottish Plantations near Cape Sable, 
and that the fort and all the ammunition were delivered to them, and 
that the cardinal, having the managing thereof, had sent some companies 
already, and preparations were made to send many more the next year, 
and divers priests and Jesuits among them, called the chief men to 
Boston to advise what was to be done for our safety, in regard the 
French were likely to prove ill neighbours, being Papists, at which 
meeting it was agreed that a fort should be forthwith begun at Natascott, 
and that the fort in Boston should be finished." (Winthrop's Diary.) 

March 26. — " Two little girls of the governour's family were sitting 
under a great heap of logs, plucking of birds, and the wind driving the 
feathers into the house, the governour's wife caused them to remove 

' Appendix J. 



114 GOVERNOR D'AULNAY. 

away. They were no sooner gone, but the whole heap of logs fell down 
in the place, and had crushed them to death, if the Lord, in his special 
providence, had not delivered them." 

July 2. — "At a court it was agreed that the governour John VVin- 
throp should have toward his charges this year ^150." 

Aug. 6. — " Two men servants to one Moodye,' ot Roxbury, 
returning in a boat from the windmill, struck upon the oyster bank. 
They went out to gather oysters and not making fast their boat, when 
the flood came it floated away and they both were drowned, although 
they might have waded out on either side ; but it was an evident judg- 
ment of God upon them, for they were wicked persons. One of them 
a little before being reproved for his lewdness and put in mind of hell, 
answered, that if hell were ten times hotter he would rather be there 
than he would serve his master. The occasion was, because he had 
bound himself for three years, and he said that, if he had been at liberty 
he might have had greater wages, though otherwise his master used him 
very well." (Winthrop's Diary.) 

1635. — Charles de La Tour, as a reward for his fidelity, received a 
grant of territory at St. John, extending five leagues on the river, and 
twelve leagues into the country. He removed to St. John, and built 
a fort there, while his father remained at Port La Tour. 

In the same year Razilly died ; and D'Aulnay, having been second 
in command, assumed the government of the colony. He at once 
removed the seat of government to Port Royal, taking there the principal 
part of the inhabitants fi-om La Heve. He was soon after joined by 
twenty more families from France, and Port Royal then became the 
chief settlement of Acadia. 

1638. — The King of France, by letters-patent, divided Acadia 
between Charles de La Tour and D'Aulnay, by which division La Tour 



' After the capture of Louisburg by Lieut. -Gen. Pepperell in 1745, "a banquet was prepared 
by Pepperell for the officers of his army. Several clergymen were present; and the senior of them, old 
Mr. Moody of York, the uncle of Mrs. Pepperell, was called on to ask a blessing at the feast. The 
friends of Moody felt somewhat anxious lest he should disgust the guests by a prolix performance, such 
as he often indulged in; but his te.nper was so irritable that none would venture to suggest to him that 
brevity would be acceptable. They were agreeably disappointed and highly gratified by his saying 
grace as follows: ' Good Lord, we have so many things to thank thee for, that time would be infinitely 
too short to do it. We must therefore leave it for the work of eternity. Bless our food and fellowship 
on this joyful occasion, for the sake of Christ our Lord. Amer.' " (Murdoch.) 



WIXTHROP'S DIARY. 115 

was to have the country from the middle of the Bay of Fundy to 
Canseau, and D'Aulnay from the same Une west, and south to the coast 
of Virginia. This was an unfortunate division ; for D'Aulnay was at the 
time established at Port Royal, and La Tour at St. John. .\ different 
arrangement was, however, subsetiuently effected, by which the western 
and northern portion was given to La Tour, and the eastern and south- 
ern part to D'Aulnay ; the dividing line being at Pentagoet, at the mouth 
of the Penobscot River. 

1640. — About this time began the conllict between D'Aulnay and 
Charles de La Tour, which continued until the death of the former. La 
Tour had entertained the hope that D'Aulnay would return to France, 
and leave him in sole possession. But D'Aulnay had married in 1638, 
and by that event La Tour perceived he intended to remain in the 
colony. Early in 1640, La Tour attacked and captured two small 
vessels belonging to D'Aulnay ; and the latter, having strengthened and 
provisioned his lort at Pentagoet, then under the command of his lieu- 
tenant, Germain Doucette, soon after met, and after a lively contest 
captured, the ship of La Tour. 

Complaints having been formally made against La Tour, he was 
summoned to France to appear before the court, orders which La Tour 
declined to obey ; and D'Aulnay, who had influential friends at court, 
received instructions to arrest La Tour, whose commission was revoked. 
But it was easier to recall La Tour than to arrest him. He retired to, 
and strengthened, his fort at St. John ; and D'Aulnay, not being able 
to besiege the fort, himself went to France in August. 

1 641. — Returning the next spring, D'Aulnay found La Tour still too 
strong for him, he being aided by the English from the Massachusetts 
Colony. 

1641, March 10. — "Monsieur Rochett, a Protestant, came from 
Monsieur La Tour, planted upon the St. John River, up the great Bay 
on this side Cape Sable. He proposed to us : 

" I. Liberty of free commerce. This was granted. 

" 2. Assistance against D'Aulnay of Penobscott whom he had war with. 

" 3. That he might make return of goods out oi England by our 
merchants. . .^ ^ 

— "In these two we excused any treaty with him, as having no letter 
or commission from La Tour." (Winthrop's Diary.) ^- 



Il6 U'lNTIIROr'S DIARY. 

1642, June 6. — " Here came a French shallop with some 14 men, 
whereof one was La Tour's Lieutenant. They brought letters from La 
Tour to the governour full of complaints and desire of assistance of us 
against D'Aulnay. 'I'hey staid here about a week, and were kindly 
entertained, and though they were Papists, yet they came to our church 
meeting." 

1643, April 12. — "Monsieur La Tour arrived here in a ship of 
140 tons and 140 persons from Rochelle, the master and his company 
being Piotestants. There were two friars, and two women sent to 
wait Uj>on La Tour his lady. He told the governour the cause of his 
coming ; that his ship being sent out from France, D'Aulnay, his old 
enemy, had so blocked up the river to his fort at St. John with two ships 
and a galliot, as his ship could not get in." 

A conference having been held, " the governour and chief magistrates 
thought we could not grant him aid without advice of the other com- 
missioners of our confederacy, yet we thought it not fit to hinder any 
that would be hired to aid him. Our governour and others in the town 
entertained La Tour and his gentlemen with much courtesy both in 
their houses and at table." 

May 14. — " In the evening La Tour took ship, the governonr and 
divers the chiefs of the town accompanying him to his boat. There 
went with him five of our ships and a pinnace. He hired them for two 
months, the chief, which had 16 pieces of ordnance, at ;^20o a month, 
and the rest proportionable. The owners took only his own security 
for their pay. He entertained also about 70 soldiers at 40/- a month, 
but he paid them something in hand." (Winthrop's Diary.) 

As the fleet from Boston approached St. John, D'Aulnay discovered 
them, and set sail for Port Royal. La Tour pursued but could not 
overtake D'Aulnay's vessels. La Tour, with the fleet from Boston, 
entered the Annapolis Basin, destroyed some property of the colony, 
burned their mill, and killed some of the people, in which work the 
Boston ships participated. They then went to St. John, where they 
seized D'Aulnay's pinnace which had just come down the river loaded 
with 400 moose-skins and 400 beaver-skins, expecting to find D'Aulnay 
there. The pinnace and \ of the peltry went to La Tour, \ to the 
Boston vessels, and ^ to their men. These were then paid for their 
services, and returned to Boston. 



/ 1 VA THROP 'S DIA A'V. 117 

1643. June. — "About the 20th of this month the ships which 
went v/i»h La Tour came back safe, not a person missing or sick. But 
the rep jrt of their actions was offensive and grievous to me." 

1644. July 17. — "The Lady La Tour arrived here from London 
in a ship with Captain Bailey. They had been six months fron^ 
London, having spent their time in trading about Canada." (Win- 
throp's Diary.) 

.^t Boston, Madame La Tour brought an action against Capt. 
Bailey lor delaying the voyage, and for not carrying her and her 
property to St. John as stipulated. The jury gave her ^2,000 
damages, in settlement whereof the cargo of Capt. Bailey's ship was 
seized under an execution. It consisted of " meal, peas, and trading 
stuff, and was found to be worth ^i 100. The Lady was forced to give 
;^7oo for three ships to carry her and her property to her fort at St. 
John." 

1645. — D'Aulnay lodged a formal complaint with the "General 
Court " of the Massachusetts Colony, against the aggressions of the 
Boston ships, and proceedings were held accordingly. The original 
articles are said to be in the handwriting of Sir Richard Saltonstall ; 
and they are signed by him and William Hathorne, presiding officer 
of the General Court. 

The preamble sets forth, — 

" In this case between ourselves of this jurisdiction and the French, 
our neighbours, it is granted on all hands : " — 

Article i. — Refers to De La Tour and D'.'Vulnay, each having a 
fort, arms, and ammunition, etc. 

2. — Recites that " Monsieur de Latere was a Papist when he first 
came among us," etc. 

3. — That, " Latore craving assistance, our Governour gave per- 
mission for the hiring of ships and men," etc. 

4. — That, "In this expedition with doubtful consequences, there 
was no consultation with the General Court." 

5. — "The true state of the case between Latore and Dony was 
unknown to us ; we heard Latore's story only, and had nothing else to 
guide us. We were ignorant which of the two was most at fault." 

6. — " The case between I-atore and Dony did not concern us 



1 1 8 WINTHROP 'S D/A R K 

(themselves being Papists and subjects of the King of France), nor were 
we bound by any rule of Scripture to help Latore (as the case then 
stood), for we did not know that he was in danger of Monsieur Dony 
(as he himself pretended), nor- had we any reason to rely upon his 
own report, especially in so great a case, considering his religion, as 
also that he had a very able, warlike ship, well-furnished, and at his own 
command, besides other vessels and frigates at his fort and elsewhere, 
which forces (being compared with Monsieur Dony's at that time), might 
have made it a just question, whether Dony had not more cause to 
stand in fear of him than he had of Dony. We had no reason to 
conceive ourselves bound to act in this case, for we could not duly and 
rationally conclude Monsieur Latore to be as that man who fell among 
thieves, in which case two things were evident, the distress of the party 
and the integrity of his cause, both which, as they then concerned 
Latore, were very dark and doubtful." 

7. — " Our men and ships hired (as aforesaid) being upon this 
expedition, and not far from Dony's fort, he sent respectfully to Capt. 
Hawkins, signifying the many outrages and injuries that he had sus- 
tained from Latore, notwithstanding which letter and the declaration 
therein contained, our men being landed, killed some of Dony's men, 
burnt his mill, killed his cattle, great and small, as many as they could 
meet with, took his pinnace loaded with beaver-skins 'and other peltry, 
in the taking of which pinnace they sorely wounded one of his men, 
and that without cause, as is considered by some who were there and 
then present. This beaver and peltry being brought to Boston was 
sold by an outcry and divided among the soldiers." 

8. — "Our men and ships as may appear by sufficient p. oof might 
have brought Latore in safety to his fort (which was and is pretended 
to have been his only aim), without any opposition from, or act of 
hostility against. Monsieur Dony." . -: 

9. — "Our men upon their return were very ready to own and 
ascribe unto themselves the killing of Dony's men, reporting they had 
killed nine, eleven, or more ; which argues they transgressed a command 
or direction given to the contrary by such as did especially persuade 
and prevail with them to undertake the service," etc. (Winthrop's 
Diary.) 



DEATH OF D'AULNAY. II9 

1645. — "We understand that La Tour's fort at St. John was taken 
by D'Aulnay who lost twelve men and had many wounded, and that he 
killed all of La Tour's men, French and English. La Tour valued his 
jewels, plate, household, and other moveables, at ;^io,ooo. The more 
was his folly to leave so great substance in so great danger when he 
might have brought the most of it to Boston whereby he might have 
discharged his engagements of more tl .tn ^^^3500 to Major Edward 
Gibbons who by this loss was now quite undone." (Winthrop's 
Diary.) 

This attack of D'Aulnay upon La Tour's fort at St. John was made 
while La Tour was away at Boston seeking aid. Madame La Tour, a 
woman of great energy and ambition, who commandea in her husband's 
absence, defended the fort with remarkable ability and heroism, and 
yielded only after a protracted siege. She herself died only three weeks 
a ;erward, leaving a young child, which was sent to France. 

1647. — D'Aulnay, who had theretofore been lieutenant-general, 
was formally appointed governor and lieutenant-general of the whole 
country, from the St. Lawrence to Virginia, with full powers by land 
and sea. 

1650. — Three years afterward, on May 24, 1650, D'Aulnay was 
found dead in his canoe upon one of the rivers near Port Royal. 
Apparently he had been drownea, or had perished from cold and fatigue ; 
but whether his death was occasioned by accident or design, was never 
known. His canoe was upset ; and his body, half buried in the water, 
was found entangled with the buoys of the canoe. 

Says James Hannay in his " History of Acadia," published at St. 
John in 1879, " D'Aulnay was constantly supported by the French king. 
In 1650 he was drowned at Port Royal. Neither history nor tradition 
gives us any further particulars of his fate than are contained in these few 
words. He had been hard and cruel and revengeful. He had shown 
himself to be destitute of pity for his kind. No generous thought for 
his enemies had ever found a place in his heart." 

Celestin Moreau, in " Histoire de L'Acadie Franfoisc," published at 
Paris in 1873, gives, it may be hoped, a more impartial estimate of the 
character of D'Aulnay. He says, " Such was the premature end of 
one of the men who had labored with the greatest energy, activity, and 



120 GOVERNOR LA TOUR. 

ccurage in the foundation of our American colonies ; and French Acadia, 
in some measure, fell with him. Frere Ignace, of Paris, accords him 
this praise, that, during the eleven years of his residence at Port Royal, 
no one had ever heard him say a, hurtful word to the least of the people 
there. He renders homage to the rare goodness of the gentleman, and 
to the exemplary piety of the Christian." 

D'Aulnay left four sons and four daughters. Germain Doucette, 
second in command at Port Royal, who had all along possessed the con- 
fidence of D'Aulnay, was appointed to the charge of his property, with 
the general supervision of Madame D'Aulnay. 

1 65 1. — The French king granted to La Tour a new commission as 
governor and lieutenant-general oi" \cadia. Two years afterward. La 
Tour and Madame D'Aulnay, who had continued to reside at Port Royal 
where her principal property wis situated, united their territorial interests 
by a marriage contract, making due provision for their children by pre- 
vious marriages. By this last marriage, they had two sons and three 
daughters, two of whom. Marguerite and Anne, married sons of Philippe 
Mius D'Entremont, a gentleman from Normandy, who had come to 
Acadia in 165 1, and whom La Tour, in 1653, appointed to a temporary 
command at Port Royal.' 

D'Aulnay's eight children went to France. His four sons were 
killed in war, — the youngest, Paul, at the siege of Luxembourg, in 1684. 
Three of his daughters became religieuses. Marie, the last survivor of 
D'Aulnay's children, died at Paris in 1693, leaving by her will all her 
property to her half-brothers and sisters La Tour. ■ 

1654. — The English, then ruled by Oliver Cromwell, again took 
possession of Acadia. Port Royal capiiulated in August, but the 
families occupying houses and lands there were not disturbed. In 
1656, Cromwell granted to La Tour, Sir Thomas Temple, and another, 
all the territory from La Heve to Pentagoet. The grant was embar- 
rassed by this condition : " No one is to reside in the country but 
Protestants." Charles de La Tour died previous to 1670, his wife sur- 
viving him. 

1667. — Says Moreau, " Seventeen years passed away between the 
death of D'Aulnay and the restoration of Acadia to France, under the 

I Appendix K. 



THE FREXCH MISSIONARIES. 121 

treaty of Breda, in 1667. During most of the time, the English held 
the country without occupying it : the French, on their part, if they no 
longer owned the land, continued to exercise a preponderating influence 
over the Indian tribes. The former were encamped within their fortifi- 
cations, but they received neither submission nor respect beyond the 
range of their guns. The latter were spread through the forest ; and 
living, to some extent, the life of savages, they maintained relations of 
good-will on the one part, and fidelity on the other, which, during a cen- 
tury and a half, had never been disturbed. Some, too far away from the 
English to fear their attacks, maintained their settlements near Cape 
Sable : we may believe that they had, like La Tour, grouped around 
them young and vigorous Indians as allies and companions. Their 
chief umpire was the missionary, or priest, when a group of settlers was 
fortunate enough to have one within their reach. He was consulted, 
both in general and particular affairs, in the management of a family, or 
the conduct of an association. They listened to his voice, they followed 
his advice, they submitted to his judgment. His title of spiritual 
father was not, to the Acadians, an empty word. On the contrary, it 
was the expression of an idea, to every one plainly defined, and by every 
one accepted. It was this sacred character of priest which gave him 
authority, and secured the obedience of the people. They loved and 
venerated him as the father he really was ; as, in their regard, the true 
representative and minister of our Father in heaven. 

" By what zeal and devotion, by what exertions and sacrifice, did he 
justify this confidence of the people placed in his care ! The life of a 
missionary was truly an apostolic life. No fatigue discouraged, no 
danger stopped, him. He declined no service, no labor. In need, he 
could be their notary and judge : he wrote their contracts, he reconciled 
their differences, he rendered judgment. Sometimes he carried the axe 
of the wood-chopper, or the spade for the dike : he mingled with the 
roughest workmen who were building a barrier against the waves of the 
sea. Then, returning from a hard day's labor, he traversed the woods, 
and crossed the rivers and mountains, to visit the poor savages in their 
distant encampments, to aid the sick, or to console the suffering." 

The Hfe of the ' Abb6 Sigogne, for nearly half a century among the 

' Appendix L. 



122 ACADIAN PERSECUTION. 

Acadians of Clare and Argyle, illustrates the fidelity of this portraiture 
of the Father Felician.' 

1690. — The Acadian colonies prospered until 1690, when Port 
Royal was attacked by another piratical expedition under Phipps, and 
the settlements farther up the Bay of Fundy by Church, both from 
Boston. 

1696. — The Treaty of Ryswick restored Acadia to France. 

1704. — Church, from Boston, again devastated the Acadian settle- 
ments at the Basin of Mines and Chicnecto. When Church set out on 
this expedition, he was ordered by the Colonial Government " to have 
prayer on board of ship daily, to sanctify the sabbath, and to forbid all 
profane swearing and drunkenness." Another order authorized hiiii " to 
burn, plunder, and destroy, and get spoil wherever he could effect a 
landing." 

1710. — Attacked by a formidable force under Gen. Nicholson, and 
after a vigorous and protracted defence, Gov. Subercase, on the i6th 
of October, surrendered Port Royal under terms highly favorable to the 
besieged. The first article was, "The garrison shall march out with 
their arms and baggage, drums beating, and colors flying." The name 
of the place was then changed to Annapolis Royal, in honor of Queen 
Anne ; and by the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, Acadia was finally ceded 
to Great Britain. 

In 16 7 1, when the first census was taken, the Acadians numbered 
about 400. In 1686 the census gave a total of 885, of which 592 were 
at Port Royal, and 15 at Cape Sable. The census of 1701 gives 466 at 
Port Royal, 498 at Mines, 189 at£»Beau Bassin, 75 at La Heve, and 40 
at Pubnico and Cape Sable. In 1698 there were at Port Royal 1,584 
fruit-trees among fifty-four families, who owned 982 cattle, 1,136 sheep, 

' Again let Judge Haliburton's testimony be a confirmation. During a residence of some years at 
Annapolis, he had been on terms of intimate friendship with the Abb^ Sigogne. ; ii the course of a 
speech in the House of Assembly, in 1827, Mr. Haliburton said, " Look at the Township of Clare. It 
was a beautiful sight, — a whole people having the ssme customs, speaking the same language, and 
uniting in the same religion. Look at their worthy pastor, the Abb^ Sigogne; see him at sunrise, with 
his little flock aiound him, returning thanks to the Giver of all good things; follow him to the bed of 
sickness; see him pouring the balm of consolation into the wounds of the afBicled; into his field, 
where he was setting an example of industry to his people; into his closet, where he was instructing 
the innocence of youth; into the chapel, and you would see the savage, ru»hing from the wilderness 
with all his wild and ungovernable passions upon him, standing subdued and awed in the presence of 
the holy man ! " 



ACADIAN CENSUS. 1 23 

and who had 1,275 acres of land under cultivation. Many of the 
families had decked-vessels for Bay of Fundy fishing, and for trading 
with the Indians along the coast. As early as 1689, there were at Port 
Royal two grain-mills and one saw-mill. 

In 1 73 1 there were at Mines and Canard 168 families; at Beau 
Bassin, 150; at Cobequit, 68; at Pigiguit, 150; at Port Royal, 160, — 
a total of 696 families. In 1737 the Acadian population of Nova Scotia 
was found to be 6,598. 

The last census, previous to the expulsion, was taken in 1748, and 
is thus stated : — 

Chipoudy 300 

Chicnecto 1,000 

Mines 6,000 

Port Royal 1,500 

Villages between Chipoudy and Chicnecto 1,500 

Cobequit and surroundings 1,000 

Chedabucto and Canse?.u 800 

Families on southern and eastern coasts, say 600 

12,700 
The last six hundred people are made up as follows : — * 

River St. John 20 families. 

Chezetcook 15 " 

Merliguesh 20 " 

Ministiguesh 10 " 

Peaubomcoup 20 " . 

Tebok 25 " 

no 



■:--i^ 



CHAPTER IX. 

Metrical Description of Port Royal in 1720. — Halifax 1749-1764. — Liverpool and Barrington 
settled 1759 and 1760. —Settlement of Shelburne by the Loyalists in 1783. — Condition 
of Settlements on Western and Southern Coasts of Nova Scotia in 1787. — Shelburne at 
that Date. — Port Mouton settled by Tarleton's Regiment in 1783. — Next Year Three 
Hundred Buildings destroyed by Fire. — Provincial Census 181 7-1827. — Shelburne, 
Barrington, Argyle, and Yarmouth in 1827: Population, Stock, etc. — Provincial Census 
1851, 1861, 1871, and 1881. — Yarmouth County Census by Subdivisions in 1871 and 
1881, with Explanations directing Attention to the Effect of Confederation as shown by 
the Tables. 

IT is interesting to trace the progress of other settlements of Nova 
Scotia in the latter part of the last century, which, by affording 
opportunities for commercial intercourse, contributed to the growth of 
Yarmouth. 

Annapolis Royal, the ancient capital, after its last capture from the 
French in 17 10, was held as a mihtary post; but it attained no great 
importance as an English settlement until the arrival of the Loyahsts 
after the American Revolution. 

Paul Mascarene, writing of Annapo in 1720, says, " On both sides 
of the River there are a great many fin farms inhabited by above 200 
families [Acadians]. They are generally very industrious, employing 
the time they can spare from farming, in hunting and trapping, and in 
fishing in the summer. The Banks of the River are very pleasant and 
fruitful, producing wheat, rye, and other grains ; pulse, garden roots, and 
the best cabbages of any place ; they abound also in cattle and fowls of 
all kinds." 

A still more pleasing picture of this thriving Acadian village is seen 
in the following lines written at Annapolis Royal in the same year, 1720. 

"The King of rivers, solemn, calm, and slow, 
Flows toward the sea, yet scarce is seen to flow; 
On each fair bank the verdant lands are seen, 
In gayest clothing of perpetual green. 



ANNAPOLIS ROYAL. 12$ 

On every side the prospect brings to sight 

The fields, the flowers, and every fresh delight. 

His lovely banks most beauteously are graced 

With Nature's sweet variety of taste ; 

Herbs, fruits, and grass, with intermingled trees, 

The prospect lengthen, and the joys increase. 

The lofty mountains rise in every view, 

Creation's glory, and its beauty too. 

To higher grounds, the raptured view extends, 

Whilst in the cloud-topped cliffs the landscape ends. 

Fair scenes, to which, should angels turn their sight. 

Angels might stand astonished with delight. 

Majestic groves in every view arise, 

And greet with wonder the beholder's eyes. 

In gentle windings where this river glides. 

And herbage thick its current almost hides. 

Where sweet meanders lead his pleasant course. 

Where trees, and plants, and fruits, themselves disclose ; 

Where never-fading groves of fragrant fir. 

And beauteous pine, perfume the ambient air ; 

The air at once, both health and fragrance yields. 

Like sweet y^rabian or Elysian fields. 

As this delightful stream glides toward the sea, 
Thou Royal Settlement ! he washes thee, — 
Thou village, blest of Heaven, and dear to me. 
Named from a pious sovereign, now at rest. 
The last of Stuart's line, — of queens the best. 



Where this romantic village lifts her head ' 
Betwixt the Royal Port and humble mead. 
The decent mansions, decked with mod'rate cost, 
Of honest thrift, and gen'rous owners boast ; 
Where skill and industry their sons employ 
In works of peace, integrity, and joy. 
Their lives in social, harmless bliss they spend, 
Then to the grave, in honored age descend ; 
The hoary sire, and aged matron see, 
Their prosp'rpus offspring in the fourth degree. 



126 ACADIA A DISPERSION. 

A spire majestic rears its solemn fane, 
Where praises, prayers, and true devotion reign ; 
Where truth, and peace, and charity abound, 
Where God is sought, and heav'nly blessings found. 
The gen'rous flock reward their pastor's care. 
His prayers, his wants, his happiness they share. 
Retired from worldly care, from noise and strife, 
In sacred thoughts and deeds he spends his life ; 
To mod'rate bounds, his wishes he confines. 
All views of grandeur, power, and wealth resigns; 
With pomp and pride can cheerfully dispense. 
Dead to the world and empty joys of sense. 



The symphony of heavenly song he hears, 
Celestial concord vibrates on his ears. 
Which emulate the music of the spheres. 
The band of active youths and virgins fair. 
Ranked in due order by their Teacher's care, 
The sight of all beholders gratify, — 
Sweet to the soul, and pleasing to the eye. 

But when their voices sound in songs of praise. 
When they to God's high throne their anthems raise, 
By their harmonious sounds such raptures given, 
Their loud hosannas waft the soul to heaven. 
The fourfold parts in one bright centre meet, 
To form the blessed harmony complete ; 
Loved by the good, esteemed by the wise, 
To gracious Heaven a pleasing sacrifice, 
Each note, each part, each voice, each word conspire 
T' inflame ali pious hearts with holy fire; 
Each one, in fancy, seems among the throng 
Of angels, chanting heaven's eternal song." 

Thirty-five years afterward, in 1755, this peaceful, prosperous village 
was cruelly broken up ; its inhabitants exiled or dispersed ; their homes 
destroyed, their farms and cattle confiscated ; and " another race with 
other customs and language " took possession of the fertile valleys 
which the Acadians had redeemed from the wilderness, and had culti- 
vated for near a hundred and fifty years. 



GOVERNOR CORNWALLIS. 1 27 

Halifax was first settled in June, 1749, when Gov. Cornwallis 
arrived, accompanied by 1 1 ships with 1,176 settlers, who, witl their 
families and dependants, made a total of 2,576. About one-half of the 
men were accompanied by their wives; there being 619 women, includ- 
ing female servants, and 438 children. Halifax does not appear to have 
grown very rapidly ; for in July, 1 75 2, the population is thus stated : — 

North suburbs of Halifax, two-thirds Germans 677 

South suburbs " " English and Irish 823 

Within the town " chiefly English 841 

Within the pickets " " " 351 

On Cornwallis Island -^-t^ 

At Ketch Harbor 25 

" Sambro 26 

" St. Margaret's Bay 34 

" Cross Island 38 

" George's Island 21 

" Blockhouse and Isthmus, Germans 216 

3.085 

A later summary (not dated) states the total at 4,249 ; it may include 
with the foregoing the soldiers and sailors upon the station. 

In 1753 the greater part of the Germans left Halifax for Lunenburg, 
making their first settlement at Mahone Bay. 

About 1759, Gov. Lawrence despatched a staff of surveyors to the 
western coast to establish the division lines of township of suitable area 
and with well-defined boundaries. At Liverpool, 50 families and 6 
fishing-schooners had already arrived. In June, 1760, the settlers at 
Liverpool had increased to 70 families with 13 schooners. They had 
also built some saw-mills. 

In the same year. Gov. Lawrence received a despatch from the 
Home Government approving of his efforts to induce immigration to 
the Provinc and he was directed to reserve lands as a reward, and 
provision for such officers and soldiers as might be disbanded at the 
close of the war. 

In 1 760-1 763, Barrington was settled by about 80 families from 
Nantucket and Cape Cod, and in 1767 the township was granted to 
102 persons. 



128 



NO I A SCOT/ A CENSUS, 1764. 



A letter, dated at Halifax, May, 1760, from the Hon. Alexander 
Grant, member of the Executive Council, to the Rev. Ezra Stiles of 
Boston, says, — 

"If you expect any useful or curious obser\ations on the place of 
my present residence, I shall disapi)oint you. It furnishes none, and my 
tmie has been engaged in another way. 

"This place is divided into three towns, — Halifax, Irish Town, and 
Dutch Town. The whole may contain about 1,000 houses, great and 
small, many of which are employed as barracks and hospitals for the 
army and navy, and other public uses. The inhabitants may be about 
3,000 ; one-third Irish, one-fourth German or Dutch, the most useful and 
industrious settlers among us, and the rest English, with a very small 
number of Scotch. 

"We have upwards of 100 licensed houses, and perhaps as many 
more which retail spirituous liquors without license ; so that the business 
of one-half the town is to sell rum, and of the other half to drink it. 
You may, from this single circumstance, judge of our morals, and 
naturally infer that we are not enthusiastic in religion. 

"The next settlement to this is Malagash (Lunenburg), inhabited by 
about 1,500 Dutch." 

In 1 764, at the request of Dr. Stiles, Mr. Grant furnished the following 
as the estimated population of Nova Scotia : — 



Halifax 3,000 

Lunenburg 1,600 

Liverpool 500 

Annapolis County 1,000 

Fort Cumberland 750 

Horton 670 

Cornwallis 518 

Falmouth 27S 

Newport 251 



Dublin 100 

Chester 100 

Cobequid 400 

Barrington 300 

Yarmouth 150 

Dispersed along the coast, say . 383 



Total 10,000 



Mr. Grant estimated the French still in the province at 2,000, and 
the settlement at St. John, New Brunswick, at 460. 



SHELDUR.XEy 17S3. 12^ 

SHELBURNE 

and its settlement is thus described in Haliburton's " History of Nova 
Scotia : " — 

"After the surrender of Cornwallis, an association of 471 families, in 
a fleet of 18 vessels, on April 27, 17S3, sailed from New York, and 
arrived at Shelburne on May 4. 

"They selected a site for a town, and three surveyors from Halifax 
laid it out with five parallel streets, 60 feet wide, and intersected by 
others at right angles, each square containing 16 lots, 60 feet by 120 
feet. The water-front was so laid out that every proprietor n.!^ht be 
accommodated with a town lot and a water lot. Every settler had also 
50 acres of land on each side of the hai'or. They soon after received 
an inundation of refugees of quite a different character from the first 
settlers, who were not altogether welcome, although ■ ;i effort was made 
to acconmiodate them. The population soon amounted to about 
1 2,000. 

" Its decline was almost as rapid as its growth. Remote from the 
other settlements of the Province, surrounded by forests without roads, 
situate too far from the entrance to the harbor to reap the advantage 
of the fishing-grounds, and filled with people who were unacquainted 
with the mode of settling the wildernes- it was impossible that a town 
so constituted could long e.xist. Many removed to other parts of the 
Province, but the greater part returned to their native land. Several 
regiments accompanied the first immigrants, but were withdrawn soon 
after the settlement of the town. The principal part of the negroes at 
Birchtown were removed to Sierra Leone in 1 786." 

There is a little book published anonymously at Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, in 1787, bearing this title : — 

THE PRESENT STATE OF NOVA SCOTIA; 

WITH A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF J \ - ■ 

CANADA AND THE BRITISH ISLANDS ON THE COAST 1. ._.--- 
OF NORTH AMERICA. 



130 AOl'A scon A, 17S7. 

It is dedicated to 

THE Klr.HT HONORABLE, 

JOHN, LORD SHEFFIELD. 

My Lord : — The favourable reception with which the former edition of 
this work has been distinguished in England emboldens the Author to hope 
for the continuance of that protection which you so generously bestowed on 
the first impression. 

The whole of the descriptive parts were written amidst those rude and 
magnificent scenes which are so frequently met with in the yet uncultivated 
regions of the New World. Etc., etc., etc. 

I have the honour to be, etc., etc., 

THE AUTHOR. 

The book contains 220 pages. It treats of the importance of the 
North-.-Xmerican colonies still remaining to Great Britain, and of the mis- 
take in giving up to the United States all the territory they claimed ; of 
the value of the cod-fishery and other fisheries ; of the situation, appear- 
ance, and extent of Nova Scotia ; of its climate, seasons, and natural 
productions ; of the Indians, their customs, language, and religion ; of 
the wild beasts, moose, and fur-bearing animals ; of trade and navigation, 
and of the form of government. 

Among numerous herbs and plants described, the author says, 
" None are more plentiful than sarsaparilla, and a plant whose root 
resembles rhubarb in color, taste, and effects ; likewise, the Indian or 
Mountain Tea, and Maiden-hair, an herb much in repute for the same 
purpose;" that the "sassafras grows plentifully," and that among the 
trees, " none is more useful to the inhabitants than a species of maple, 
distinguished by the name of the sugar-tree as affording a considerable 
quantity of that valuable ingredient ; " and he describes the process of 
manufacture. 

The author mentions the iron of Nova Scotia as "equally good 
with that found in any part of America ; " and limestone of excel- 
lent quality " which is of great advantage for improving the soil, as it is 
found by experience to be one of the most approved things in the world 
for that purpose." 

His remarks upon the Indians have been quoted in a previous 
chapter. He considered the fisheries "as a species of manufactu! 
which, independent of the seamen it raises for our marine, employs a 



ST. AA'DKEIVS. 131 

great number of persons in ship-building, and in curing the fish on 
shore, thereby ad(Ung to the population, and consequently to the real 
riches of the state." 

He advocated a bounty on the exports of lumber and fish to the 
West Indies, and a strict adherence to the existing navigation-laws, con- 
fining the trade to British Possessions to British bottoms. 

The author says of the fisheries, " No fatigues or hardships can 
exceed those of the fishermen during the season ; their labors leaving 
tiiem hardly any time to rest, either by night or day. F'ortunately, 
liowever, from the healthiness of the climate ; from the wholesome- 
ness of their food, which consists chiefly of fish ; but, above all, from 
their constant exercise, — they enjoy, in general, an uninterrupted state 
of health." 

"The fishery the last season employed about 10,000 men, and was 
the means of feeding at least 30,000. The whole quantity of codfish 
caught was upwards of 1 20,000 quintals, about 40,000 of which were 
exported; these, at the lowest price, 13J. 6(i., must have amounted to 
;^26,ooo sterling, which sum may be estimated as so much real money 
gained to the colony, whether the fish were sold abroad for cash, or 
exchanged for commodities of which the inhabitants stood in need. 
The calculation here given, which is very low and designedly kept within 
bounds that no charge of exaggeration may be brought against it, is 
only intended to show what the colony is now able to do, when in a 
weak and imperfect state ; and furnishes an incontestable proof that the 
fisheries are an inexhaustible mine of wealth, and do, with the woods, 
constitute the natural riches of the country." 

The author thus describes the condition of the various settlements 

in 1787 : — 

ST. ANDREW'S 

is a handsome town, built by the Loyalists, consisting of 600 houses, and 

has a population of 3,000. No people on the continent are capable of 

being more usefully industrious in proportion to their numbers. No 

place is better adapted for ship-building. They have the cod-fishery at 

their very doors, and are scarcely ever incommoded with fogs. They 

are erecting saw-mills, and have already shipped some cargoes of 

lumber to the West Indies. 



132 ST. JOHN AND PETITCODIAC. 

BEAVER HARBOR, 

nine miles east of Passamaquoddy, settled by the Refugees, about 800 
in number, is well adapted for carrying on the fishery. 

ST. JOHN, 

distant twelve leagues, has 2,000 houses, and a population of upwards 
of 10,000. They already possess 60 sail of vessels, some of which 
are employed in carrying on trade with the West Indies, and the rest in 
the whale and cod-fisheries. 

QUACO 

has a population of 600, chiefly engaged in agriculture. 

PETITCODIAC, 

a thriving colony, has about 2,000 inhabitants. Loyalists, occupying lands 
formerly possessed and cultivated by the ancient French colonists, dis- 
tinguished by the name of Neutrals, whose industry had been crowned 
by a degree of success but seldom excelled by the inhabitants of the 
southern colonies. ■ 

This people, descended from the ancient French settlers, had increae'd 
gradually to several thousands, clearing large tracts of land, and raising 
numerous herds of cattle, living many years in the most perfect friend- 
ship with the native Indians, among whom they frequently intermarried, 
and became in a manner one people. Unfortunately tor themselves, by 
engaging in all the quarrels that were agitated from time to time between 
Great Britain and France, they became an object of rc'sentment to the 
former, who, having caused them to be assembled together under vari- 
ous pretcices, caused several thousands to be shipped off, and trans- 
ported to the other colonies, where many of them died from grief 
and vexation. This action, sufficiently cruel in itself, was rendered still 
more so from having been perpetrated in consequence of positive 
orders from a nation commonly regarded, even by its enemies, as 
magnanimous. , . • 

Let us attend to the event. The lands from which the Neutrals 
were thus violently torn became a desert, and every attempt to repeople 
them was constantly rendered abortive, until a large body of men. 



ANNAPOLIS AND YARMOUTH. 133 

inhabiting those very colonies to which the Neutrals had been banished, 
were driven in like manner from their own country for a similar attach- 
ment to Great Britain, and compelled to cultivate the lands left by the 
former ; as if it was the express intention of Providence, in this particu- 
lar instance, to mark in strong colors the injustice of a great nation, as 
well as to teach mankind a lesson of moderation and humanity. 

ANNAPOLIS 

received an accession of about 2,500 Loyalists, increasing the town to 

six times its former dimensions, with a population unknown at any 

former period. Annapolis produces great quantities of apples, some 

pears, and a few plums, which are all good of their kind, especially the 

former. 

DIGBY, 

a handsome town, has been lately built by the Loyalists. 

BEAR RIVER 

was settled by some Germans, formerly employed as auxiliary troops 
during the war in America. 

ST. MARY'S BAY 

is beginning to assume the form of a settlement, although no colony 
had attempted to settle here until after the evacuation of New York. 

YARMOUTH. 

A considerable number of persons were settled before the late war 
at this end of the Province, on a small river where there is a town called 
Yarmouth. They have employed themselves successfully in farming, 
and had even made some progress in the cod-fishery, when the capture 
of several of their vessels by the Americans put a stop to their exertions 
in that line. They have since renewed them, and, with the addition of 
some Loyalists, are carrying on a trade with Halifax in fish, lumber, 
and cattle, particularly sheep. The lands in the neighborhood, which 
appeared at first but indifferent, have been found, within these fe\v 
years, to improve very rapidly : so that, in proportion to the number of 
settlers, few places in the Province bid fairer for prosperity. 



134 BARRINGTON AND SHELBURXE. 

BARRINGTON 

has about four thousand inhabitants, mostly settled there before the war, 
and chiefly engaged in the fisheries and coasting-trade, for which their 
situation seemo well adapted. 

SHELBURNE, 

built upon the harbor of Port Roseway, is inhabited by a numerous 
colony, perhaps the most so that any nation can boast of in modern 
times. The harbor is not exceeded by any one in America for good- 
ness, having everywhere six or seven fathoms of water from the sea to 
the town, the distance not being more than eight miles, with scarcely 
any current either in or out ; while a large island lying at the entrance, 
shuts it so entirely from danger, that no wind whatever can do the least 
prejudice to ships lying at anchor. 

The town is, perhaps, one of the largest in the New World, con- 
taining about 3,000 houses, regularly built, having 15 streets in right 
lines from north to south, and 30 from east to west, crossing the 
former at right angles. The inhabitants amount to 13,000, white. 
Before the war they did not exceed 50. 

Opposite to Shelburne is Birchtown, peopled by the negroes from 
New York, about 1,400 in number, whose labor has been found extremely 
useful to the white inhabitants, chiefly in reducing very considerably 
the price of work and various materials, the produce of the country. 
The lands are generally improved, and have, in several places, produced 
fine crops of wheat, barley, and oats, as well as of garden herbs and 
dwarf fruits. The good effects of their being possessed of a large 
capital shows itself very plainly in the great number of shipping belong- 
ing to the merchants, nearly equalling that of Halifax itself, being at 
least 300 sail of all sorts. Several of them are employed in the whale- 
fishery ; a still greater number in West-India voyages, and the rest in 
the cod-fisheries that are upon the coasts of the Province. 

The pilots, who were employed by the British fleets in North 
America during the war, are settled upon the harbor, half way between 
the sea and the town. Government, wisely considering how obnoxious 
these men had rendered themselves to the rebels, have allotted them 






SHELBURNE. 135 

half pay during the rest of their lives, — a measure equally just and 
necessary, most of them formerly being possessed of property in the 
United States. No people among the Loyalists have exerted themselves 
more successfully than they in rendering their present situation 
comfortable. 

All the country, for several miles about, is exceedingly populous, 
particularly upon Jordan River, five miles east of Port Rosevvay, noted 
for an extraordinary salmon-fishery, and where large tracts of land are 
cleared, producing very good wheat and barley. The river itself is 
only fit for vessels of twelve feet draught of water ; but it has three saw- 
mills erected upon it by the new colonists, that are kept going night 
and day for the merchants of Port Roseway, who are constantly ship- 
ping off lumber to the West Indies, both from these mills and two 
others lately erected above Shelburne. From this place a creek com- 
municates with a fresh-water lake several miles distant, the borders of 
which are capable of feeding numerous herds of cattle, and are clothed 
with fine woods, consisting of birch, maple, spruce, pine, and red 
oak. A great many Loyalists, convinced of the goodness of the 
lands, are employed clearing the woods, and converting them into 
lumber. 

Two churches are built at Port Roseway, — one for the people of 
the Presbyterian persuasion, and the other for those of the Church 
of England. 

All kinds of fresh provisions are tolerably cheap ; butcher's meat 
being upon an average fourpence per pound, and flour and bread in 
proportion. 

Many large wharves and convenient storehouses are erected for 
landing and securing goods ; their trade, particularly to the West 
Indies, having increased very rapidly within the last eighteen months. 
Below the town, and upon the same side of the harbor, the lands, quite 
down to the sea, have been divided into 50-acre lots. A vast number 
of vessels have been built for the proprietors, chiefly for the fishing 
business, but some of them as large as 250 tons burthen. Seventy 
vessels were upon the stocks in October last ; and it is computed that 
near 400 sail will have been finished by this time, since the evacuation 
of New York, at this one settlement alone. 



136 PORT AfOL/TOA'. 

PORT MOUTON, 

or Gambler Harbor, is seven leagues east of Jordan River, and nine 
distant from Slielburne. It affords but very indifferent slielter to some 
fishing-vessels belonging to other places, having only two or three of its 
own, and very few inhabitants. The soil, for several miles around, is 
full of rocks and stones, and the most barren of any in the Province, 
producing a scanty vegetation, and appearing incapable of ever being 
cultivated. 

One of the regiments, the British Legion, commanded by Lieut.- 
Col. Tarleton, which had served with distinguished reputation during the 
war in America, began a settlement here, and built a town, called Guys- 
borough, in the autumn of the year 1783, which, unfortunately for 
them, being somewhat late, and the ground consecjuently covered with 
snow, prevented their observing the quality of the soil until the following 
spring. Their town, at this time, consisted of upwards of 300 buildings, 
and the number of people was something more than 800. They, seeing 
the sterile appearance of their lands, and all their hopes frustrated, were 
meditating upon the best means of getting away to other places, when 
an accidental fire, which entirely consumed their town, with their live- 
stock, furniture, and wearing apparel, filled up the measure of their 
calamities, and rendered them perfectly miserable. 

The fire spread so rapidly, and burned with such fury, as rendered 
all attempts to divert or stop its progress quite ineffectual : it destroyed 
in a few hours almost every house, and drove the inhabitants before it 
into the water. Scarcely any, even of the domestic animals, escaped. 
In short, a more complete destruction from that merciless element never 
befell any set of men ; and if a king's ship had not been despatched 
immediately from Halifax with provisions for their relief, a famine must 
have ensued. On her arrival, she found them without houses, without 
money, and without even bread. 

Since that time Port Mouton has had very few inhabitants, and never 
can become a settlement of any extent. Those persons who suffered by 
the conflagration have mostly removed to Chedabucto Bay in the east- 
ernmost extremity of the Province, — a situation much better suited to 
their deserts, and promising some consolation in the midst of their 
sufferings. 



LIVERPOOL .iND LUNEXBURG. 137 

LIVERPOOL 

is a small but safe and convenient harbor, and has been several years 
settled. The vessels that belonged to it are mostly emplo^ 'd in fishing 
and carrying on a trade to Halifax, Shelburne, and some oi. ^r places, in 
cattle and provisions. The inhabitants, whose numbers were increased 
by Loyalists from Port Mouton and other places, are little short of 1,200, 
and they are in every respect an industrious and thriving colony. 

LUNENBURG 

is a fine town and a respectable colony, founded by some Germans in 
1753. It supplies Halifax with cord-wood, having a great number of 
small vessels employed in that and the cod-fishery. It also sends some 
lumber to the West Indies, and no place in Nova Scotia is in so promis- 
ing a way except Halifax and Shelburne. Industry and perseverance 
have rendered it highly flourishing ; while the primitive simplicity of 
their manners, which remain uncorrupted to the present time, has very 
much endeared the people to all their neighbors. 

The lands about Lunenburg are generally improved ; and their popu- 
lation, which was at first about 3,000, may be estimated at about twice 
that number at present. 

HALIFAX, 

the capital, and the seat of the Legislature, has a safe and spacious harbor, 
which is perfectly sheltered from all winds, and where a thousand sail of 
ships may ride without danger. Many considerable merchants reside at 
this place, and are possessed of shipping to the amount of several thou- 
sand tons, employed in a flourishing trade, both with Europe and the 
West Indies. 

It was founded by the English in 1 749, and, notwithstanding the 
poverty of the soil, has at length attained a degree of splendor that bid*? 
fair to rival the first cities in the revolted colonies, for which it has been 
equally indebted to the late war, to the great increase of population from 
the exiled Loyalists, and the fostering care of Great Britain ; insomuch 
that the number of inhabitants has been more than doubled in the last 
ten years. _.._ 



138 HALIFAX. 

[The author does not give the population of Halifax in 1787, In 
1794 the population of the county was stated at 8,961. In 1791, that 
of Halifax Town was 4,897; in 1818, it was 11,156, including 745 
blacks.] 

EAST OF HALIFAX 

to Cape Canso, a distance of fifty leagues, the coast contains many 
harbors, most of which are very good, and at a small distance from 
each other : hardly any one, amidst so great a number, is to be found 
wholly uninhabited. Few of the settlements are formed into towns, or 
possess much shipping. The population is generally from fifty to a 
hundred families, most of whom are successfully employed in the 
cultivation of their lands. 

THE ISLAND OF ST. JOHN 

(Prince Edward) has two or three good harbors and one large tow.i, 
besides some smaller ones. The population is about five thousard, 
mostly settled there since the commencement of the war. The lands 
are accounted fertile for grain, and as affording very good pasture for 
horses and horned cattle. 

All the common and useful kinds of garden plants grow to as great 
perfection as in Europe. Among these their potatoes have the prefer- 
ence, as being the most serviceable in a country abounding in fish ; and, 
indeed, they are not excelled in goodness by any in the world. 

Such was the condition, in 1787, of the infant colonies upon the 
western and southern shores of Nova Scotia as presented by this writer 
to the people of Great Britain. If he drew a flattering picture, his 
enthusiasm did not equal that of another writer of the same period, 
who said, " Nova Scotia may be compared to the rude diamond in 
the quarry. It only wants the polish of well-directed industry to give it 
beauty, and increase its value." 



OFFICIAL CENSUS. 



139 



CENSUS OF 1817-1827. 



THE FOLLOWING TABLE WILL EXHIBIT THE GROWTH IN 
POPULATION OF THE COUNTIES OF NOVA SCOTIA FOR 
THE THIRTY AND FORTY YEARS AFTER 17S7. 











1827. 


1827. 




1817. 


Popula- 
tion. 


Bushels 
Potatoes. 


Horned 
Cattle. 


Sheep. 


Halifax County . 
Pictou County . . 
Colchester County 
Cumberland County 
Hants County . . 
Kings County . . 
Lunenburg County 
Queens County . . 
Cape Breton Island 
Annapolis and Digby 
Shelburne and Yarmc 
Township of Shelbur 
To* nship of Barring 
Township of Argyle 
Township of Yarmoi 


lUtl 

ne 
ton 

th 


\i . 


16,487 

! 

8,737 
4,972 

3,043 
6,685 

7,445 
6,628 

3.098 
6,991 

9,847 
8,440 

i - 

1 

1 


24,876 

13.949 
7.703 
5,416 
8,627 

10,208 

9,405 

4,225 

12,760 

14,661 

12,018 


2,697 
2,186 
2,790 
4,345 


42,701 
47,028 

103,837 
114,692 


2,428 

1,323 
2,546 
5,122 


4,993 

4,002 
5,940 
7,817 


Total . . . 






82,373 


123,848 


I2,0lS 


- 


- 


- 



Haliburton states the Acadians in Clare Township as follows : — 

In iSoo, 175 families, 1,050 persons. 
In 1827, 340 families, 2,038 persons. 



140 



OFFICIAL CENSUS. 



NOVA SCOTIA CENSUS, 1851-1881. 



Counties. 


1851. 


1861. 


1871. 


1881. 


Increase 

1851 

to 

1861. 


Increase 

1861 

to 

1871. 


Increase 

1871 

to 

i83i. 


Halifax . . 


39,112 


49,021 


56.963 


67.917 


25-33% 


16.20% 


19-23% 


Colchester . 


15-469 


20,045 


23.33' 


26,720 


29-58% 


16.39% 


14-52% 


Cumberland. 


14.339 


•9.533 


23.5'S 


27,368 


36.22% 


20.40% 


12.11% 


Pictou . . . 


25.593 


28,785 


32,114 


35.535 


12.47% 


U.56% 


10.65% 


Antigonish . 


13.467 


14,871 


16,512 


18,060 


10.42% 


11.03% 


9-38% 


Guysborough 


10,838 


12,713 


16,555 


17,808 


17-30% 


30.22% 


7.56% 


Inverness 


16.917 


19,967 


23.415 


25,651 


18.02% 


17-26% 


9-54% 


Richmond . 


10,381 


12,607 


14,268 


15,121 


21.44% 


13-17% 


5-97% 


Victoria ) 


27.580 


9.643 


11,346 


12,470 


- 


17-66% 


9-02% 


Cape Breton) 


- 


20,866 


26,454 


31.258 


- 


26.77% 


16.64% 


Hants . . . 


14.330 


17.460 


21,301 


23.359 


21.14% 


21.90% 


9.66% 


Kings . . . 


14.138 


18,731 


21,510 


23.469 


32.48% 


14.83% 


9.06% 


Annapolis . 


14,286 


i6,9S3 


18,121 


20,598 


17-26% 


6.88% 


13-66% 


Digby . . . 


12,252 


14,751 


17.037 


19,881 


20.39% 


15-49% 


16.69% 


Yarmouth . 


13.142 


15.446 


18,550 


21,284 


17-53% 


20.09% 


14-73% 


Shelburne . 


10,622 


10,668 


12,417 


14,913 


•43% 


16.39% 


20.10% 


Queens . . 


7.256 


9.365 


10,554 


10,577 


29.06% 


12.77% 


-12% 


Lunenburg . 
Total . . 


16,395 


19,632 


23.834 


28,583 


1974% 


21.40% 


14.92% 


276,117 


330,857 


387,800 


440,;.72 


19-82% 


17.21% 


13-61% 



OFFICIAL CENSUS. 



141 



YARMOUTH COUNTY BY TOWNSHIPS AND 
SUBDIVISIONS. 

The names are as stated in the census : the numbers denote the old electoral 
districts as defined upon the maps of the county. 









Yarmoith. 


Argi 


LE. 


No. 


! 1871- ! 


i88t. 




1 


















1 


1871. 


x88i. 


1871. 


1881. 


1 Ohio . . . 


i ^ i 
2,526 


2,843 


2,526 


■ 

2.S43 


.. 


_ 


2 Yarmouth . . 


5,335 


6,280 


5.335 


6.2S0 


- 


- 


3 t'hebogue . . 


. ' 1,674 


1.666 


1.674 


1,066 




- 


4 Carleton . . 


77S 


724 


77S 


724 




- 


5 Plymouth . . 


1,321 


•-573 


- 




1,321 


1.573 


6 Tusket . . . 


2,934 


3.4S6 


- 


- 


2,934 


3.4S6 


7 Argyle . . . 


1.333 


1,520 


- 


- 


1.333 


1,520 


8 Pftnico . . 


1,903 


2,405 


- 


- 


1.903 


2,405 


9 Kemptville . 


3S5 


443 


- 


- 


385 


443 


10 


Tusket River 

Total . . 


361 


344 


361 


344 




- 


. 18,550 


21,284 


10,674 


11,857 


7,876 


9.427 



The last table will be better understood by those who cannot consult the county 
map, with the explanation that Ohio includes Hebron, Sandford, and the Beaver 
River and Lake George districts ; Yarmouth takes in Brooklyn, Chegoggin, Dart- 
mouth, etc., and the district as far south as Broad Brook on the Cove road ; 
Carleton includes Deerfield, and the southern half of the Kemptville district west of 
the Tusket River; Tusket includes all the French settlements on thi eastern side 
of the Tusket River, exce[)t Surette's and Morris' Islands, which are in the Argyle 
district ; and No. 10, Tusket River, may be defined generally as the Tusket Lakes 
district, north of Tusket bridge, on the western side of the main branch of the 
Tusket River, which includes Canaan. 

A remarkable feature in the table is, that, notwithstanding many removals from 
Argyle to Yarmouth during the period under consideration, the net increase of Yar- 
mouth is only II per cent, while that of Argyle Township is very near 20 per cent. 

But the most noteworthy feature, almost everv where presented in both tables, 
is the depopulation of Nova Scotia occasioned by the British North-America Act 
of Confederation. 



143 



OFFICIAL CENSUS. 



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OFFICIAL CENSUS. 



143 



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CHAPTER X. 

Acadians of Argyle. — Father Manning's Sketch. — Haliburton's Estimate of Acadians. — 
Their Industry and Enterprise. — Er.^".;'i and French Captains of Argyle. — Their 
:?ervices sought .Abroad. — Tusket Ship-builders. — -Argyle Ship-owners and Ship-masters. 

— Capts. Murphy, Blauvelt, Hatfield, and Hilaire Pothier. — Pierre Doucette of 1797. 

— Pierre and Denis Surette. — Solon Doucette. — Leon Pothier. — Jean Bourque. — 
.Vnselme O. Pothier. — Ambroise .-\mirault. — Simon D'Entremont. — Eel-Brook Patri- 
archs of Half a Century Ago. — The Doucettes of "The Forks." — .Acadians' Claim to 
One of the Seats in Parliament. — Author's Estimate of the .Acadians of Argyle. 

IN Campbell's History of the County of Yarmouth, prominence is given 
to a few of the later citizens, who, in their several sj. heres of duty, 
and at different periods, fairly gained the distinction assigned to them. 
For the most part, however, these have been men in the ti wn of Yar- 
mouth, or its immediate vicinity, who either occupied official station, 
or belonged to one of the learned professions ; while, with rare excep- 
tions, those who made the:'- _ ositions possible, and wiio had the largest 
share in creating for Yarmouth the pre-eminence -.lie long enjoyed, have 
no place in Campbell's pages: 

We therefore look in vain for names — some, indeed, found upon 
promiscuous lists, but many more not at all or scarcely mentioned in 
Campbell's History — which deserve mention equally with the most 
prominent of those we find there, — the names of the men who have left 
permanent monuments of their enterprise and industry all over the face 
of Yarmouth County ; who reduced the forests to well-cultivated farms, 
fronting upon roads of an excellence acknowledged to be unequalled 
in any other county of Nova Scotia ; who built and sailed the schooners 
of the last century, and the ships of recent years ; who built up the 
fishery interests, and established the foreign trade ; and whose spirited 
commercial adventures have sent Yarmouth ships, commanded by Yar- 
mouth captains, to every port of considerable magnitude to which ships 
of any nation resort. 



ACADIA NS OF ARGYLE. I45 

Beginning at 1761, let us follow down the century, and recall the 
achievements of the men who themselves, or through their descendants, 
have enabled Yarmouth to have a history. And as, even before 1761, 
the ancestors of many of the French people, who are now so prominent 
in Argyle Township, were the first white men to occupy our shores with 
a view to permanent settlement, it is but fitting that the lionest-hearted 
Acadians of Argyle she ild have our first attention. 

It has not been easy to gather much accurate knowledge of the 
Acadian settlements in Yarmouth County during the huntlred years 
preceding the dei^lorable events of 1755. Not unlikely there exist 
in France, and possibly at Quebec, ancient chronicles relating to them ; 
and one purpose to be served by these observations, and by the book 
which called them forth, is to awaken inquiry leading to the acquisition of 
facts which may be useful to the future historian of Yarmouth County. 

The Acadians of Argyle can be here introduced to the reader in no 
other way so well as by making copious extracts from the admirable 
letter of Father Manning of Eel Brook, which recently appeared in the 
Halifax and Yarmouth papers ; and the letter of Father Manning is so 
perfect in delineation, and so complete in detail, that nothing need be 
added to portray the characteristics of this valuable element in the 
progress of Yarmouth County since 1761. 

Father Manning says, — 

" When Governor Richey visited one of the academies of higher 
ethication for fair Acadians, the first demoiselle to whom he spoke told 
him her name was Evangeline. So there are Evangelines after all — 
the name is not mythical. That same demoiselle, by the way, boasts 
now that she has shook hands with ' Le Roi.' It is the correct thing 
to speak of these people as interesting. No doubt they are, but 
something more as well. They occupy a very important position in 
Yarmouth County to-day, and they are destined to become a much 
more potent social and political factor in the near future. 

" Their history, as far as this county is concerned, may be said to 
commence with 1767. Acadian settlements there were before that date, 
but the step-fatherly care of the British Government induced the settlers 
to leave the Province and go ' 'cross to Boston.' That sort of emigration 
is not encouraged now. The cruel system of deportation has found 



146 ACADTANS OF ARGYLE. 

a few defenders ; but the majority of litterateurs, who have discussed the 
affair, agree with one of the commanders of the ' Crowbar Brigade,' 
that it was a business they were ashamed to have hand or part in. 
Latterly, descendants of successful rebels over the border, and even 
Bluenose ex-governors and ex-premiers, have undertaken to excuse the 
miserable act, and even the brutal manner in which it was carried out. 
There stands, however, the fact, that the Neutrals were soothed and 
deceived until their rulers felt strong enough to act, and then the 
' chucking-out ' process began. Yarmouth County contains descend- 
ants of some who declined the invitation to ' get out ; ' and of others 
who took possession of the schooners that did the passenger trafific of 
those days : and the same spirit that animated these never-willing-to-be- 
slaves people, lives to-day in the hearts of their children. 

"The Acadian is not easily depressed. He is naturally hopeful. 
His wants are few and easily attainable. He has seen some of his 
former persecutors incontinenUy ' fired out ' of their own country a few 
years later ; and though he may now and then wave a left-handed blessing 
over the chers Anglais, he is content to forgive the past, and say, ' Not 
guilty, but don't do it again ! ' And it won't be done again. For he has 
over eight thousand coitfrcres here to-day. Whatever craze may possess 
some hot-headed Upper Province people to rant and rave about the 
preponderance of the French element in this Canada-of-Ours, no such 
feeling will take root here. Yarmouth prizes the Acadian, knows him 
to be a quiet, law-abiding citizen, sees that he is sober and industrious, 
and values him accordingly. 

" There are, in this county, six great centres of French population, 
each centre being marked by a cross-crowned church. These are 
Eel Brook, the Wedge, West Pubnico, Surette's Island, Quinan, and 
East Pubnico, taking them in the order of numbers. These settle- 
ments have all been formed by the returned exiles, and are a little over 
a hundred years old. It has been well said that the sea has ever been 
their first earthly friend, and although, like all earthly friends, at times 
apt to turn traitor, the good feeling is still strong enough to induce the 
establishing of houses and hamlets within easy distance of it. 

"The modern Gabriel is, then, a fisherman, but not quite of tlie 
Izaak Walton stamp ; for gentle craft would hardly ride out a gale ' on 



A CADI A NS OF ARC VLB. 147 

the Banks.' From Labrador to Georges, 'long shore, the summer 
months see numbers of Evangehne's relatives manning United States 
and Nova Scotia vessels, and even forming a large contingent of what 
the Gloucester people call the ' material for an American Navy ! ' Of 
late years, under the guidance of their spiritual and other leaders, more 
attention is being paid to agriculture, with what promises to turn out 
good results. 

. . . "The Wedge is a typical village of over a thousand inhabit- 
ants. It is situated at the mouth of the Tusket River, and, with its ever- 
open harbor, is by nature a grand stand for the fishing-business. . . . 
Few villages of its size, or even larger, can show so man)' new buildings 
going up in any one year. . . . The schools there are graded, and are 
better attended than any other portion of the educational district. . . . 
The only obstacle to its development is its size, for it is too small in 
area even now. Slowly but surely, the descendants of the men who 
StOod by Subercase in his gallant defence of Acadia of old, are turning 
the tables on the children of the conqueror by taking the land, only 
this time for a consideration. Plymouth and Little River are being 
populated by people who are not of Puritan descent ; and it looks as if 
ere long they, too, will become French centres. Emigration never 
attained very extensive proportions among them — not, that is to say, 
since 1755. They got enough of it then. 

" Eel Brook is the largest parish in the county, and the longest. Its 
population is over three thousand, settled on the immense tract of land 
l:)etween the Tusket and the Argyle Rivers, and extending almost to the 
foot of the Blue Mountains. 

..." North of the great church, agriculture and horticulture are 
well attended to ; and Quinan, to the extreme north, is the headquar- 
ters of the blueberry trade, a comparatively new, but very lucrative, 
occupation, that brings in several thousand dollars yearly. The place 
has fewer inhabitants to the square mile than the Wedge ; but to a 
people who increase as the Acadians do, this is a decided advantage. 
Still, they are invading the English centres. Tusket Village has a large 
quota ; and the relations between the races there are, as they have 
always been, most cordial. . . . Perhaps the most costly academy in 
the Western Counties, and a magnificent edifice from an architect's 
point of view, is the academy of this place. 



148 ACADIANS OF ARGYLE. 

" Surette's Island and Quinan, nine and ten miles respectively from 
Eel Brook proper, possess new churches that are gorgeously finished. 
The Acadian may not be particular as to his private aesthetic interior ; 
but he does want his church to look nice inside, and it generally does. 
Eel Brook was one of the two residing-places of the Abb^ Sigogne. 
He built the first church in the county here ; and the present edifice 
(the third since his day) may be said to resemble last year's bonnets, 
very roomy and comfortable, rather than stylish. . . . 

"The future of the place is assured ; for this time the Acadian has 
come to stay, and he takes some pride in showing it. Judging from the 
size of some of the boulders used in the cellar-walls of the new build- 
ings, particularly those brought from the granite quarries of Comeau's 
Hill, he seems to believe in laying a good, solid foundation. 

" Pubnico is inhabited by a people whose ancestors were somewhat 
better treated in 1755 than the rest of their brethren. Without com- 
mitting themselves to the assertion that their religion was the chief rea- 
son for their transportation, the Acadians have an idea, that, had they 
shown the slightest willingness to conform, their lot would have been an 
easier one. However correct this notion may be, the early Pubniconian 
was informed that he would be allowed to practise his rel'gious duties 
if he consented to exchange his cleared lands for other and poorer sites ; 
and those other and poorer sites of a hundred years ago are to-day the 
tidy, well-kept, and cultivated settlements of East and West Pubnico. . . . 

" Perhaps with more reason than any other village, Pubnico prides 
itself on its neat dwellings and carefully kept surroundings. It has the 
advantage of resident artisans in the painting and furnishing line : it in- 
sures its own vessels, does its own outfitting, and, with the disappear- 
ance of all inclination to division, its future will become very bright. 

" In nothing, perhaps, does the Acadian manifest his interest in the 
doings of the day more than by his prompt response to the beats of the 
public pulse. The Wedge has its gold-mine in its suburbs. Eel Brook 
takes a border share of pride in the success of the neighboring Kempt- 
ville finds. But Pubnico has taken the gold-fever right to heart, has 
covered the whole peninsula with prospecting licenses, and has suc- 
ceeded in striking valuable leads almost in its very cei.ars. Whether the 
home company will undertake to run the mine itself, or will sell out to 



ACADIANS OF ARGYLE. 149 

outsiders with more capital and experience, is yet undecided. Just now, 
with trade dull and fish low, the mine story comes in as a welcome relief, 
and is, after the weather, the main topic of conversation. It is not 
probable that gold-mining will ever take an exclusive hold of the inhab- 
itants ; but they are quite willing to share in any profits that might accrue 
from incidental workings ' between fishin's,' and in the benefit that may 
result from the coming in of capital from abroad. 

"As regards church accommodation, Pubnico is waiting, — waiting 
to see what will be the latest, newest, finest building elsewhere. Then 
they are going to work to beat that. They are bound to break the 
record 

" Yarmouth Town has a large and ever-increasing French population, 
with more signs of ' coming to stay ' than heretofore. Some of them are 
working their way up to good positions ; for Yarmouth is by no means 
bigoted, and the race hatred said to exist somewhere on earth has no 
place here. The clergy, as a rule, are about as fond of seeing their 
people leave their homes for foreign parts, as the Irish hierarchy are of 
sending their flocks across the ' herring-pond.' 

" Religion has ever and always held a foremost place in the hearts 
and actions of these people. As soon as a group of families become 
twenty in number, up goes a chi"-ch; and this is replaced by a more 
commodious one when increasing means and numbers warrant its erec- 
tion. 

" Church picnics are a specialty. In no other gathering in the 
Dominion is there shown such a capital chance to have fun, and to give 
others some too. . . . For one anxious to study the Acadian character, 
a picnic presents exceptional opportunities. Quite an amount is raised 
at these gatherings ; for his reverence goes into business only once a 
year, and he wants a hundred per cent. And he generally gets it. 

" Politics hold nearly as large a place in the sentiment of these 
people as in those of the average Bluenose. The balance of power in 
this county is in their hands. They divide on party questions, but there 
is a marked distinction between the Acadian Lib'^ial and the Quebec 
Rouge. Of late years, they have been receiving a decent share of public 
moneys in the line of wharves and piers, a needed improvement for folks 
as timid as they are about expressing their w »nts. They view politics as 



ISO ACAD/AXS OF ARGYLE. 

a trade, and are inclined to treat those wlio want to deal with them 
from a business stand-point. And they have a singular predilection for 
a candidate who keeps on canvassing all the time. 

" Educated and progressive, the Yarmouth Acadian is more than a 
match for his Saxon compeer intelleciu."!!/, ,v; d his record as a law- 
abiding citizen stands higher. It is not likely he will lose the national 
characteristics for some generations. The great French revival wave had 
somewhat spent its force before it struck the still waters of Acadia, but 
its influence was felt. The kirtles and caps are seldom seen now. The 
latest styles are caught up quickly, and kept up faithfully ; but the home 
habits are unchanged, and seem unchangeable. Still, the Acadian is 
quick to perceive the advantage of having English enou'rh to get a good 
start in the race for life, and every year he is securing , better place for 
the finish. He is not going to send in his jackets, and quit the course. 
He is already creditably represented in the councils, and is believed to 
be nursing aspirations for higher political honors ; he has secured a 
good share in general business ; and when, in a few years, he shall find 
himself represented in the clerical, legal, and medical professions, as he 
now is in the political, mercantile, and pedagogical ones, he will be more 
than ever qualified to take and keep his place as an important factor in 
the community. He loves fun, but he is not afraid of hard work ; he is 
content to live frugally, even when well off; he has an inventive genius 
that he can turn to practical advantage ; and these qualities, combined 
with a childlike love for his Mother Church, and a great fondness for his 
native country, are just what are needed to assure a prosperous future 
for this Yarmouth Acadian." 

Before his elevation to the bench, Judge Haliburton represented in 
the Provincial Legislature the old County of Annapolis, which included 
the Townships of Digby and Clare. The judge was very popular with 
his French constituents ; between him and them a mutual confidence 
e.viited ; and, in his history of Nova Scotia, he pays them this tribute : 
" Unambitious and frugal, they live within their means ; devoted to their 
old form of worship, they are not divided by religious discords ; and 
being cheerful in their disposition, and moral in their habits, they enjoy 
perhaps as much happiness as is consistent with the frailties of human 
nature." -^ 



A CADI AX INDUSTR Y. I 5 I 

It will be observed how closely Judge Haliburton's views coincide 
with those of Father Manning, as indeed they will with those of all 
persons who have enjoyed the privilege of a personal acquaintance 
with the Acadians of Yarmouth and Digby Counties. 

A correspondent of " The Yarmouth Herald," writing upon the 
deep-sea fisheries, in November, 1875, says, " In the Township of Argyle, 
except the traders and office-holders, every man almost is a shipwright or 
a fisherman. Every able-bodied Frenchman there can handle a broad- 
axe or a fishing-line with equal skill. They can build or repair their fish- 
ing-craft in the winter, and man them in the summer season." Writing 
upon the same subject to the "Herald" in May, 1882, he says, "Yar- 
mouth County in her fishery-products already holds a foremost place ; 
and that portion of it known as Pubnico is not surpassed by any settle- 
ment in Nova Scotia in the thrift and independence of its people, whose 
neat and cheerful cottages, trim enclosures, and well-cultivated farms, 
greet the visitor upon either side of their beautiful harbor ; and, be it 
remembered, this happy condition has been attained through a perse- 
vering prosecution of the fisheries, undaunted by an occasional failure 
and disappointment." 

The steady growth of Yarmouth in commercial importance, and the 
increase of her foreign trade, during the last half-century, have been 
largely due to the industry and enterprise of the people living upon the 
banks of the Tusket and Argyle Rivers, at Eel Brook and at Pubnico. 
They themselves built the fishing-vessels from the timber their own lands 
supplied. The fish these vessels brought to market enabled the port of 
Yarmouth to maintain and extend her commerce with the West Indies, 
and, in a lesser degree, with the United States. 

It is conceded that Argyle fishermen have no superiors in Ameri- 
can waters, which fact now moves the owners of the fishing-vessels of 
Massachusetts and Maine to oppose a renewal of the fishery clauses of 
the Washington Treaty, in order that they may be able, upon their otvn 
terms, to secure first-class crews from among the fishermen of Nova 
Scotia. 

A bare mention of the names of some Argyle skippers will serve to 
recall the records they have made, both at home and abroad. Tusket 
Wedge has been well represented by the many captains bearing the 



152 ACADIAN ENTERPRISE. 

names of Boudreau, Cothereau, De Villiers, Doucette, Le Blanc, Pothier, 
and Richard ; Plymouth by Capt. Freeman Johnson ; Tusket, Eel 
Brook, and Surette's Island by the Capts. Babin, Boucher, Bourque, 
Le Blanc, Meuse, Pothier, and Surette ; Argyle and Pubnico by Capts 
Amirault, Campbell, D'Entremont, Duon, Forbes, Frost, Ciayton, Good- 
win, Hines, Larkin, Lennox, MacComiskey, MacDonnell, Montague, 
Morrisey, Murphy, Nickerson, Rankin, Roberts, Ryder, Spinney* 
Watson, and Whitehouse. 

Not only at home have these Argyle captains established a first-class 
reputation, and largely contributed to the general prosperity and wealth 
of the county : there has been an eager demand for their services as 
captains of some of the finest schooners of Gloucester and other ports 
of Massachusetts engaged in the cod-fishery. It is in this branch of the 
fisheries that Yarmouth vessels have heretofore been chiefly employed ; 
but, under the new Reciprocity Treaty soon to be negotiated with the 
United States, our vessels will be found visiting the Banks in the winter 
season, and meeting the mackerel off Hatteras in April when these fish 
have begun their annual journey for the North. In this way only can 
true reciprocity be realized. 

Argyle Township has shared the honors with Yarmouth in another 
direction. Some of our largest and finest ships have been commanded 
by, and borne upon their registry such names as, John, Cornelius E., and 
John E. Murphy of Pubnico ; J. R. and A. W. Blauvelt, and Norman B. 
Hatfield, of Tusket. Capt. Robert R. Blauvelt of Tusket has for many 
years been known as the energetic and trusty commander of the steamer 
Dominion ; and Capt. Hilaire Pothier, more than thirty years ago in 
charge of one of the largest fishing-craft of the county, has of la 
years commanded vessels engaged in the foreign carrying-trade. 

Faithful workmen and skilful shipwrights, the French people of Argyle 
have supplied far more than their proportional part of the labor 
employed in the ship-yards of the county. Tusket ship-yards have 
taken and held the lead in turning out large ships. 

The first ship owned in Yarmouth of i,ooo tons, or upward, was the 
bark Grace, built at Tusket by Benjamin Richards for E. W. B. Moody and 
J. W. Moody in 1854. Her tonnage was not exceeded until 1861, when 
John Richards built at Yarmouth for Thomas Killam the ship Research, 



TUSKET SHIP-YARDS. 



153 



1,459 tons, in which year also Nathaniel B. Gardner built at Tusket for 
Samuel Killam the ship Home, ijZyi tons. Tusket, bound to lead, sent 
out in 1863 the ship N. ^ E. Gardner, 1,465 tons, built by N. B. 
Gardner for Samuel Killam, which ship led the list until 1872, when the 
ship Rossignol, 1,509 tons, was launched from the ship-yard of James 
Adolphus Hatfield at Tusket for Young, Kinney, & Corning, Denis 
Surette being master-builder. 

The Research is the largest ship so far launched in Yarmouth 
Harbor; while Tusket, since 1861, besides those already mentioned, 
and others built near Argyle Bridge and at Plymouth, has set afloat 
twenty-three ships exceeding 1,000 tons, besides a good many smaller 
vessels ; viz., — 



1869. 
1870, 
1872 

1873 
1873. 
1873 
1874 
1874 
1S75 

1875 
187s 

1875 



Herbert Beech 
Royal Charter 

Edgar . . 
Adolphus 
Royal Charter 
Regina . . 
Lydia . . . 
Sarah . 
Walter D. Wallett 
John Murphy 
y. S. Wright 
Ecuador . . 



1,061 tons. 


1878. 


Mabd Taylor . . 


1,298 tons 


1.247 


(( 


1879. 


William Law . . . 


1. 599 " 


I, '3° 


«( 


1879. 


Charles .... 


1,500 " 


1.318 


(( 


1880. 


Alihie S. Hart . . 


1,450 " 


1.304 


it 


1880. 


Nettie Murphy 


I -373 " 


1,212 


(( 


1880. 


Patagonia . . . 


. 1,199 " 


1,200 


tl 


iSSi. 


Thomas A''. Hart . 


. 1,460 " 


1,176 


(( 


1882. 


Guiana .... 


. 1,265 " 


1.413 


(< 


1883. 


Fred. B. Taylor . 


1,798 " 


1. 471 


(i 


1884. 


Ellen A. Read . . 


1,750 " 


1,274 


(( 


1886. 


Louise M. Fuller . 


1,680 " 


1,059 


ii 









In 1875 the Annie M. Law, 1,178 tons, was built at Argyle ; in the 
same year, i)\e Paul Boy/on, 1,097 tons; and in 1877, the Tsernogora, 
1,252 tons, at Plymouth, at which place also was launched, in 1863, the 
Robert Sims, (i\i tons; in 1866, the W. H. Moody, 686 tons; in 1872, 
the George B. Doane, 941 tons; and in 1874, the Magnolia, 998 tons. 

In 1 791 the shipping of Yarmouth County comprised 26 vessels, 
554 tons; average, 21 tons. In 1808 it had reached a total of 41 
vessels, 1,880 tons; average, 46 tons; and among the owners previous 
to 1808, we find the names of Amirault, D'Entremont, Surette, Larkin, 
Hobbs, Ricker, Ryder, Frost, Jeffery, Goodwin, Nickerson, and Hatfield, 
all of Pubnico, Argyle, and Tusket, as owners of 24 vessels, 970 tons; 
average, 40 tons. 



154 PIERRE SURETTE. 

In 1797 we also find C p^. Pi>rre Doucette in charge of one of the 
largest vessels at that time owned in the county, — the schooner Peggy, 
50 tons, belonging to James Kelley of Kelley's Cove, and engaged in 
the coasting-trade in such treacherous waters as those between St. Andrews 
and Varmouth, when there were neither charts nor lights to guide the 
mariner, though he may have had a traditional knowledge of headlands 
and of soundings not possessed by Champlain on his first voyage along 
the coast. 

The first decked-vessels built at Eel Brook were the Defiance, by 
Joseph Bourque in 1803, and the Rainbow, by Frangois Bourque in 
1804, each of 41 tons register. 

Besides the smaller vessels built by the French for themselves and 
others, it is worthy of note that Denis Surette, of Eel Brook, was master- 
builder, besides others at Argyle, of some large ships launched at Tusket 
in recent years from the ship-yard of J. Adolphus Hatfield, for himself 
and Yarmouth owners. 

In 1845 o"" thereabouts, Pierre Surette of Eel Brook, father of Denis, 
built at Cape Cove, Clare, for Felix Deveau, sen., the topsail schooner 
Mary Jane. Two years afterward, when negotiating her sale, Felix 
extolled her sailing qualities. He said, " When she went to Boston, it 
took two pilot-boats to catch her, one ahead, and the other astern." ' In 
1847 the Mary Jane was purchased by Yarmouth parties, and rigged 
into a brigantine ; and in November, 1849, with a crew of some twenty 
Yarmouth men, nearly all shareholders in the vessel and her cargo of 
building materials, etc., she sailed for San Francisco, where in due time 
she safely arrived, having on the way touched at Juan Fernandez and 
the Galipagos Islands. 

Ebenezer Scott, Ebenezer Haley, James and Silas Baker, William 
Cook, Freeman Dennis, Charles and Robert Hilton, George W. Brown, 
and Benjamin Killam, of the California expedition of 1849, some of them 
men past middle life, were representatives of the families of the early 
settlers of Yarmouth from 1761 to 1776, and were moved by a like spirit 
of adventure. 

• Once, when beating through the Grand Passage, the Mary Jane ran upon a ledge; and but for 
the assistance of Capt. Holland E. Payson and a boat's crew from the shore, she would have been lost. 
When safely anchored at Westport, Capt. Felix, in accounting for the disaster, exclaimed, " By gosh ! 
she sailed so fast I couldn't stop her ! " 



LEON POTHIER. 155 

Benjamin B. Redding, a native of Yarmouth and of a branch of the 
family of the JJenjamin Redding of 1765, was one of the crew of 
the Mary Jane. He attained to high distinction in Cahfornia. He 
became State printer, mayor of Sacramento, United States Government 
land agent, and, in 1873, he was sent to Austria to represent the State of 
California at the Vienna Exhibition. So Pierre Surce of F-el lirook 
contributed to Yarmouth history ; for it can be logical) ablished, that, 
if Pierre Surette had not modelled and built that fast-sailing schooner, 
Mr. Redding would not have likely reached these honors in California, 
nor would some late Yarmouth firms have attained the rank they held 
upon the list of ship-owners. 

The navigation of the Tusket River from the village to the sea is 
very intricate, and in some parts dangerous. The 1,500-ton ship being 
launched at Tusket, and ready for sea, a skilful and experienced pilot is 
an absolute necessity ; and Solon Doucette of Tusket Hill has for many 
years been one of the few men whr^ could be relied upon to conduct the 
largest ship safely through the shoals and ledges of the Tusket River, 
and of the islands at its mouth. 

Other old Argyle families have furnished renowned master ship- 
builders, whose names will be found in a future chapter. Among the 
more recent of these may be here mentioned Joseph and Stephen 
Jeffery and Gabriel Servant, who designed and built at Tusket many of 
the largest and finest ships which have ever been enrolled upon the 
Yarmouth books of registry, 

Leon Pothier, of Eel Lake, stands pre-eminent for the construction 
of bridges and country roads. Tusket Bridge and its approaches bear 
testimony to his excellent judgment and mechanical ingenuity ; and 
often, ^^':en an alteration in a main post-road requiring more than 
Ox<_ :ary engineering abil!iy has been decided on, the services of L^on 
Pothier have been deemed essential. 

Ambrc!:° Amirault of ^ubnico, a master ship-builder, invented an 
approved steering-gear and a windlass-gear for vessels ; and now, in his 
seventy-eighth year, he is endeavoring to perfect an apparatus of his own 
devising for raising sunken ships. 

Jean Bourque 2d of Eel Brook, in the leisure moments of his 
younger days, made himself so familiar with the mechanism of a watch, 



156 SIMON D'ENTREMONT. 

that the people of Argyle would allow him little leisure thereafter. He 
became a thorough mathematician and a land-surveyor : he designed 
and built at Eel Brook those fast-sailing schooners, the Zouave and 
Louis A. Surette. And Anselme O. Pothier of Tusket Wedge, as an 
accountant, self-taught, as one may say, has had no superior in Yarmouth 
County. 

Simon D'l']ntreniont of Pubnico, now approaching his hundredth 
year, represented Argyle Township in the Provincial Legislature fifty 
years ago ; and, as he reminded a visitor in 1882, of all the men who 
served in Parliament with him, Sir William Young and the Hon. William 
Annand alone survive.' No one of his race has been since sent to 
Parliament from Yarmouth County. In view of their intelligence and 
native honesty, their relative numbers and social standing, simple justice 
would seem to demand that the Acadians should have their turr. at least 
twice in fifty years. 

A descendant of the Claude de La Tour who, in 1629, was created 
a baronet of Nova Scotia, now representing Yarmouth County in the 
House of Commons, would command uncommon respect and consid- 
eration, as well from his honorable descent as from his connection with 
the ill-used exiles of 1755 » while his compatriots from Quebec would 
be sure to unite in any demand he might make for his constituency in 
that distribution of the " loaves and fishes " which often enters into 
" the order of the day." 

Nor need the choice of a candidate be confined to Pubnico alone. 
There must be many a developing possibility at Tusket Wedge, the 
other side of Argyle Township ; while at Eel Brook, the centre, so to 
say, among the descendants of the patriarchs of fifty years ago, — those 
men of stalwart form, dignified presence, and gentlemanly demeanor, 
among whom may be named Pierre Pothier, Jean Baptiste Pothier, 
Joseph Bourque, Basile Bourque, Charles Babin, Paul Surette, Paul 
Frangois Surette, and Alhanase Surette,^ — men are surely to be found 
who would bring credit to Yarmouth as her representatives in Parliament. 

Contemporary with these men were James Doucette and Joseph 
Doucette of " the Forks," said to have been descended from John 

~ - ' Appendix M. . _ . _ ..__ i _ 

2 Appendix N. 



ACADIAN I'lRTUES. 1 57 

Doucette, who, from 171 7 to 1726, was lieutenant-governor of Annapolis 
Royal. 

Joseph Howe began the work of life as a printer's boy ; ( harles 
Tupper, at a shoemaker's bench ; S. L. Tilley, as an apothecary's appren- 
tice, a station for which his talents fitted him. Abraham Lincoln's 
work as a rail-splitter brought him thousands of votes for the Presidency. 
Vice-President Hendricks was born in a cabin of two rooms built of 
hewn logs, with a stove-chimney in one corner, and windows of greased 
paper to let in tiie light. The transition, therefore, from " the Forks " 
to the House of Commons, may be quite within the ability of a young 
man of the blood of the Doucettes. The path to the Presidency is just 
now closed to him, as only native-bom citizens are eligible ; but, if he 
really set his mark so high, even that constitutional obstacle may, 
perhaps, be overcome by " annexation." 

The .Acadians of Argyle are a very hospitable people : their doors 
are innocent of bars and bolts, and tlv latch-string is upon the outside. 
They dispense the courtesies of lite without affectation or concern. 
Their aged people are treated with marked respect and consideration, 
so their days are " long in the land ; " for the instances are frequent 
of lives protracted beyond eighty and ninety, and they sometimes 
reach a hundred years.' They are remarkably free from all manner 

' " On the 30th of December, 1862, died on Surette's Island, in this county, Mrs. Mary Surette. 
She was, probably, the last survivor of the Acadians expelled from this Province di'ring the administra- 
tion of Gov. Lawrence. 

"She was bom at Windsor, in Hants County, and was, according to the statement of her children, 
one hundred and eight years and ten months old at the time of her death: but she must have been at 
least two or three years older; for, during her lifetime, she always said that she remembered distinctly 
that upon the arrival, in Boston Harbor, of the vessel which conveyed thither her parents and their 
fellow-exiles, the captain of the ves.scl himself carried her ashore in his arms. After returning from 
Boston, she remained with her parents in the vicinity of Halifa.Y until her twenty-sixth year. At that 
age she removed, with her husband, to this county. The latter died at the age of ninety-four, 

" Mrs. Surette '.lad lost her sight a few years before her death. Of her other faculties she retained 
the use up to her last moments. Her recollection of the incidents and events of her childhood and 
youth was most vivid. She used frequently to say, in a jocose manner, that the Bon Dieu had for- 
gotten her. 

"The number of her surviving descendants is 77, — 7 children, 25 grandchildren, and 45 great- 
grandchildren. There are in this county several other Acadian women whose respective ages border 
on one hundred." — Contmnnicated to Yarmouth Herald. 

Surette's Island, containing 859 acres, and lying on the eastern side of the entrance to the Tusket 
River, was first settled by Paul Clermont, who remained there three years, and then removed to Wilson's 
Island, where, in October, 1812, his son Francois was killed by the pirates. Its next occupant was 
Victor Rabin, father of Char es and Hippolyte (see Appendix D), from whom, after a .short time, the 
island passed into the possession of Charles Borrom^ and Frederic Surette, sons of Joseph ist, and 
brothers of Jean Louis, from whom are descended the Surettesof Tusket Wedge 



158 ACADIAN VIRTUES. 

of offences against person or property ; and this merit arises less 
from the restraints of, or the fears of penalties imposed by, the civil 
law, than from their innate honesty, and from their regard for the lorrect 
principles whichthey are taught in early life should govern their relations 
with society. 

Tliis C'harlc. Borrom'' was the husband of Marie Surette (nit B>bin, and daughter of Michel), 
the lubject of the foregoii.g obituary. 

There are now \i\Km Surette's Island 21 families: viz., 18 Surclte, 2 Mcuse, and i I.e Blanc. 
There is also a fine new church which has taken the place of an earlier structure. 

Morris's Island, lying just to the eastward of Surette's Island, has an area of over 1,500 acres, 
and is occupied by upwards of ao Acadian families, — Moulaisons, Meuses, Le Blancs, Sureties, 
and Clermonts. 



CHAPTER XI. 

IC.irly Settlers of Varniouth Township. — French and F.nglish Family Names 1761-1886. 
— Real-estate Owners of Yarmouth County: Thirty-nine French, Six Hundred and 
Fifty English, Names. — Arsyle Township compared with Yarmouth for Purposes of 
Settlement. 

THIS chapter begins with a list, copied chiefly from Campbell's 
History, of the early settlers of Yarmouth Township previous to 
1800, with the year of arrival and their former residence. There are 
many omissions in Campbell's table, some of which are here supplied. 



1761. 
Beai, Josiah . . . Plymouth, Mass. 
Crosby, Jonathan . Saybrook, Conn. 
Eldridge, Elisham?. Barnstable, Mass. 

Sandwich, Mass. 

.Sandwich, Mass. 

Sandwich, Mass. 



Ellis, Ebenezer . 
Landers, Sealed. 
Perry, Moses . . 



Bain, Alexander 
Barnes, Seth . . 
Butler, Eleazar . 
Cain, James . . 
Churchill, Lemuel 
Coffran, William 
Cook, Ephraim. 
Crawley, John . 
Darling, Benjamin 
Durkee, Phineas 
Gowen, Patrick . 
Haley, Ebenezer 
Holmes, Peleg . 
MacKinnon, John 
Nickerson, Nathan 



1762. 
. Scotland. 
. Plymouth, Mass. 
. Saybrook, Conn. 
. Massachusetts. 

Plymouth, Mass. 

Marblehead, Mass. 



j Pitman, Joseph . . 
I Richardson, John . 
! Ring, George . . 

Robbins, Benjamin, 
i Robbins, James . . 
{ Robinson, Jabez 
I Rogers, Cornelius . 

Saunders, Joseph . 

Tinkham, Edward . 

Utlcy, Jonathan. . 



Beverly, Mass. 
Windham, Conn. 
Kingston, Mass. 
Plympton, Mass. 
I'lympton, Mass. 
Martha's Vineyard. 
Kingston, Mass. 
Salem, Mass. 
Kingston, Mass. 
Hampton, Conn. 



Marblehead, Mass. 
Marblehead, Mas.*-. 
Saybrook, Conn. 
Portsmouth, N.H. 
Marblehead, Mass. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Isle of Skye. 
Barnstable, Mass. 



Baker, Jonathan 
Brown, Benjamin 
Crosby, Edward 
Harris, David . 
Harris, Samuel . 
Haskell, Robert 
Haskell, William 
Hersey, David . 
Hibbard, Eleazar 
llorton, Levi . . 

1 Scott, David . . 

I Scott, Moses . . 



1763. 

Marblehead, Mass. 
Beverly, Mass. 
Beverly, Mass. 
Beverly, Mass. 
]?everly, Mass. 
Beverly, Mass. 
Beverly, Mass. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Saybrook, Conn. 
Saybrook, Conn. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 



i6o 



EARLY SETTLERS. 



1764. 

Corning, Ebenezer . Marblehead, Mass. 

Corning, Jonathan . Marblehead, Mass. 

Ellenwood, Benj. . Salem, Mass. 

Mattenly, James . . Salem, Mass. 

I'earl, David . . . Savbrook, Conn. 

Perry, John . . . Beverly, Mass. 

SoUows, John . . Beverly, Mass. 

Walker, John . . Newburyp't, Mass. 

1765- 

Bridgeo, George . . England. 

Bunker, Hezekiah . Nantucket, Mass. 

Crocker, Daniel . Argyle, N.S. 

Elwell, Nathaniel . Beverly, Mass. 

Hilton, Amos . . Manchester, Mass. 

Kelley, James . . Manchester, Mass. 

Lovitt, Andrew . . Beverly, Mass 

Redding, Benjamin, Beverly, Mass. 

Rose, Richard . . Beverly, Mass. 

Scott, Jonathan . . Fitchburg, Mass. 

Trask, Elias . . . Plymouth, Mass. 

1766. 

Allen, Jeremiah . Manchester, Mass. 

Allen, Samuel . . Manchester, Mass. 

Brown, James . . Ipswich, Mass. 

Brown, Nathan . . Ipswich, Mass. 

Burgess, Joshua . Plymouth, Mass. 

Clark, Ebenezer . Ipswich, Mass. 

Eldridge, Barnabas, Barnstable, Mass. 

Ellenwood, Samuel, Salem, Mass. 

Gilfillan, James . . Londonderry, Ire. 

Gullison, Samuel . New Brunswick. 

Hooper, Moses . . Massachusetts. 

Killam, John . . . Wenham, Mass. 

Porter, Nehemiah . Ipswich, Mass. 

Trefry, John . . . Marblehead, Mass. 

Trefry, Joshua P. . Marblehead, Mass. 

Weston, Nathan . Plymplon, Mass. 

1769. 

Clements, John . . Marblehead, Mass. 

Foote, Zachariah . Beverly, Mass. 

Porter, Hezediah . Ashfield, Mass. 



1770. 
Allen, John . . . Marblehead, Mass. 
Barnard, Benjamin, Salem, Mass. 
Barnard, John . . Salem, Mass. 
Patten, Richard . Marblehead, Mass. 
Williams, Richard . St. Asaph, Wales. 

1771. 
Flint, Thomas . . Salem, Mass. 
Wyman, Ephraim . Woburn, Mass. 

1772. 
Baker, .Samuel . . Ashford, Conn. 
' Bent, Joseph . . . Plymouth, Mass. 
Raymond, Daniel . Salem, Mass. 

1773- 

Bartlett, Lemuel . Plymouth, Mass. 

Phillips, John T. . England. 

Vickery, Moses . . Marblehead, Mass. 



1774- 



Blaney, Stephen 
Magray, John 
Poole, Samuel S. 



Marblehead, Mass. 
Marblehead, Mass. 
Reading, Mass. 



1775- 
Dennis, Ambrose . Marblehead, Mass. 
Doty, Samuel . , Plymouth, Mass. 
Goudey, James . . Marblehead, Mass. 
Goudey, Philip . . Marblehead, Mass. 
Hamilton, Peregrine, Virginia. 
Kinney, Nathan . . New Bedford, Mass. 
Lewis, Waitstill . Rhode Island. 
Patch, Nehemiah . Ashfield, Mass. 

1777. 
Crosby, James . . Yarmouth, Mass. 
Crosby, Lemuel . Yarmouth, Mass. 
Crosby, Theophilus, Yarmouth, Mass. 
Pinkney, John . . New York. 
Shurtliif,Henry . . Argyle, N.S. 

1781. 
Strickland, Chris. . Weymouth, Mass. 
Strickland, Jonath., Weymouth, Mass. 



EARLY SETTLERS. 



I6l 



1782. 

Cann, Hugh . . . Marblehead, Mass. 
Cann, John . . . ^[arblehead, Mass. 
Hammond, William, Halifa.x, N.S. 
Porter, George D. . Lexington, Mass. 
Porter, Josiah . . Lexington, Mass. 

1784. 

Churchill, Ephraim, Plymouth, Mass. 

Huntington, Miner, Windham, Conn. 

Moses, William . . St. Augustine, Fla. 

Robinson, Robert . Holland. 

Studley, Tristram . England. 

Sullivan, Patrick . Ireland. 

1785. 
Beveridge, David W. Scotland. 
Dunham, Jonathan . New Jersey. 
Ellis, Joseph . . 
Tedford, Jacob . 
Tedford, John . 
Tedford, Samuel 
Thurston, Robert 



Barnstable, Mass. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
Shelburne, N.S. 



1786. 

MacKinnie, John . Ireland. 

1787. 
Bond, Joseph N. . Xeston, Eng. 
Hayse, John . . . Ireland. 
Marshall, Samuel . New York. 



Dane, Thomas 
Richan, John . 



1789. 

. Ip:^wich, Mass. 
. Orkney Islands. 



1790. 

Stephens, William . Halifax, N.S. 
Tooker, Jacob . . New Jersey. 

179a. 
Byrnes, Thomas . Ireland. 
Stanwood, Enoch . Mt. Desert, Me. 



1793- 



Ely, Elijah 
Scovil, Levi 



Murphy, John 
Shaw, Zebina 
Valpey, John . 



New York. 
Horton, N S. 



1794. 



Ireland. 

Annapolis, N.S. 
Marblehead, Mass. 



1795- 



Doane, Daniel . , Barrington, N.S. 

Hall, Thomas . . London, Eng. 

Horton, Jonathan . New York. 

MacConnell, David, Staten Island, N.J. 

Power, James . . Ireland. 

Shaw, Joseph . . Annapolis. 

Van Norden, Gabriel New York. 



1797. 



Harding, Harris 
Jenkins, James . 

Allen, Joseph . 
Gardner, Bartbtt 
Hemeon, Philip 
Huestis, W'illiam 
Jenkini, John 
Jenkins, William 



Horton, N.S, 
New York. 



1798. 



Argyle, N.S. 
Nantucket. 
New Jersey. 
Staten Island, N.J. 
New York. 
New York. 



The records of the Plymouth Colony throw light upon the ancestry of some of 
Yarmouth's early settlers. 

John Barnes was at Plymouth in 1631, and m., 1633, Mary Plummer. 

Jonathan, s. John, b. 1643, m., 1666, Elizabeth Hedge, d. William of 
Yarmouth. 

John 2d, s. Jonathan, b. 1669, m., 1693, Mary Bartlett, g. d. Robert, who came 
in the Ann in 1623. 

Scth, s. John 2d, b. 1699, m., 1722, Sarah Wooden. 



l62 PLYMOUTH RECORDS, 

Seth 2d, s. Seth, b. 1726, m., ist, 1751, Hannah Williams ; 2d, 1754, Elizabeth 
Rider, d. ISenjamin, gr. s. Samuel ; at Yarmouth 1643. 
Seth Barnes 2d had a daughter Elizabeth, b. 1754. 
Samuel Sheldon Poole m., 1775, Oct. 19, Elizabeth Barnes, d. Seth. 
James Cain m., 1777, Dec. 2, Mary Barnes, d. Seth. 

[Barnes' Creek, Barnes' Point, Barnes' Wharf, are Plymouth landmarks.] 

RoiiERT Bartlett came to Plymouth in the Ann, 1623, and m., 162S, Mary 
Warren, d. Richard, came in Miiyflower 1620. 

Lemuel Bartlett, gr. s. Robert, b. 1715, m., 1742, Mary Doty, gr. gr. d. of 
Edward, came in Mayflower 1620. 

Lemuel 2d, s. Ixmuel, b. 1744. 

Lemuel Bartlett m., 1774, Hannah Tinkham, d. Edward of Chebogue. 

William Ashmead Bartlett, b. 1846, a descendant of Robert Bartlett ist, mar- 
ried the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. 

John Churchill, at Plymouth 1643; ""-t 1644, Hannah Pontus, d. William. 

Through Eleazer, b. 1652; Stephen, b. 1685; and Ephraim, b. 1709, we have 
Zaccheus Churchill ist, b. 1734, and m., 1754, Mary Trask. 

Their children were Elizabeth, 1755; Zaccheus, 1757; Mary, 1758; and 
Ephraim. 

Josiph Churchill, s. John ist, b. 1645, m., 1672, Sarah Hicks. 

Barnabas, s. Joseph, b. 1686. m., 1713, Lydia Harlow, gr. d. William; at Lynn 
1637, and ihence to Sandwich and Plymouth. 

Lemuel Churchill ist, s. Barnabas, m., ist, Lydia Sylvester, b. 1726, gr. gr. 
d. Richard ; at Plymouth 1630. 

They had a son Nathaniel, b, 1743. 

Lemuel Churchill m., 2d, Abigail Rider, b. 1726, gr. d. Samuel. 

They had Lemuel, 1754 ; Abigail, 1756; and Ezra, 1758. 

In 1762 Lemuel Churchill sold his house in Plymouth which he had bought 
from Nathaniel Holmes in 1750. 

A homestead property at Plymouth was sold to Amos Leshure in 1S72 which 
had been in possession of the Churchill family for about two hundred and thirty 
years. 

John Holmes ist was at Plymouth in 1632. 

Nathaniel, s. John, m., 1667, Mercy Faunce, b. 1651, d. John. 

John, s. Nathaniel, b. 1682, m., 1709, Sarah Church, b. 1686, gr. d. Richard. 

They had a son Peleg, b. 17 15. 

John Faunce came in the Attn in 1623, and Richard Church was at Plymouth 
as early as 1633. 

Nathaniel Holmes ist built a house, still standing (1883), on Court Street, 
Plymouth, and owned and occupied by Ellis T. Lannian, which Mr. Holmes occu- 
pied until his death; after which, in 1748, his children, Widow Mercy Tinkham, 



PLYMOUTH RECORDS. 1 63 

and Patience and Melatiah Holmes, sold it to Hannah Jackson. Mercy Tinkham 
was the widow of Caleb, s. Hezekiah ist. 

John Jenkins, at Plymouth 1643, removed to Barnstable, and in 1653 m. Mary 
Brewer, and had Sarah, 1653; Mehitable, 1655; Samuel, 1657 ; John, 1659; Mary, 
1662; Thomas, 1666; and Joseph, 1669. 

Andrew Ring, at Plymouth 1629, m., 1646, Deborah Hopkins, d. Stephen, 
wh. ^ame in Mayflozver 1620. 

Eleazer, s. Andrew, m., 1687, Mary Shaw, gr. d. John ; at Plymouth in 1627. 

Samuel, s. Eleazer, b 1694, m. Ruth Sylvester. 

George, s. Samuel, b. 1726, m. Lucy Chip.man, and had Louisa, 1748; Samuel, 
1750; Lucy, 1751 ; George; Marcus, 1760; and Sherah. 

Nicholas Robbins, at Duxbury 1638, m. Anne . . . and had John, Mary, 
Hannah, and Rebecca. 

John, s. Nicholas, m., 1665, Jehosabeth Jourdan. 

Jeduthan (Plympton), s. John, m., 1694, Hannah Pratt. 

Jeduthan 2d, b. 1694, m. Rebecca . . . and had Joseph, 1719; Mary, 1721 ; 
Sarah, 1723; Eleazer, 1724; James, 1727 ; Rufus, 1729; Benjamin, 1732; Rebecca, 
1733 ; and Ebenezer. 

Ephraim Tinkham, at Plymouth 1643; by wife Mary had Ephraini, 1649; 
Ebenezer, 1651 ; Peter, 1653; Hezekiah, 1656; John, 1658 ; and three others. 

Hezekiah, s. Ephraim, m. Ruth . . . and had John, 16S9; Jacob, 1691 ; Eben- 
ezer, 1698 ; and six others. 

John, s. Hezekiah, rn., 1714, Anne Gray, gr. d. Edward ; at Plymouth 1643. 

Their children were Mary, 1718; Edwaes, 1720; Ephraim, 1724; Ann, 1726; 
and Joseph, 1728. 

Edward Tinkham (Kingston), s. John; had by wife Lydia . . . Salumis, 
1743; ^^^ Rebecca, 1745. 

Elias Trask of Plymouth, probably grandson of Elias of Salem, the grandson 
of William who came over in 1626, by wife Abigail had Abigail, b. 1746; John, b. 
1751; and Samuel, b. 1753. 

Joseph Trask, probably brother of Fllias, m., 1758, Jerusha Kempton, and had 
Joseph, b. 1758; Thomas, b. 1760; Priscilla, b. 1761 ; William, b. 1763; and 
Jerusha. 

Tn 1757 Elias Trask bought a house and land on Leyden Street, Plymouth, 
which, ;ii 1763, he sold to Samuel Lanman; and in 18S3 the same house, enlarged, 
was owned and occupied by William R. Drew. 

Edmund Weston came to Boston in 1635, and settled in Duxbury. He had 
sons Edmund, John, and Elnathan. and daughter Mary. Edmund 2d m , 1688, Re- 
becca Soule, gr. d. George who c n Mayflower 1620. They had Nathan, 1688 ; 
Zachariah, 1690; Rebecca, 1693; john, 1695: Edmund, 1697; and Benjamin, 1701. 
Edmund Weston 2d removed to Plympton and died there in 1727. 

Nathan Weston, s. Edmund 2d, m., 1715, Desire Standish, b. 16S0, d. 



1 64 rLYMOUTH RECORDS. 

Alexander, the eldest son of Miles Standish ist, who with his wife Rose came in 
the Mayflower in 1620; and Alexander Standish m., ist, Sarah, d. John Alden and 
Priscilla Muli.ins, whose names Longfellow has made immortal ; he married, 
2d, Desire, widow of Israel Holmes, and daughter of Edward Doty who came in 
the Mayflinoer in 1620. 

Nathan Weston ist had two sons, Nathan 2d, b. 1723; and Isaac, b. 1725. 

Daniel Hersey, s. David, grantee, m. 1774, Jan. .1, Desire Weston, d. 
Nathan ist of Chebogue; and their first child, b. 1775, March iS, was named 
Desire. 

Thomas Weston, a wealthy merchant of London, organized the 
association called "the Merchant Adventurers," who supplied the 
means for the first expedition by the Mayfloiaer ; and Weston himself 
seems to have been the principal financial supporter of the enterprise. 
But some proceedings of the adventurers who crossed the Atlantic did 
not quite please Mr. Weston ; and in 1622 he sent out two ships, the 
Charity and the Swan, with colonists and supplies for a plantation of his 
own at Wessagusset, now Weymouth, forty miles north from Plymouth. 
With that expedition came letters from Mr. Weston to the Pilgrims, 
telling them that he had sold his share in the joint-stock company, and 
"that he was quit of them and they of him." Thomas Weston him- 
self came over in 1624, remained a short time at Plymouth, and returned 
to England. 

Henry Cor.i? was at Plymouth as early as 1629. P'ruit-trees planted 
by him about 1670 still bear fruit. Ebenezer Cobb, grandson of Henry, 
died at Kingston, Mass., in 1801, aged a hundred and seven years, 
and is said to have been the oldest man who has lived in Massa- 
chusetts. 

SvLVA>njs Cobb, great-grandson of Henry, was captain of a company 
raised at Plymouth in 1 745 for the expedition against Louisburg. In 
1758, while in command of a government sloop, he was chosen to 
conduct Gen. Wolfe in a reconnaissance of the fortifications of Louis- 
burg ; and for his bravery and skill he received high commendation 
from the general. He and his brother Jarez afterward settled at Liver- 
pool, N. S. ; and in 1 762 Svlvanus joined the expedition to Havana, 
where he died. Jabez Cobb, a son of Jabez of Liverpool, will be 
remembered as among the aged inhabitants at Little River fifty years 
ago. 



REAL-ESTATE OWNERS. 1 65 

About 1770, Samuel Sampson Blowers owned an estate, bequeathed 
to him, on North Street, Plymouth. He was born at Boston, graduated 
at Harvard in 1763, studied law under Gov. Hutchinson, and in 1770 
he was associated with Adams and Quincy in the defence of the British 
soldiers engaged in the Boston massacre. About 1779 he removed to 
Halifax, where in 1785 he was attorney-general, and in 1797 was created 
chief justice. He died at Halifax in 1842, in his eighty-eighth 
year. 

Of the 78 names in the list of early settlers, from 1761 to 1766 
inclusive, all may be found upon the list of grantees in the next chap- 
ter, except those of Alexander Bain, James Cain, William Coffran, 
David Scott, Benjamin Robbins, and Jonathan Utley. Some of these 
were minors ; others probably dead or absent when the grant of the 
township passed. Benjamin Robbins had settled at Chebogue Point, 
where he was drowned ; hence the grant to his widow Abigail 
Robbins. 

Upon the pages following are the family-names of persons at some 
time resident owners of real estate in the county between 1761 and 
1885 inclusive. The Acadian names are separate from the rest ; and 
the Acadians are now said to number about 8,000, or about one-third of 
the entire population of the county. 

There are, doubtless, some omissions of names other than French ; 
but the list is as perfect as it can be made from memory and the scanty 
materials at hand. The French names number 39, the others 650 ; and 
it is to be remarked that over three-fourths of the French in the county 
come under the 1 2 leading family-names. 

Names followed by an asterisk (*) are believed to be now extinct in 
the county. A dagger (f) denotes that, though the family-name may 
be extinct, descendants of the family remain. The figure opposite 
some English, or other names, denotes the number of distinct families 
of the same name, yet in some cases descended from a common New- 
England ancestor who lived 250 years ago. The figures opposite the 
French names signify the 1 2 leading families ; that is, those who are 
to-day most numerous : and it is not a little remarkable that a French 
name, once established, has never died out; whereas over 100 names, 
other than French, have disappeared. 



1 66 



REAL-ESTATE OWNERS. 



ACADIAN NAMES. 



' Amirault. 


Comeau. 


Gaudet. 


Moulaison. 


* Babin. 


Corporon. 


Geadry. 


" I'othier. 


Belliveau. 


' Cothereau, or 


Hebert. 


Richard, or 


Bertrand. 


Catrerot. 


Jacquard. 


Richart. 


Blanchard. 


* D'Entremont. 


Landry. 


Robicheau. 


Boucher. 


Deveau. 


9 Le Blanc. 


.Saulnier. 


' Boudreau, or 


De Villiers. 


Le P'evre. 


" Surette. 


Boudrot. 


' Doucette. 


Mallet. 


Thibault. 


Bourgeois. 


Uulin. 


Melan9on. 


Thibeaudeau 


* Bourque. 


» Duon. 


'° Meuse, or 


Trahan. 


Clermont. 


Frontain. 


Mius. 





Note. — In the census of 1714, there were 87 Acadian names at Port Royal, and 54 at Mines, 21 of 
which were common to both places. We find there lielliveau, Boucher, Boudrot, Bourgeois, Bourque, 
Comeau, Corporon, Doucet, Godet, Hebirt, Landry, Le Blanc, Gautereau, Melanson, Poubomcoup 
(D'Entremont), Potter, Richard, Robicheau, Saulnier, Surette, Thibeaudeau, and Trahan. Total 
population, 1,290. 



The form of spelling these names may differ from that sometimes 
followed in Yarmouth, where in merchants' ledgers these spellings may 
be found : Amiro, Amero, Bertrong, Boudrot, Cotro, Coutieau, Devillar, 
Dulong, Duline, Godet, Hubbard, Jeddry, Muse, Richards, Sonia, Tibo, 
Tibodo, etc. 

French writers on Acadian history spell them differendy. For 
instance, following Rameau, the spelling would be Bourc or Bourg, 
Belliveau, Commeaux, Doucet, Gautherot or Gauterot, Gaudet, Mius. 
Rameau spells Pubnico, Pobomcoup and Pomboncoup. Des Voeux and 
Potier are sometimes found in French writings. 

To the oath of allegiance subscribed at Annapolis in 1730, and 
quoted by Henry L. D'Entremont and Louis P. Le Blanc in their 
interesting letter on Acadia, published in " The Yarmouth Herald " of 
Feb. 2 1 886, we find names in these forms : Amirau, Bodrot, Bertran, 
Bellivau, Belliveaux, Bellivaux, Commau, Commeau, Como, Doucett, 
Dousett, Duons, Godet, Godett, Gaudett, Hibbert, Landr6, Landri, 
Landry, Malason, Melenson, Robichau, Robishau, Robichaux, Tibo, 
Tibodo, Turett. 

Gen. Thiehault ^2& one of Napoleon's generals at Vimeira in 1808. 



REAL-ESTATE OWNERS. 



167 



ENGLISH, SCOTCH, IRISH, AND OTHER NAMES OF YARMOUTH ICOUNTY 

FROM 1761 TO 1886. 



Abbott. 


Blaiivelt. 


Ackerman.* 


Blethe.i. 


Adams.' 


Bond. 


Agard.* 


Boudie. 


Alden. 


Bowers. 


Alder. 


Bowrie. 


Alexander. 


Boyd.' 


Allen.' 


Bradbury.t 


Anderson.' 


Brayne. 


Andrews. 


Brady. 


Appleton.* 


Brand. 


Archer. 


Bridgeo. 


Archibald. 


Bright.t 


Armstrong.* 


Brimner. 


Atcheson. 


Bristow. 


Atkinson. 


Britt.* 


Atwood. 


Brittain. 


Babington.* 


Brooks.t 


Bacon.* 


Brown. ^ 


Bain. 


Bruce. 


Baker.^ 


Bryant. 


Balkam. 


Bryar.t 


Ballam. 


Bullerwell. 


Barbour.=t 


Bunker.* 


Barnard.t 


Burgess.' 


Barnes.' 


Burke. 


Barr. 


Burnham. 


Barrows. 


Burns.' 


Bartlett. 


Burrill. 


Barton. 


Burton. 


Bath. 


Buscey.* 


Baxter. 


Butler.5 


Beals. 


Bydder.* 


ISeaton. 


Byers. 


Bell. 


Byrne. 


Bennison. 


Byrnes. 


Bent. 


Cahan. 


Berry.= 


Cain. 


Bethune. 


Callaghan. 


Betts.* 


Cameron.^ 


Beular. 


Campbell.' 


Beveridge. 


Cann.- 


Bingav. 


Carey. 


Black.'^ 


Carland. 


Blackadar. 


Carroll. 


Blades. 


Carter. 


Blanchard. 


Carty. 


Blaney.t 


Caskey. 



Challen.* 

Challoner. 

Chandler." 

Chase. 

Chipman. 

Christie. 

Churchill.* 

Chute. 

Cisco. 

Clark.' 

Cleland. 

Clements. 

Clend'-ining. 

Cleveland. 

Clifford.t 

Clune.t 

Coaldwell.* 

Cobb.* 

Coffin.t 

C off ran. 

Coggins.* 

Colsworthy.* 

Cook. 

Cooper.t 

Collins.- 

Condon.* 

Connor.* 

Conwall. 

Cornelius. 

Corning. 

Cosman. 

Cossar. 

Cottew. 

Coulso'i. 

Coward. 

Crawford. 

Crawley. 

Crocker. 

Crosby.* 

Crowell.* 

Cuff. 

Currier. 

Curry. 

Curtis.* 

Daley. 

Dallinger.* 

Dane. 

Daniels. 



Darby. 

Darling.* 

Darrah. 

Davis.* 

Davison. 

Day.* 

Dean.* 

Decker.* 

Deering. 

Delaney. 

Dench. 

Dennis. 

Dewolfe. 

Dize. 

Doane* 

D(jdds. 

Donavan.* 

Doty. 

Dove.* 

Dowley.* 

Dowling. 

Dudman. 

Dugan. 

Duncanson. 

Dunham. 

Dunseith.* 

Durand. 

Durham.t 

Durfee. 

Durkee. 

Durland. 

Eakins. 

Earl. 

Eldridge.* 

Eli. 

Ellen wood.* 

Elliot. 

Ellis.^ 

Elwell.t 

Ely. 

Fader. 

Fait. 

Farish. 

Farrell. 

Fells. 

Fenton. 

Ferrara.* 

Fifield.* 



1 68 



REAL-ESTATE OWNERS. 



Fitzgerald.' 


Haley. 


Inglis.* 


Long. 


Fleet. 


H.-ill.= 


Ingols.* 


Longstaff.* 


Fletcher. 


Haloran.* 


Irving. 


Lorrey.* 


Flint. 


Halstead. 


Ivers. 


Lovitt. 


Floyd. 


Hamilton.* 


Jack. 


Lowell. 


Flynn.* 


Handy. 


Jacobson. 


Lyons. 


Folger.* 


Hanff. 


Jacques. 


MacCarthy.' 


Foote. 


Harding.* 


Jarvis. 


MacConnell. 


Forbes.* 


Hardy.t 


Jeffery. 


MacCormack.' 


Forman.t 


Harley. 


Jenkins.- 


MacDevitt. 


Forster. 


Harris.' 


Johns. 


MacDonald.* 


Forsythe. 


Haskell. 


Johnson.* 


MacDonnell. 


Foulis.* 


Hatfield. 


Jolly. 


MacElroy.* 


Fowles. 


Hawke. 


Jones.* 


MacGill. 


Fox.= 


Hawkins. 


Kavanagh. 


MacGrath. 


Frost. 


Hawley. 


Keefe. 


MacGray. 


Fuller.* 


Haswell.* 


Keelan. 


Macduire. 


Gallagher. 


Hayse.* 


Keenan. 


MacHenry. 


Gallic. 


Head.t 


Kelley.* 


Maclver. 


Gardner.* 


Helms. 


Kenealy. 


Mack. 


Gavel. 


Hemeon. 


Kent. 


MacKay. 


Gayton. 


Hemlow. 


Keogh. 


MacKenzie. 


Geddes. 


Herkes.* 


Killam. 


MacKinnie. 


Germain. 


Hersey. 


King.* 


MacKinnon.' 


Gibson.^ 


Hewitt. 


Kingsley. 


MacLaren. 


Gilbraith.* 


Hibbard. 


Kimball.* 


MacLauchlan. 


Gilfillan. 


Hicks. 


Kinney.* 


MacLaughlin. 


Gilliland. 


Higby. 


Kirby. 


MacLeod. 


Gillis. 


Hilton. 


Kirk.* 


MacMahan.* 


Gilman. 


Hines.* 


Knollin. 


MacManus. 


Gisnone.* 


Hipson. 


Knowles. 


MacMullen. 


Goddard. 


Hobbs. 


Ladd. 


MacMunn. 


Godfrey.^ 


Hogg. 


Lambert. 


MacNamara.* 


Golden. 


Holden. 


I.amont. 


MacXay. 


Goldfinch. 


Holley. 


Landers.* 


MacNeal. 


Goldsmith. 


Holbrook.* 


Langtry. 


MacNutt.* 


Goodwin. 


Holmes. 


Larkin. 


MacRae. 


Goucher. 


Homer. 


Layers. 


MacWhinnie. 


Goudey. 


Hood. 


Law. 


Mac Williams. 


Gourley. 


Hooper. 


Lawrence. 


Magray. 


Gowen. 


Hopkirk. 


Lawson.^ 


Malone. 


Grace. 


Horton.= 


Leizer. 


Mangham. 


Graham.* 


Howell.* 


Lennox. 


Manning. 


Grant.3 


Huestis. 


Lent.^ 


Marling. 


Grantham. 


Hunter.t 


Le Cain. 


Marr.* 


Gray.^ 


Huntington. 


Leonard. 


riarshall.* 


Greenwood. 


Humbert.t 


Lewis. 


Martin. 


Griswold.* 


Hurd. 


Lincoln. 


Mattenly.t 


Gridley. 


Hurlburt. 


Lindsay.* 


Maxwell.* 


Guest. 


Huston.t 


Little.* 


Merrill. 


Gullison. 


Hutchinson. 


Lonergan.* 


Merrithew.t 



REAL-ESTATE OWNERS. 



169 



Merritt* 


Parker.' 


Richards.' 


Sloanc* 


Messenger. 


Parr. 


Richardson.^ 


Slocomb. 


Michie.* 


Parry. 


Ricker. 


Smith." 


Mildon. 


Patch. 


Riddle. 


Snyder. 


Millan. 


Patten. 


Ridgway.* 


SoUows. 


Millar. 


Patterson.' 


Ridley. 


Spechts. 


Miller.' 


Pearce.* 


Ring. 


Spiers. 


Mitchell. 


Pearl. t 


Ritchie.' 


Spincks. 


Moberly.* 


Pearson. 


Roach. 


Spinney. 


Mood. 


Pease.t 


Robhins.* 


Stafford.t 


Moody. ^ 


Pelton. 


Roberts. 


Stanley.* 


Moore.' 


Pendrigh. 


Robertson. 


Stanton. 


Montague. 


Pennell. 


Robinson.' 


Stanwood. 


Montgomery. 


Pennington. 


Robson.* 


Starr.t 


Morehouse. 


Perrin. 


Rodney. 


Stearns. 


Morgan.* 


Perry' 


Rogers.' 


Steele. 


Morrill. 


Peterkin. 


Rose. 


Stephens.* 


Morris. 


Peters. 


Ross. 


Sterritt. 


Morrisey. 


Peterson. 


Rost.t 


Stewart.' 


Morton.^ 


Phillips.* 


Rowe. 


.Stoneman. 


Mos'ily.* 


Philpot.* 


Rowley. 


Story.t 


Mose< * 


Phipps. 


Rozee. 


Stowe.t 


Moulion.^ 


Pierson. 


Russell.' 


Strickland. 


Munroe. 


Pilling.t 


Rust.t 


Stubbard. 


Murphy.' 


Pinkney. 


Ryder.* 


Stubbs.* 


Murray. 


Piper. 


Ryerson. 


Studley. 


Myers.* 


Pitman. 


Sabine. 


Sullivan.' 


Naughter.* 


Plant.* 


Salter.* 


Suttie. 


Neal. 


Pocock. 


Sanderson. 


Sutcliffe. 


Nelson. 


Poole.^ 


Sargent. 


Swaine.* 


Nettles.* 


Porter." 


Saunders.' 


Sweeney.' 


Newell. 


Potter.* 


Savage. 


Sykes. 


Newry.* 


Powell. 


Savary. 


Symonds. 


Nichols.* 


Powers.^ 


Scott.' 


Taylor.' 


Nickerson.* 


Prince.* 


Scovill. 


Teaplod. 


Nisbet. 


Prosser.* 


Seeley.* 


Tedford. 


Normandy. 


Prout.* 


Servant. 


Temple. 


Northup. 


Purdie. 


SewelL* 


Thomas. 


Norton. 


Purdy. 


Shaw.* 


Thompson.' 


O'Brien.' 


Purney. 


.Shehan. 


Thorburn.* 


Ogden.t 


Quamineau. 


Sheldrake.* 


Thurston. 


Oldreive.* 


Randall.* 


SherJock.t 


Tiley. 


Oliver. 


Rankin. 


Shipley.* 


Tilley. 


O'Neal. 


Ray. 


Shurtliff.* 


Tinkham. 


Oram. 


Raymond. 


Silver. 


Titus, 


Ormsby.* 


Raynard. 


Simonson. 


Tobin. 


Csborne. 


Redding. 


Sims. 


Tong. 


Otis.* 


Reed.* 


Sinclair. 


Tooker. 


Owen.' 


Reid. 


Sinnett.* 


Town send.* 


Palmer. 


Rice. 


Skinner.* 


Trask.* 


Parfitt.t 


Richan. 


Sleeth. 


Travis. 



I/O 



HE A L-ESTA TE O WNERS. 



Trefry. 


Verge.* 


Weston. 


Willett. 


Troop. 


Vickery. 


Wetmore. 


Williams." 


Turner.* 


Viets. 


Wheaton. 


Williamson. 


Uhlman. 


Walker. 


Wheeland. 


Wilkins. 


Utley. 


Walsh. 


Wheelock.* 


Wilson.* 


Valpey.t 


^Vat«rrman. 


Whipple.* 


Winter. 


Van Emburg. 


Watson. 


Whitten.* 


Witter.* 


Van Buskirk.t 


Watt. 


White.'' 


Wood.= 


Van Horn. 


Webster. 


Whitehouse. 


Woodbury.* 


Van Norden. 


Weddleton. 


Whitman.^ 


Woodworth. 


Van Nostrand.t 


Wells. 


Whittington.* 


Wyman. • 


Vaughan. 


West. 


Wickham." 


Young.* 



The localties in Argyle Township, occupied by the French a hun- 
dred years ago, were well adapted to the prosecution of the fisheries ; 
but the lands in Yarmouth Tosvnship would, for all other purposes, be 
considered the more advantageous for settlement, while its shores and 
harbors are also within easy reach of the fishing-grounds. One reason 
why the French have not, until recent years, shown more progress in 
the accumulation of wealth, is because the lands they first occupied, 
and where they have, for the most part, since remained, were poorly 
adapted, either for general cultivation or pasturage, and their good lands 
were confined within very narrow limits. But their farms produced 
abundantly of potatoes of excellent quality, the adjacent coasts furnish- 
ing kelp and other sea-weed in ample quantity. Potatoes and fish 
would seem to be, therefore, wholesome food, and where easily pro- 
cured in unlimited quantities, as in Argyle Township, afford proof that 
a people making them their chief subsistence are prolific, and never die 
out. Yet it is not a little remarkable that the thirty-nine Acadian fami- 
lies now furnish one-third of the population of the county ; while their 
progress heretofore, and their fixity of tenure for the last hundred and 
twenty years, viewed in connection with their present status, indicate 
that in the not distant future the proportion of the Acadians relatively 
to the people of all other races in Yarmouth County will be still more 
favorable to the former. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Copy Scheme of Division Yarmouth Township Lands. — Names of Grantees alphabetically 
arranged. — Number of Shares to Each. — Number and Area of their Lots. — (irantees 
of Bunker's and Gilfillan's Island, Chebogue Town Point, and Stony I'oint Beach. — 
Reservations for Highways. — Equal to about Two Hundred and Thirteen Miles of Road 
Four Rods Wide. 

THE intention of this chapter is to supply general information upon 
the grant of Yarmouth-Township lands, the absence of which, in 
times past, has occasioned many and repeated journeys to the office of 
registrar of deeds. It is believed that the information in this form may" 
still be useful to the heirs or descendants of the early settlers. 

The Elisha Eldridge. grantee, is probably FHishama Eldridge, one of 
the pioneers of 1761, who, Mr. Campbell says, on p. 55, was excluded 
from a participation in the grant. A reference in the scheme of divis- 
ion accounts for the omission of Levi Horton's name, which is also 
referred to by Mr. Campbell. 

.•\mong the grantees will be found the names of sixty-seven persons 
not included in Campbell's list of arrivals or settletnents at Yarmouth 
up to the date of the grant, April, 1767. 

These are as follows, many being the names of well-known settlers 
of Yarmouth in and before 1767; and with few, if any, exceptions, 
they were all either in Yarmouth or Argyle when the grant was passed : — 



Agard, Judah. 
Allen, Samuel. 
Allen, Jeremiah, jun. 
Beals, James. 
Beals, Josiah, jun. 
Brown, Adam. 
Brown, Nathan. 
Bunker, Paul. 
Burgess, Joshua. 
Coggins, Henry. 
Corning, Jonathan. 



Crawley, James. 
Crawley, John, jun. 
Curtis, William. 
Day, Solomon. 
Dove, Samuel. 
Ellenwood, Benjamin. 
Ellenwood, Benjamin, jun. 
Godfrey, Alexander.- 
Godfrey, Josiah. 
Godfrey, Prince. 
Godfrey, Samuel. 



Hall, Abner. 
Harris, David. 
Haskell, Moses. 
Haskell, Robert. 
Haskell, William. 
Haskell, William, jun. 
Hilton, Stilson. 
Hooper, Moses. 
MacKinnon, John. 
MacKin.ion, John, jun. 
MacKinnon, James. 



172 YARMOUTH TOWNSHIf LANDS. 

MacKinnon, Martin. Newry (or \ewny), James. Simmons, Cyrus. 

MacKinnon, Norman. \ici<crson, Nathan. Sewell, Dominicus. 

Marshall, William. Tease, JoIj. Sinnott, Thomas. 

Mcrrithew, Kenjamin. I'ortcr, Nathan. Soames, Lydia. 

Merrilhew, Roger. Porter, Nehemiah, jun. Stewart, Joseph. 

Moore, Thomas. Porter, Samuel. Sullivan, Thomas. 

Moore, William. Kobbins, Abigail. Symonds, John. 

Morgan, Benjamin. Robinson, Timothy. Trefry, John. 

Moulton, Ebenezer. Robinson, William. Verge, John. 

Moulton, Ebenezer, jun. Rogers, Thomas. Woodbury, Jonathan. 

M(3ulton, John B. Salter, Thomas. 

Moulton, Wells (Morton). Salter, William. 

The following is the preamble to Samuel Goldsbury's Plan of 
Division, executed in 1787: — 

EXPLANATIONS AND REFERENCES TO THE PLAN OF 
YARMOUTH TOWNSHIP. 

The lands in the Township of Yarmouth in the present survey are in 
three divisions, and are divided among the grantees according to a 
schedule placed on the light-hand side of the plan. 

The First Division contains the lands included between the red line 
at No. 31 on the line between Y'armouth and lands laid out to Robert 
Wilmot and others, and ending at Chegoggin River, the sea-wall, Little 
River, and on W^ilmot's line to No. 31, where the red line takes its 
departure. 

The plots of land separated by a red line at Cranberry Head, Allan's 
Lake, Salmon River, the head of Crotch Lake, and at the Great Tusket 
Falls, are also included in the First Division. 

The number affixed to each grantee's name in each division runs 
through that division, comprehending all lots to which it is affixed. 

The Second Division contains all the lands between Hersey's 
Branch, so-called (of the Tusket River, commencing at the head of 
Lake Vaughan), and the First Division; also No. 36 at Little River 
Point, excepting those plots of land included in red lines at Cranberry 
Head, Allaii's Lake, mouth of Salmon River, head of Crotch Lake, and 
at the Great Tusket Falls before mentioned. 

The Third Division contains all the lands between Hersey's Branch 
and the Great Tusket River. 



SCHEME OF DIVISION. 1/3 

The peninsulas of Bunker's and Gilfillan's, Chebogue Town Point, 
and Stony Heach Point, are plotted on a large scale, the better to express 
the small lots ; and, though a part of the First 1 )ivision, each has its own 
separate schedule on the plan, and their whole contents are added to 
the First Division. 

The vacant half-share wanting to complete 149 shares is said to have 
been in the return for a grant entered to Levi Horton, but in the grant 
was casually omitted. On this half-share, Horton has made improve- 
ments. 

The No. 145 contains lands laid out and granted to William 
Tory, Esq., in a separate right, or share, through the townshij) of 
Yarmouth. 

The islands contained in the lakes in each division have the number 
of the lot they belong to affixed to them. 

On the Great Tusket River, it is to be observed that proceeding 
down the river, at the letter L and at the letter R they close again into a 
river. (This clause appears a little obscure.) 

The marsh is not included in the division, as will be seen in he 
following scheme, nor the highways and several reserves, etc. 

SCHEME OF DIVISION. 

The contents of land, water, marsh, etc., contained in the bounds of 
the Township of Yarmouth : — 

Acres. Perches. 

First division, as per schedule 22,275 5° 

Lands granted to William Tory, i share 508 13S 

Lands on Bunker's and Gilfillan's Peninsulas, Chebogue Town 

Point, and Stony Beach Point 100 So 

Lands in second division, as per schedule 78,287 133 

Lands in third division, as per schedule 29,075 98 

Total in three divisions 130,248 19 

Acres. Perches. 

The whole marsh contains 3>'37 

Water, including lakes, rivers, etc 171965 

A, reserved for a fort at Cape Fourchu .... 14 

For the fishery up the Tusket River 34 80 

Reserved for Harris's saw-mill i 

Reserved for highways 1,708 22,859 80 

Total 153.107 99 



174 SCHEME OF DIVISION. 

Th'o total of 153,107.99 acres being compared with the whole of the 
contents of the Township of Yarmouth, which is 153,107 acres, the 
difference will be found only 99 perches. 

This scheme of division is performed, respect being had through the 
whole to both (juantity and quality, from which arises the difference to 
be observed in the contents of each man's share in each division. Had 
the division been performed without respect being had to the quality of 
the soil, it would give 868 acres, 48 perches, to a share ( ?) ; but by 
exploring, it was found the lands were near one-half unfit for cultivation, 
by reason of savannahs, sunken swamps, and rocky barrens, aside from 
lakes, etc., before noticed. 



SCHEME OF DIl'ISION. 



175 



NAMES OF GRANTEES, AND AREA OF THEIR LANDS. 





1ST Division. , to 


Division. | 30 Division. 


Total 


i 






V. 




«• ! 




Names uF Grantees. 

1 




O 




.3 


3 ' 






Area in 
Acres. 




"o 





« = 


"3 


rt 


•0 "o 


fS 




j 


i 


6 


< 





c 


< 


i 


I 


8 

< 




Allen, Jeremiah .... 


li 


! 

47 


247 


*2 


306 


li 


*iii 


90 












32 


530 


96 


196 


1,369 


Allen, Jeremiah, jun. . . 


\ 


44 


81 i 


•48 


273 1 i 


♦6s 


144 


498 


Allen, Samuel 


i4 


"3 


192 li 


*57 


330 li 


»9o 


92 










! : 


106 


402 . 1 74 


218 


1.234 


Agard, JuHah 


I 


SO ' 


lOI ' I 1 


84 


536 I , 60 


341 


878 


Bunker, Hezekiah . . . 


2 


72 


183 2 


73 


495 2 46 


21S 








•34 


100 ' 


39 


589 . 14' 


'38 


1,720 


Bunker, Paul 


li 


'35 


344 ; 'i 


*y5 


242 li *5 


78 












28 


450 112 


250 


1,364 


Butler, Eleazer 


li 


63 


III li 


*I09 


2S7 , li *I26 


83 








loS 


87 


137 


585 33 


237 


1,390 


Beal, Josiah, sen 


I 


124 


138 ; I 


131 


550 I 36 


208 


S96 


Real, Josiah, jun 


I 


29 


182 ! I 


42 


621 I 97 


l&O 


983 


Beal, James 


I 


79 


143 ' 


93 


362 1 21 


175 


682 


Brown, Adam 


I 


J25 


157 ' 


64 


488 1 125 


244 


889 


Brown, Nathan .... 


i 


91 


100 i 


*37 


251 i *«34 


77 


428 


Brown, James 


1 


119 


81 \ 


*37 


251 i "•34 


77 


409 


Brown, Benjamin .... 


I 


66 


123 I 


123 


569 I 4t 


249 


941 


Baker, Jonathan .... 


I 


46 


108 I 


23 


552 I ! 13 


305 


86s 


Eridgeo, George .... 


I 


25 


156 1 


38 


650 , I 72 


299 


1,105 


Barnes, Seth 


t 


19 


100 I 


74 


628 I 55 


208 


936 


Burgess, Joshua .... 


li 


9 


163 i^ 


*142 


157 1 'i '*>42 


-04 










1 


138 


593 ! ' 95 


138 


J.I54 


Corning, Ebenezer . . . 


A 


86 


241 li 


♦no 


234 ; li i *28 


128 












136 


520 ' ' 80 


197 


I>320 


Clark, E jzer .... 


li 


49 


158 li 


*2 


306 1 i * 1 1 1 


90 












4 


445 52 


200 


1,199 


Crawley, John, sen. . . . 


3 


45 


157 3 


46 


497 2 38 


152 








2 


150 


33 


335 : 144 


'45 


' .436 


Crawley, John, jun. . . . 


2 


io5 


242 2 


114; 
56* 


889 * 25j 
■ 59) 


385 


1,516 


Crawley, James .... 


? 


107 


323 2 


50 J 
126 i 


1,429 2 89 , 


394 


2,146 










130 ( 






Cook, Ephraim 




97 


135 I 


120 


563 I 98 


225 


923 


Crocker, Daniel .... 




17 


t38 I 


94 


542 I 102 


161 


84. 


Curtis, William .... 




26 


120 ' I 


60 


669 I 91 


151 


940 


Churchill, Lemuel . . . 




21 


128 I 


149 


470 I 70 


.64 


762 


Crosby, Jonathan .... 




14 


103 I 


71 


470 1 1 69 


195 


769 


Crosby, Edward .... 


i 


75 


78 i 


♦48 


273 i *65 


«44 


! 495 


Coggin, Henry 




61 


115 I 


143 


516 I , 9 


; '58 


1 789 


Corning Jonathan . . . 




87 


200 I 


68 


577 I »07 


197 


\ 974 


Day, Solomon 




73 


101 I 


.25 


592 I 40 


1 164 


857 


Dove, Samuel 




54 


209 1 


6b 


591 I 140 


i '49 


949 



176 



SCHEME OF DIVISIOX, 



Names of Grantees, and Area of their Lands. — Continued. 





IS 

i 


T Division. 


3D Division. 


3D Division. 


Total 






. g 






i 






Names of Grantf.es. 


1 


J 




1 


J 




.2 


i 




Area in 
Acres. 




i 

1 


•0 

i 


ha 

< 
118 


•0 
6 

I 



55 


< 


'•0 

d 

Z 




< 




D.irling, Benjamin . . . 


4 


740 


476 


I 


13' 


159 


753 


Durkee, Phineas .... 


li 


59 


323 


xi 


•78 
117 


308 
508 


'i 


•31 
71 


95 

202 


1.335 


Ellenwood, Benjamin . . 


3 


8s 


333 


3 


19 ( 


1,048 


2 


19, 
103) 


323 


1,604 












103 \ 










EUenwood, Benjamin, jun., 




104 


80 


4 


•78 


308 


i 


*3. 


95 


483 


Ellenwood, Samuel . . . 




52 


156 


I 


8 


597 




106 


254 


1,007 


Elwell, Nathaniel .... 




53 


196 


a 


•52 
16 


374 
598 


•4 


•42 
47 


119 
238 


'.425 


Eldridge, Elisha .... 




120 


104 


I 


139 


538 


, 


67 


277 


919 


Eldridge, Barnabas . . . 




38 


199 


I 


7 


539 




45 


250 


g88 


Ellis, Eljene/cr 




22 


100 


I 


!»5 


547 




146 


97 


744 


( lodfrey, .'^amuel .... 




112 


156 


I 


96 


428 




32 


205 


789 


Godfrey, I'rmce .... 




"3 


144 


1 


77 


48s 




25 


151 


780 


Godfrey, Josiah .... 




II 


172 


'i 


*79 
70 


352 

573 




•so 
66 


100 
178 


1.275 


Godfrey, .\lexander . . . 




33 


133 


I 


133 


566 


■ 


19 


II3 


801 


Gowen, Patrick .... 




"* 


109 


I 


35 


43» 




36 


203 


743 


Gilfillan, James .... 




93 


313 


I 


80 


SOI 




136 


«35 


848 


Gullison, Stephen .... 


li 


126 


'55 


li 


•100 
31 


238 
465 


li 


•100 
20 


90 
169 


1,217 


Harris, Samuel 


3 


81 


233 


2 


13 

-II 


1,039 


3 


43 
29 


399 


1,671 


Harris, David 




35 


160 




30 


486 




133 


209 


855 


Hilton, Amos 




43 


300 




*1I3 
134 


340 
600 




♦123 
56 


131 

235 


1,406 


Hilton, Stilson 




4» 


"5 




*IOO 


»38 




*ioo 


90 


443 


Hooper, Moses 




28 


123 




82 


433 




77 


186 


742 


Hammond, William . . . 




77 


.48 




124 


486 




16 


216 


850 


Hall, .\bner 




128 


99 




122 


44» 




4 


>74 


7H 


Hibbard, Eleazer .... 




s6 


136 




•4 


55« 




33 


»7S 


852 


Hclmes, Pcleg 




20 


163 




•143 
20 


'57 
S16 




*i4a 
1 30 


104 
172 


1,112 


Haskell, William, sen. . . 




65 


119 




88 


638 


* 


"5 


254 


1,011 


Ha,skell, William .... 




no 


253 




•89 
71 


2SI 

477 




*io3 

63 


84 
397 


1,362 


Haskell, William, jun. . . 




131 


90 




•36 


187 




♦68 


90 


367 


Haskell, Moses .... 




123 


83 




*95 


242 




*5 


78 


402 


Haskell, Robert .... 




64 


164 




•'5 


488 




39 


.78 


830 


Hersey, David 




36 


331 




•51 
61 


336 

55» 




♦85 
134 


79 
351 


1.349 


Haley, Ebenezer .... 




7 


156 




•92 
i»4 


"99 
434 




•119 
24 


89 
199 


1,097 


Landers, Sealed .... 




80 


I3» 




S8 


274 
398 




•42 
6 


119 
>73 


1,096 


Lovitt, Andrew .... 




83 


»5S 




*8S 
132 


256 
613 




•ii 
34 


103 
245 


1,471 


Killam, John 




137 


209 




55 


569 




133 


305 


983 



SCHEME OF DIVISION. 



^77 



Names of Grantees, and Area of their Lands. — Continued. 





1ST Division. 


31 

i 


} Division. 


3U Division. 


Total 


i 










i 






Names of Grantees. 


1 

U5 


3 




n 


i 




A 

U3 


i 




Area in 
Acres. 




i 


"3 
d 


i 

< 




d 

I 


d 
2 


i 

< 


d 

I 



i 


i 
< 




Kclley, James 


I 


48 


138 


67 


383 


87 


311 


732 


Merrithew, Roger .... 


«i 


8 


100 


• 4 


•116 


250 


'4 *76 


131 








105 


75 




104 


537 


93 


'03 


1,186 


Merrithew, Benjamin . . 


4 


132 


77 


4 


•86 


257 


4 i •44 


99 


433 


Moore, William .... 


I 


78 


138 


I 


X46 


503 


» 1 135 


'64 


795 


Moore, Thomas .... 


\ 


100 


59 


4 


.97 


'93 


4 *^ 


6S 


3'7 


MacKinnon, John CC. P.) . 


I 


5 


97 


I 


.38 


608 


I 


49 


!"7 


922 


MacKinnon, John, jun. . . 


I 


"4 


224 


X 


105 


348 


I 


I 


'73 


745 


MacKinnon, Martin . . . 


I 


116 


222 


I 


9 


566 


I 


X09 


180 


968 


MacKinnon, Norman . . 


I 


32 


122 


I 


>44 


55' 


I 


8 


330 


893 


MacKinnon, James . . . 


I 


"5 


224 


' 


63 


586 


I 


139 


173 


983 


MacKinnon, John .... 


4 


3' 


863 


4 



x8l 
81 
14'. 


2,196 


4 


'5l 

;.;■ 

XOl. 


709 


3.768 


Morgan, Benjamin . . . 


•i 


117 


281 


•4 


*1I2 
69 


340 
479 


'4 


•.33 
64 


131 
234 


'.355 


Marshall, William. . . . 


i 


13 


77 


4 


*ii6 


250 


4 


N4 


99 


426 


Moulton, Ehenezer, sen. 


I 


58 


89 


I 


"5 


498 




.39 


168 


755 


Moulton, Ebenezer, jun. 


I 


,36 


'75 


I 


lOI 


5'5 




108 


142 


832 


Moulton, John C 


I 


94 


144 


X 


49 


482 




'38 


'37 


763 


Moulton, Wells .... 


I 


»7 


117 


I 


119 


600 




37 


356 


973 


Matlingly, James .... 


I 


68 


•55 


I 


26 


530 




'48 


388 


963 


Nickerson, Nathan . . . 


•4 


99 


.37 


i4 


*53 
9' 


366 
419 


'4 


♦63 
24 


113 
183 


1,167 


Newny, James 


4 


74 


78 


4 


*36 


187 


4 


*68 


90 


355 


Porter, Nehemiah, sen. . . 


3 


138 


450 


3 


63 j 

98) 


1.093 


3 


'77 i 


384 


1.927 


Porter, Nehemiah, jun. . . 


4 


103 


100 


4 


•108 


367 


4 


*48 


104 


47' 


Porter, Samuel 


4 


130 


147 


4 


»io8 


267 


4 


*48 


104 


S'8 


Porter, Nathan 


I 


84 


iga 


I 


33 


446 


1 


"4 


aos 


843 


Pease, Job 


4 


96 


77 


4 


*87 


360 


4 


•113 


138 


465 


Pearl, David 


4 


62 


61 


4 


•83 


313 


4 


*IO 


84 


458 


Perry, John 


I 


57 


154 


' 


137 


647 


X 


83 


i6s 


966 


Perry, Moses 


i4 


15 


388 


.4 


•89 
"3 


351 

443 


'4 


*xo3 
17 


84 
169 


'.235 


Pitman, Joseph .... 


•4 


70 


■87 


'4 


•85 
10 


256 
S8' 


'4 


•11 

61 


103 
303 


1.4.^0 


Rin^, George 


«4 


40 


265 


.4 


•93 
130 


199 
496 


'4 


•119 

'27 


89 
'4' 


'.'SO 


Robbms, James .... 


i4 


98 


>73 


i4 


•86 
145 


257 
525 


'4 


•76 

131 


131 

186 


1,363 


Robbins, Abigail .... 


I 


I 


ti6 


I 


139 


628 


I 


88 


173 


916 


Robinson, Timothy . . , 


I 


lOI 


«79 


1 


75 ' 489 


I 


IIO 


207 


875 


Robinson, William . . . 


i4 


103 


»34 


i4 


•79 »5> 

54 479 


i4 


•so 
118 


no 
137 


','92 


Rogers, Cornelius .... 


: 


23 


no 


. 


>07 557 


I 


33 


316 


883 


Rogers, Thomas .... 


4 


39 


56 


4 


•97 ' '93 


4 


•4 


65 


314 



178 



SCHEME OF DIVISION. 



Names of Grantees 


, and 


Area of theii 


Lands. - 


— Concluded. 




1ST Division. 


2D Division 3U Division. 


Toul 


i 




- 


Si ' 




Shares 




Names of Grantees. 




3 




1 i 






Area in 
Acres. 




"o 

1 


c 

i 

6o 


r. 

< 


6 c 

z z 

I 34 


i 

< 


•0 i 

' i 




< 

1 




Rose, Richard 


187 


i 
618 


53 


1 
194 


999 


KeddinK, Benjamin . . . 




69 


113 


» 44 


545 : ' i 81 


2O0 


858 


Richardson, John .... 


4 


12 


93 


4 '87 


a6o j i •1.3 


128 


481 


SaUer, Thomas 


I 


30 


134 


I 27 


470 ' 149 


188 


792 


.Salter, William 


I 


127 


.59 


I 99 


544 « ' 122 


224 


927 


Soames, I.ydia 




129 


246 




72 


607 1 I 104 


125 


973 


Scoti, Jonathan .... 


i 


37 


100 


4 


•83 


3t3! 4 


»IO 


84 


497 


.Scott, Moses 




18 


132 




148 


473 . 


2 


290 


895 


Sinnotl, Thomas .... 




67 


'99 




90 


400 I 


»37 


152 


751 


Sullivan, Thomas .... 




76 


231 




40 


629 > > 


105 


,83 


>,043 


Symonds, John .... 




9J 


'51 




17 


386 1 


94 


•45 


682 


Stewart, Joseph .... 




5' 


127 




118 


487 I 


73 


206 


820 


Scwell, Dominicus . . . 




55 


■57 




76 


659 j ' 


58 


238 


I, "54 


Simmons, Cyrus .... 




41 


156 




«35 


567 « 


27 


213 


936 


Sollows, John 


li 


89 


222 


i4 


♦ 109 


286 li 


•126 


83 














29 


467 


3 


176 


',234 


Saunders, Joseph .... 


'4 


82 


182 


i4 


*IIO 


334 >4 


♦28 


128 














5 


557 , 


116 


233 


1,334 


Tinkham, Edward . . . 


i4 


109 


186 


'4 


•5' 
lat 


236 
504 


.4 


*8s 
99 


79 
271 


1,276 


Trask, Elias 




16 


100 




3 


460 


' 


84 245 


805 


Trelry, Joshua 




"37 


209 




'3 


528 


I 


57 151 


88S 


Trefr>-, John 




3 


297 




59) 
47 i 


1,104 


2 


83 \ \ 5'o 


1,911 
















'47*1 




Walker, John 




7' 


124 


I 


41 


711 


I 


7 i »52 


987 


Woodbury, Jonathan . . 




90 


163 




II 


539 


I 


•43 


154 


856 


Weston, Nathan .... 


i4 


34 


\ 


.4 


*53 
45 


, 266 
495 


i4 


♦62 
12 


1.2 

217 


1,29c 


Verge, John 


I 


95 


"7 




43 


578 


I 


92 


148 


843 


Vacant 


4 


'31 


86 


4 


♦57 
6- 


330 


4 


*90 [ 92 
18, 


■;o8 ; 


Government Reservation 


4 


10 


719 




2,418 


4 


3°!: 801 


3.?38 








j 




I02 






77 f 








149 




1 


- 


•47. 


1 
; 


- 


78 J 


1 




i - 


- 


- 1 - 
i 


- 


129.638 



An asterisk in the foregoing table implies that tlie grantee had only 
half of the lot to which it is affixed, but the corresponding figures 
express only half the area of the lot. The figures in the total-area 
column, therefore, show the number of acres to each grantee, except that, 
to economize space, the fractional parts of an acre which helped to make 
up the area of nearly every lot are omitted, without, however, materially 
affecting the result. The total-area column, if added up, will be found. 



SCHEME OF DIVl:^IOX. 



179 



therefore, to vary a little from the amount expressed at foot, 129.63S 
acres ; the area of the lots in the three divisions, after deducting the 
area of William Tor)''s lands, Bunker's and Gilfillan's Peninsulas, etc., 
609.58 acres. 

It will have been observed that a grantee's number covered more than 
one lot in the different divisions, particularly in the first and second 
divisions. For instance, John MacKinnon had three lots in the first 
division under No. 31 ; a large lot in 'he Little-River District, about 700 
acres ; a lot on Wyman's Road ; and a lot in the special plot at the mouth 
of Salmon River, now belonging to the Earl family, — together 863 
acres. 



GRANTEES OF GILFILLANS PENINSULA 

John Perry Lot No. i 

Dominicus Sewell " 2 

James Mattingly " 3 



GRANTEES OF BUNKERS PENINSULA. 

William Haskell Lot I 

IJenjamin Urown " 2 . . . . 

Nathaniel Elwell " 

Eleazer 15utler " 

Jonathan Woodbury " 

lienjamin Kllenwood " 

James Gilfillan " 

Lbenezer Moulton " 

John H. .Moulton " 

Ebenezer Moulton, jun " 

Elisha Kldridge " 

John Richardson " 

Paul Punker " 

Ebenezer Moulton " 

Phineas Hurkee " 

William Ha.skell " 

Joseph Stewart " 

Hezekiah Hunker " 

Judah Agard " 

Joseph Saunders " 

Kleazer Hibbard " 

Ebenezer Moulton " 

Hezekiah Punker " 

Hezekiah Hunker '■ 

Hezekiah Bunker " 



9 
10 
II 
12 

13 

13 

'4 

'5 
16 

17 
iS 

'9 
20 
21 

22 

23 
2+ 



4 


acres 


3* 


(( 


3i 


({ 


II 


acres 



\ acres. 



34^ acres. 



i8o 



SCHEME OF DIVISION. 



GRANTEES OF CHEBOGUE TOWN POINT 

lienj.imin Oarling Lot i 

Jiihii Trefry "2 

Thomas Saltes ; . 

Joshua Trefry 

John Verge 

James lieal 

Timothy l<obinsf)n 

Amo> Hilton 

Stilson Hilton 

Josiah Heal 

Kbenezer Kllis 

Lemuel ('hurchill 



3 acres. 



3 
4 

5 
6 

7 

S 

9 

10 

1 1 



(( 


i6 


(I 


'7 


tl 


i8 


t( 


'9 


«( 


20 


t( 


21 


t< 


22 


tt 


23 


tt 


24 


*' 


25 



ID 



James Kelley " ij 

Ebcne/cr Haley "14 

Norman MacKinnon " j^ 1 

John Crawley, sen 

John MacKinnon 

Abner Hall 

Elias Trask 

Daniel T'rocker 

William Curtis 

Jonathan Scott 

Samuel Dove 

Wells Moulton 

Josiah Godfrey 



GRANTEES OF STONY BEACH POINT. 



39 acres. 



Elbenerer .Moulton 
Ebenezer Mmilton 
Samuel Harris . 
Jose|)h Pitman . 
Joseph Saunders 
Henry Coggins . 
Stephen Gullison 
lienjamin Redding 
Nehtniiah Porter 
John Symonds . 
Andrew Lovitt . 
Rivjhard Rose. . 
Ebenezer Corning 



Lot I 
" 2 

" 3 
" 4 

" 6 

" 7 
" 8 

" 9 
" 10 
" n 
•' 12 

"•3 



John Sollows "14 

David Pearl . "15 

Samuel Ellenwood "16 



acre. 



16 acres. 



HIGH 11 -A Y KESER VA HON. 1 8 1 

The municipal authorities of tiie township appear to have lost sight 
of the fact, that, in the division of the lands, a reservation was made for 
higlnvays of 1,708 acres, equal to about 213 miles of highway, of four 
ro(ls in width. A reference to the plan will show that, to nearly every 
lot in the three divisions, unless hounded l)y a marsh or river, access 
was given by a highway reservation, now often mentioned as a "double- 
base line." No doubt, the county taxes in times past would have been 
less burdensome if this feature in (ioldsbury's plan had been more 
generally recognized ; and even now, in the still unoccupied portion-^ of 
the townshij), it may be found that to follow his scheme of division 
would prove advantageous to the public interests, and, at the same time, 
open up the lands for settlement. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Chebo?ue Farmers. — Homes of Early Settlers. — Kelley's Cove. — (^Id Arcadia and J.ittle- 
Rivcr Homesteads. — Diirkeo's Island.— Pinkney's I'oint. — .--ea-side and River Scenery 
of Yarmouth Sound and Chebosjiie H.irbor. — I'hineas Durkee. — Proprietors' Improve- 
ments within Towr Proper. — John .Murray, E. W. H. Moody, Comfort Haley of Salem, 
Thomas and Georjje fioudey and others. — Coast-line from Cape Fourchu 'o Beaver- 
River Comer. — Israel I.ovittand Richard Fletcher. — Chegog^jin and Brooklyn Farmers. 

— Farmers from Ulster. — .Sons of [ames .Murphy. — Ephraim Churchill and his 
Descendants. — .Murphy's Iiridf.;e. — ICIeazer and Kiifus Hibbard. — I.eadmg Farmers in 
other Districts of the Township and on the Banks of the Tusket River and its Branches. 

— Influence of the FCarly Settlers. 

RI'A'KR'riNO now to the early settlers of Yarmouth Township, we 
find among the i6o men (see beginning of Chapter XI.) wlio 
came here previous to 1800, the names of those to whom, or to who.se 
descendants, are mainly owing the growth and i>rosperity of the township. 
From the families who first settled upon the shores of the Chebogue 
River and the eastern shores of Yarmouth Sound, came the men wiio 
founded and sustained the maritime industry of the Port of Yarmouth. 
I»ut there were many among them who first deserve mention for their 
enterprise in clearing away the forests, and preparing for agricultural 
pursuits, that being a prime condition of permanent occupation. 

.'\s the reader passes over the pages that follow, it will be seen how 
large a proportion of those engaged in the various pursuits bear the 
names of the residents of the first forty years. Previous to 1800, but one 
vessel eii-eeding a hundred tons had been built in the cuunty, nor had 
the forest-clearings advanced so far as to entitle any cultivated area to be 
called a farm. Except in a general way, therefore, allusion will not be 
made to conflitions existing prior to the year 1800; but the names will 
be given of the men prominent in diffeicnt pursuits at later periods 
whom Campbell's History has failed to mention. 

The names first given will be those of the men who, coming into 



CHimOGUE POINT. 



'83 



I)Ossession of ihe early clearings, continued the work so well begun, and 
who have been at some time prominent as cultivators of the soil. Under 
the family-names will be comprised those who have, by various routes, 
following the first paths cut through the forest, extended their agricul- 
tural o[ierations all over the township, rendering the conditions of life 
easier to their successors. 



Allen. 


Goodwin. 


MacKinnic. 


Rodney. 


Andrews. 


Grdidcy. 


Mac.Miillen. 


Rogers. 


IJain. 


Gowen. 


Miller. 


Rose. 


I'.aker. 


Flalcy. 


Moiid. 


Saunders. 


llingay. 


Hamilton. 


Moody. 


Scott. 


Hond. 


Handy. 


Morrill. 


Scovil. 


I'.ridgeo. 


H.irris. 


M-.ses. 


Shaw. 


I'.rown. 


Hatfield. 


Murphy. 


Sol lows. 


Kullerwell. 


Hawley. 


Murray. 


Stritklanfl. 


liiirrill. 


Heineon. 


N'ickcrson. 


Sweeney. 


liiitlcr. 


Her>,ey. 


Patten. 


Syinonds. 


Cain. 


Hibbard. 


I'erry. 


Tedford. 


' ann. 


Hilton. 


Phillips. 


Thurston. 


Churchill. 


Holden. 


Pinkney. 


Tinkhain. 


Clement.s. 


Holmes. 


Pitman. 


Tooker. 


Cook. 


1 fiintington. 


Porter. 


Trask. 


Corning. 


Hurlburt. 


Powers. 


Travis. 


Crawley. 


Jeffery. 


Prosser. 


Trefry. 


Crosby. 


Jenkins. 


Randall. 


Van Xorden 


Dennis, 


Kavanagli. 


Raymond. 


Vickery. 


Durkee. 


Kellcy. 


Raynard. 


Walker. 


Karl. 


Killam. 


Redding. 


Webster. 


Eldridge. 


Kinney. 


Richardson. 


Weston. 


Ellis. 


Landers. 


Ring. 


Whitehouse. 


Flint. 


Lo\, t. 


Ritchie. 


Williams. 


Foote. 


MacKinnon. 


R^jbbins. 


Wilson. 


P'oulis. 


Magray. 


Roberts. 


Winter. 


Gallic. 


MacCormank. 


Robinson. 


Wyman. 



Particular mention must be made of a few men in different parts of 
the township, who, by the thorough manner m which they carried out 
their agricultural operations, set a good example before their neighbor- 
hood. 

First in order come Joseph Robbins, Ira Robbins, and Lemuel 
Robbins, John Crawley, Jacob Hilton, and Samuel Oosby, whosn prop- 
erties at Chebogue Point remain an ornament to that section of the 
country, and an evidence of the industry and skill of the successive 
occupants. Chandler Robbins, the present owner of tba property of 



lS4 CHE BOGLE RIIER. 

his father, Joseph Robbins, and who has added to and improved it, 
enjoys the honor of owning the most productive and valuable farm in 
the county. 

On the Cove road the farms which present the most attractions are 
those of the late Capt. John Hilton, Capts. John I). Kelley, William 
H. Cook. Cleorge Allen, and James F. Scott (the latter formerly Capt. 
Robert Kelley's), all the outcome of the labors of the early settlers ; 
,vhile the picturescjue properties of Lewis Allen and Charles Richan 
of Sunday I'oint add a finish to the charming scenery at Kelley's 
Cove. 

John Pinkney, Leonard Weston, and the brothers Nathaniel, Samuel, 
and John Holmes of Central Chebogue, have, as intelligent cultivators 
of the soil, distinguished their district ; while its later accessions, Capt. 
Francis G. Cook, Capt. George Jacpies, and Norman B. Handy, son of 
Ward Handy, a worthy and well-remembered farmer of Ohio, are 
admirably comjjleting the work of their predecessors under circum- 
stances more favorable than the latter enjoyed. 

The improvements of John and Joseph Kinney, Lemuel Churchill 
2d, and George Trefry, render more conspicuous the lofty eminence 
at the head of tide-water of the Chebogue River ; while in the valley 
the cosey cottage of S(|uire Gabriel \'an Norden secured the admiration 
of every passer-by. The squire's garden was noted for the earliest 
flowers of spring, the first fruits of summer and of autumn ; and often, 
beneath the beauteous blossoms of the sciuire's orchard, were gathered 
attractions more lovely than the flowers. There was the true Arcadia 
— now passing away. 

An attractive property at Little River is Durkee's Island, the former 
home of the first Amasa Durkee, then of Lyman Durkee, his son, and 
later owned and very much improved by N. K. Clements ; and, a little 
farther on, the fine property of William Kinney bears testimony to his 
unfailing energy and industry at a time of life when most men seek 
repose. The farms of the Cooks, Aliens, and Herseys, in the same dis- 
trict, too numerous to particularize, afford a pleasing evidence of the 
manner in which the later occupants have carried forward the improve- 
ments begun by their ancestors a hundred years ago. 

Pinkney's Point, the old homestead of the first John Pinkney of 1777, 



COVE ROAD. 185 

about thirty years ago passed into tlie possession of I'rospere Surette and 
Antoine Richard from Tusket \Vedge. I'or many years previous it was 
the home of Joseph Pcry, gramlson of Thomas Perry, an early settler; 
and among the writer's most treasured rerollec tions is the cordial 
welcome with which, upon a pleasant Sunday afternoon in 1S50, 
Mr. Perry received his first visit to Pinkney's Point ; and this had an 
exact counterpart in a reception from Ira Robl)ins at C'hebogue Point, 
two years later. 

The lands adjoining the Cove road from Hroad Hrook northerly to 
Yarmouth Town were naturally too rocky and uneven to admit of exten- 
sive agricultural operations unless at a scarcely warrantable exj)ense. 
Still, some retired sea-captains, Thomas Crosby, James (Jain, William 
Hibbard, Nehemiah Crosby, James Baker, and William Cain, having in 
their turn exerted themselves to supjjly what nature had denied, the 
district has lost many of the rough and unattractive features it originally 
possessed. 

The sea-side and river scenery, all around the circuit so far referred 
to, is so truly magnificent that the holders of the properties may reason- 
ably look forward to a time when the shores of Yarmouth Sound and 
C'hebogue Harbor and River will become favorite resorts for a wealthy 
class of New-F2ngland people escaping from the oppressive heat of the 
summer months at home. The overflow from the crowded beaches of 
Maine and .Massachus«;tts is casting about for "fresh fields and pastures 
new ; " and under certain conditions, which it may not, perhaps, be 
prudent here to mention, the sea-beaches of Yarmouth County would 
attract a fair proportion of most desirable summer visitors." 

Just outside of the limits of Yarmouth Town lies the old homestead 
property of Phineas Durkee of I'jGi, whose great-great-grandson, 
Amasa G. Durkee, now occupies a part of it. The descendants of 
Phineas are to be found at the present day as farmers at Ohio, Deerfield, 
and Carleton, at Bellfield, Pembroke, Lake George, and Cedar Lake. 
His eldest son, Amasa, owned, and gave the name to, I )urkee's Island on 
the eastern side of the (Jhebogue River ; another son, Stejihen, was one 
of the first settlers at Brooklyn (then called Squirreltown) ; and another, 
Robert, was one of the pioneers of the Ohio district. Phineas was the 

• Appendix O. 



f86 YARMOUTH TOWN. 

grantee also of what was later called "Jenkins' Island," near the head 
of Yarmouth Harbor. 

The old "Tooker farm," adjoining Durkee's (originally granted to 
Richard Rose), has been in the Tooker family nearly a hundred years. 
It was the first Yarmouth home of Jacob Tooker, who was a master ship- 
buildv..-, and the ancestor of all of that name in the county. 

The lands reclaimed by John Murray, on the south side of Kempt 
Street, present, from front to rear, perhaps a better example of thorough 
cultivation and orderly arrangement than any other area of equal extent 
in the county. James Bond, E. W. B. Moody, W. H. Moody, and 
Cieorge S. Brown, togf'ther, within the last forty years, effected many valu- 
able and permanent improvements upon the area between Argyle and 
Forest Streets ; while Comfort Haley's large farm at Salem has been a 
model for judiciOui field divisions, clean and profitable culture, and neat 
fencing ; and Mr. Haley himself was no less distinguished for untiring 
industry than for the uniform courtesy and good-nature with which he 
fulfilled the duties of a neighbor and a citizen. 

The lands from But)e-'s Hill to Milton, generally, were poorly 
adapted to cultivation ; and they were, for the most part, held by men 
engaged in seafaring pursuits. Thomas and George Goudey, William 
Brown, Ebenezer and Nehemiah Porter, Joseph Ellis, John Durkee, 
John Redding, and James Jenkins, although following various other 
avocations, made considerable improvements upon the large tracts they 
owned ; fitting them, in fine, for buildmg-sites, for which purpose they 
have been freely utilized during the last fifty years. 

Near the corner of Starr's road is the old homestead of Joseph Shaw, 
for many years high sheriff of Yarmouth County, and whose name will 
appear hereafter among the prominent ship-owners. And just here a 
digression may be permitted to remark that Yarmouth has always been 
fortunate in her sheriffs. John Bingay, Joseph Shaw, W. B. Townsend, 
and W. K. Dudman, held »^he office in succession for more than sixty 
years ; and of them all it may be said they cultivated the virtue of 
forbearance, and reluctantly executed the tasks the lawyers set before 
them, — virtues surely to be practised by the present incumbent. More- 
over, their view seemed to be that criminals of the ordinary sort, — and 
Yarmouth furnished none other of native stock, — were merely men of 



CHEGOGGIN. 1 8/ 

average character led temporarily astray, who would in kind words and 
humane treatment, in "justice tempered with mercy," raid a real incen- 
tive to reform. 

Miner Huntington and John Killam 2d were the later owners of 
the principal part of John Walker's grant, which, bounded west by the 
harbor and Cape Fourchu River, extended from Starr's Corner up to and 
including the property of James MacMullen and Thomas Perry. Soon 
after the death of Herbert Huntington in 1851, streets were laid out 
through his extensive property, opening up the handsome building-sites 
since so finely occupied, which, with the important improvements subse- 
quently effected by Thomas Killam upon his lands on both sides ot 
Chestnut Street, imparted a new character to "the Mills." Thence- 
forward the quiet village better deserved the name of Milton. 

The lands upon the western side of the harbor, from Cape Fourchu 
to Chegoggin Dike, were better suited for pasturage than tillage : they 
have been mainly occupied by men who followed the sea, and this 
remark applies generally to the whole coast-line to Beaver-River Corner. 
But there were some noteworthy exceptions. The sons and grandsons 
of Richard Rose successfully applied themselves to the cultivation of 
the soil to the manifest advantage of the whole community ; and the 
descendants of Levi Scovil, Samuel and David Harris, and Zachariah 
Foote, have performed some very creditable work m the same line. 
James Scovil made his grass-lands and dairy-stock so profitable that his 
neighbors sometimes thought he had discovered one of the pirate- 
treasures which tradition says lie buried all along the south-west coast of 
Nova Scotia. But a more reasonable conjecture is, that Mr. Scovil's 
success was owing to a judicious application to his fields of the wealth 
which the autumn gales throw upon the benches. Soon after Benjamin 
Churchill (great-grandson of the first Lemuel) bought Mr. Scovil's farm, 
he introduced to that part of the country a mowing-machine, hay-tedder, 
and horse-rake, — a proof alike of Mr. Churchill's enterprise and Mr. 
Scovil's intelligent and careful culture. ; ? 

Israel Lovitt's farm, which has been in possession of the family for 
a hundred and twenty years, was noted in his day for its handsome 
oxen and excellent dairy-stock. Mr. Lovitt was very fond of horses also, 
and more were raised upon his than upon any other farm in the county. 



I88 LOVITT'S ROAD. 

But Mr. Lovitt's enterprise was not confined to raising fine horses 
and cattle. From his pasture-lot at the head of the creek dividing his 
property from that of his neighbor, John Cann^ Mr. Lovitt launched his 
brig Paragon, in 1838 ; and fromthe opposite shore of the creek, a few 
rods farther up, John Cann launched his brig Britannia in the same 
year. Upon the same sites, respectively, Capt. Cann built the brig 
Grecian, in 1832, and Mr. Lovitt the brigi. Redbreast, in 1834. For 
such purposes were the farms utilized only fifty years ago. It was the 
" mixed husbandry " of the early settlers continued to the second and 
third generations. " Lovitl'b Grove " has been associated with the 
romances of five generations, fresh ones supplying the place of the older 
romances as they in succession become tradition. With its ancient 
beech-trees and mass of evergreens, it is still a favorite resort in the 
picnic season. Esto perpetua. 

.'\djoining Mr. Lovitt's to the westward is the old homestead of Dr. 
Richard Fletcher, third son of Dr. George Fletcher of Queens County, 
Ireland, the ancestor of whose family in Ireland was in early times 
bishop of Kildare. There is a monument erected to his memory in the 
cathedral of Christ Church, Dublin.' 

In 1 786, Dr. Richard Fletcher was appointed surgeon to the Sixth 
Regiment of Foot, shortly afterward ordered to the North- American 
station. In 1791 he married Mary, fourth daughter of Col. Ranald 
MacKinnon of Argyle. He had retired from the service in 1 796, and 
settled at Shelburne, where he resided until 1809, when he removed to 
Yarmouth. He died in 1818. 

Dr. Fletcher had two sons. The eldest, William, joined the British 
navy as midshipman. He served in the Cleopatra in 1807, and in the 
Columbia in 1808. In 18 10, while on the West India-station, he was pro- 
moted to a lieutenancy, and placed in command of H. M. S. Guachapin, 
guardship at Antigua. He died there of yellow-fever in 1813. 
i Mrs. Mary Fletcher occupied the old homestead unti# 1840, when it 
passed into the possession of her second son, Capt. George Stephen 
Fletcher, who went to Australia in the Brilliant in 1852, and died at 
Melbourne in 1854. 

Among the older Chegoggin farmers must be named Calvin Cann and 

' Appendix P. 






MILTON. 189 

William Thurston, who owned the lands at the head of tide-water of 
the Chegoggin River, once the site of an Indian encampment and of the 
traditional Acadian village; Abner and Moses Vickery in the same 
vicinity ; Thomas Brown, who succeeded to the fine property of his 
father of the same name ; Mark Killam, who in his day was the leading 
farmer of Chegoggin, famous for his excellent beef-cattle, and the 
superior quality of his crops of every description ; Nelson Corning, who 
in his old age still carries off first prizes at the annual fairs of the 
Yarmouth County Agricultural Society ; and Stephen Churchill (grandson 
of Ephraim), celebrated for the first-rate quality of his dairy products, 
and who has probably raised more fine oxen and dairy-stock of 
improved breeds than any other farmer in the county. 

The men of the Bain family (descendants of the shipwrecked boy 
of 1762), as farmers of Chegoggin, or wherever else in the county they 
have been located, or however they have been employed, have always 
been distinguished for honest and faithful work : and the b others 
Richard and John Williams, owning large farms just outside the town- 
limits, are remembered for the genuine courtesy with which, in the 
midst of their work, they received a visitor ; nor would they let him go 
until he had been taken to their house, and made a partaker of the 
generous hospitality which was a not uncommon feature of the olden 
time. 

Henry Burrill, for the last thirty years the leading farmer in the 
Milton district, and the owner of some of the best dairy-stock in the 
county, has earned a distinction which his youngest son promises to 
perpetuate ; while his nephew, John MacCormack, has, in his quiet but 
effective way, put the finishing-touches to some of the early clearings 
on the hill east of his residence, which lead the visitor to lament that 
more emigrants from Ulster have not found their way to Yarmouth 
County. 

The old homestead of Capt. Amos Baker, J. P., meets us at the end 
of Bain's Road, later owned by his nephew Amos Baker Brown, with 
the farm of Zachariah Corning for its next neighbor to the north. 

The six sons of James Murphy of Brooklyn — William, John, 
Benjamin, Martin, Joseph, and Melzar — all followed the sea in their 
younger days ; but they all had, too, a natural predilection for the soil. 



IQO BROOKLYN. 

The name " Murphy's Bridge " will, no doubt, long remain as a reminder 
of William, the owner of the picturesque property beyond it. Benjamm, 
the last to overcome the attractions of foreign lands, has been lately, 
with a lively zeal, employed ii: making permanent improvements upon 
his wife's portion of the old Israel Lovitt homestead ; and the other 
brothers, owners of neatly kept properties at Brooklyn, have materially 
aided '■be descendants of Joseph Pitman and John Walker (of 1762 and 
1 764) in giving character to that locality. 

The Pitmans are too numerous, and their valuable work too varied, 
to admit of detail here. If their work outside of it had been confined 
to Brooklyn, there would be now presented an area of neatly fenced 
and cleanly-cultivated lands of an extent unequalled in the county ; but 
who, then, could have built up Yarmouth Town? The elder Amos out- 
grew Brooklyn "1 ^ gether. But the hills were still higher ; and, unwilling 
to have his view obstructed by the high lands intervening, he at length 
withdrew from Brooklyn, and established himself on "Tedford's Hill," 
an eminence on Starr's Road, from which he could overlook both the 
town and Brooklyn. 

The landmark, "Thurston's Corner," attests an appreciation of John 
Thurston's improvements ; and Angus Walker, attached to the home 
of his early years as well as to the region about Salmon- River Bridge, 
made a compromise with himself, and settled upon the verge of the 
Black Country ; and his fields there now bear evidence to a degree of 
culture nc' excelled in the Brooklyn district. His mechanical ability 
brought him employment for rainy days, for Angus Walker's ox-yokes 
are esteemed all over the county. 

On the road towards Hebron, the first noteworthy property is the 
old homestead of Thomas Flint and of his son Thomas ; next, the 
property of Eleazer Hibbard (son of Eleazer of 1763), and of Ephraim 
Churchill of 1784, who, if we may judge by their descendants, were very 
worthy men. Rufus Churchill, sen., a master ship-builder, father of the 
Rufus so skilled in the mechanical powers ; Zaccheus Churchill, the 
trusty land-surveyor ; and Walter Churchill, the judicious and industrious 
farmer, — occupied portions of these lands, as well as Capt. William 
Churchill, for many years township treasurer. Well worth a visit is the 
carefully guarded family graveyard where Ephraim was buried, and 



HEBRON. 



191 



where, with a commendable respect for old associations, members of his 
family still bury their dead. 

Rufus Hibbard's farm comes next, but his later improvements lie 
back upon the eastern hill. His large barns, however, tell the story 
of his industry ; and his cheerful spirit is a token of the rewards which 
have been the attendants of his toil. * 

Upon reaching the foot of '■ Cann's Hill," we find the homestead 
of Thomas Dane Chipman, son of Zachariah Chipman of Chegoggin, 
who deserves remembrance for the unwavering fidelity with which, for 
a long term of years, as a member of the old Court of Sessions, he 
guarded the public interests, and dealt out impartial justice to all who 
sought it at that court. 

The old homestead of Hugh Cann of 1784, now occupied by his 
youngest son Alden, reminds us that northerly to the county-line lies 
a country still chiefly occupied by farmers, a large proportion of whom 
bear the names of — 



Allen, 


Crosby, 


Moses, 


Trask, 


Butler, 


Durkee, 


Patten, 


Vickery, 


Cann, 


Eldridge, 


Perry, 


Whitehouse. 


Churchill, 


Ellis, 


Porter, 


Winter, 


Cook, 


Goudey, 


Saunders, 


Wyman, 


Corning, 


Landers, 


Tedford, 





who, with an exception or two, are the descendants of the men who 
came to Yarmouth within twenty-five years of its first settlement in 
1761 ; but it may be well left to a later pen to describe in, detail the 
enterprise of the younger men who are perfecting the work their fore- 
fathers had begun. Want of space forbids more than a mere mention 
of the names of the older farmers of the different districts. Loren and 
Alden Cann, Jacob Tedford, Samuel Bain, John and Jacob Phillips, 
Benjamin I itman, John Trask, and his sons James and John, Chipman 
Porte"- VVilliam Harris, and Joseph Rogers, may be taken as representa- 
ti' e <A Hebron. VVilliam Harris succeeded to the ownership of Anthony 
Landers's homestead ; and Joseph Rogers bought the property which 
John Brown owned for about seventeen years, and named " Draffan," 
from his old home on the banks of the Clyde, about twenty miles 
above Glasgow, and to which he retired upon relinquishing business 



192 



OHIO. 



at Milton in 1824. The leading farmers on the opposite side of the 
lake and at Bellfield, have been Lemuel Crosby and his sons Lemuel 
and Joseph, Josiah Crosby, Benjamin Porter, James Churchill, William 
Durkee, Josiah Raymond, Joseph Bell, Enoch Porter, and Samuel T. 
and Alexander Bain 4th. 

The following lists contain the names of the representative farmers of 
the different districts fifty years ago, with a few of the more prominent 
ones of a later period. Enoch Crosby may be taken as a type of the 
olden Ohio farmer. After spending an ordinary lifetime in building up 
his valuable old homestead property on the western side of the river, he 
sold it to Nelson Cann, and retired to Deerfield near to where some of 
his children had settled ; and he has so transformed his new home, 
which was a very rough place when he went to it, that it is now the 
chief ornament of that part of the country : — 



John Saunders. 
Eleazer liutler, sen. 
Eleazer Butler, jun. 
Robert Butler. 
Nathan Butler. 
Robert Durkee, sen. 
John Durkee. 
Robert Durkee, jun. 
Ward Handy. 
James Allen. 
Jos. Alden Ellis. 



OHIO DISTRICT. 

Nathan Crosby, sen. 
Knowles Crosby. 
John K. Crosby. 
James Watson Patten. 
Asahel Wyman. 
Manasseh Cook. 
William Cook. 
Ellas Trask. 
William Fletcher. 
Nehemiah Churchill. 
Benjamin Churchill. 



Jesse Cann. 
John Cann. 
Joseph Porter. 
Joseph ''"hitehouse, sen. 
Benjannn Whitehouse. 
Jacob Vickery, sen. 
Nathan '^rosby, jun. 
William Moses. 
Ebenezer Crosby. 



Samuel Hilton. 
Amos Hilton. 
Robert Trask. 
Stephen Durkee. 
George Durkee. 
Edward Pennel. 
Phineas Allen. 
John Moses. 
Joel Allen. 



LAKE GEORGE DISTRICT. 

Daniel Allen. 
John Pitman. 
William Delaney. 
Charles Moses. 
Nathaniel Harris. 
John Scovil. ;; 

Enoch Saunders. 
George Goudey. 
Henry Durkee. 



Thomas Winter. 
John Winter. 
William Winter. 
Isaiah Crosby. 
Samuel Saunders. 
Ebenezer Eldridge. 
Hugh Cann, sen. 



BEAVER RIVER TO CARLETOX. 



193 



WELLINGTON, HARTFORD, ETC. 



James Powers. 
Zachariah Vickery. 
Enoch Crosby. 
J. Nelson Cann, 
Hezediah Porter. 
Richard Patten. 
Jesse Moses. 
Edward Moses. 
James Moses. 
Henry Saunders. 
Cyrus Ferry. 



John MacCorniack, sen. 
John MacCormack, jun. 
Jonathan Patten. 
Caleb Cook. 
James Crosby. 
Samuel Porter. 
Sealed Landers. 
John Landers. 
Joseph Landers. 
Jesse Shaw. 
Ansel Crosbv. 



Stephen Hutler. 
Nathan Rose. 
Thomas Pearce. 
Edmund Wymrn. 
William Bain. 
Jonathan Strickland. 
John Patten. 
Nathan Patten. 
James Rose. 
Joseph Redding. 



BEAVER RIVER, RICHMOND, AND COUNTY LINE. 



Jabez Landers. 
Thomas Goudey. 
Stephen Goudey. 
Joseph Sollows. 
David Jeffery. 
Asa Pitman. 
Thomas Byrnes. 
Nathaniel .Saunders. 
Joseph Trask. 



Samuel Crosby. 

Ste]>hen Saunders. 
James Phillips. 
Josiah Porter. 
Wni. S. Patten. 
Ira Porter. 
Cyrus Perry, jun. 
George Blackadar. 
Jacob Trask. 



James Kelley. 
Cyrus Perry, sen. 
John Phillips. 
Harvey Cann. 
Daniel Corning. 
Jacob Tedford, jun. 
Wm. H. Tedford. 
James Killam, sen. 
Joseph Crosby. 



William Whitehouse,sen. 
John K. Crosby, jun. 
Robert Durkee 3d. 
William Doane. 



OLD KEMPT ROAD. 

Coleman Cann. 
Andrew Cann. 
Zenas Eldridge. 
William Whitehouse, jun. 



Josiah Cann. 
David Saunders. 
Alexander Crosby. 
Hugh Cann, jun. 



DEERFIELD AND PLEASANT VALLEY. 



Levi Eldridge. 
Edward Crowell. 
Samuel EUenwood. 
James B. Gallic. 
Richard Saunders. 
Henry Saunders. 
James Porter. 
Asa Porter. 
Jeremiah Vickery. 
Samuel Crosby, 
lames M. Porter. 



Joseph H. Porter. 
Ebenezer C. Porter. 
Charles Dewolfe. 
Freeborn Durke?. 
Andrew Durkee. 
Samuel Killam. 
Benjamin P. Crosby. 
Richard Crosby. 
Enoch Crosby. 
Samuel Vickery. 
Hezediah Porter. 



Jeremiah Porter. 
Richard Durkee. 
George Nickerson. 
Thomas Goudey. 
George Hawley. 
Job Hamilton. 
Rufus Symonds. 
Joseph Corning. 
Charles Tedford. 
Miner Durkee. 
Jacob Durkee. 



Benjamin Clements. 
Joseph Durkee. 
James M. Killam. 
Abiel Robbins. 
Nathan Hilton, sen. 



CARLETON. 

Smith Hilton. 
Leonard Dennis. 
David Robbins. 
John Allen. 
John Churchill. 



Charles Tinkham. 
David Hibbard. 
David Allen. 
Thomas Pitman. 
Oliver Pitman. 



194 



TUSKET r./lER. 



Asa Pitman. 
Daniel liethune, sen. 
Daniel Bethune, jun. 
John IJethune. 
Henry Bethune. 
James Hicks. 
Thomas Eldridge. 
Asahel Corning. 
Nelson Brittain. 
Joseph Brittain. 



Peter Robicheau. 
Lyman Allen. 
Charles Wilson. 
George Raynard. 
Daniel H^aniilton. 
Daniel Raymond. 
Joseph Raymond, sen. 
John Raymond. 
Nathaniel Perry. 
Joseph Raymond, jun. 



Seth Tinkham, jun. 
Edmund Crawley. 
Isaac .Miller. 
Joseph Miller. 
John Miller 
Daniel Kelley. 
John Perry. 
David Richardson. 
.Samuel Richardson. 
Henry King. 



KEMPTVILLE, West Side of River. 



Henry G. Raynard. 
Ephraim Tinkham. 
Matthew Roberts. 
Ephraim Roberts. 
Jacob Roberts. 
Jonathan Goodwin. 
David Hurlburt. 
Reuben MacKinnon. 
David Randall. 



William I'rosser. 
Peter R. Crowell. 
John Roberts. 
Handley Roberts. 
William E. McGrey. 
William Hurlburt. 
Samuel Gullison. 
Nathaniel Churchill, sen. 
Nathaniel Churchill, jun. 



Calvin Valpey. 
Robert Prosser. 
James Prosser. 
Ezekiel Ring. 
Joel Gray. 
Asa McGrey. 
Silas Rankin. 
James Y. Gray. 



KEMPTVILLE, East Side of River. 



James Hurlburt. 
Edward Tinkham. 
Seth Tinkham, sen. 
Abner Andrews. 
Nathaniel Travis, sen. 
Josiah Harding. 
Gamaliel Harding. 
John Harding. 
Jonathan Crowell. 



Samuel Hamilton. 
Harvey Hamilton. 
Samuel Gray. 
George Gray. 
Nelson Giay. 
Ebenezer Gray. 
Colin Gray. 
.Solomon Mangham. 
William Mangham. 



Josiah Forbes. 
John Forbes. 
John Woods. 
Reuben Killam. 
Mark Killam, jun. 
William Morton. 
John Morton. 
Wentworth Morton. 
William Bowers. 



HOOP-POLE HILL, CANAAN, ETC. 



David White. 
John Hurlburt, sen. 
Isaac Hurlburt. 
George Hurlburt. 
John H. Hurlburt. 



John Harding. 
Hezekiah White. 
George F. Gavel. 
Robert Andrews, sen. 
Robert Andrews, jun. 



John Andrews. 
Joseph Allen. 
John Hurlburt, jun. 
Abraham Kavanagh. 



EAST SIDE MAIN BRANCH, TUSKET RIVER. 



William White. 
William Kavanagh. 
Jacol- Tinkham. 
\f"z:i Hurlburt, sen. 
Israe' ii: iburt, jun. 
George Hurlburt. 
Absalom Hurlburt. 
Joshua Trefry. 
Isaac Miller. 



ARGVLE TOWNSHIP. 

Simon Kavanagh. 
James King. 
John Williams. 
Luke Keogh. 
Joseph Hurlburt. 
Gideon Hurlburt. 
John Gavel, sen. 
Abram S. Lent. 
Andrew Gavel. 



William Gavel. 
Jacob H. Gavel. 
John Gavel, jun. 
John U. Gavel. 
William Woods. 
Forster Crosby. 
James R. Blauvelt. 
Job Blauvelt. ; • 
Cornelius Hatfield. 



/ 

( 



BROOKL YN. 



195 



WEST SIDE MAIN BRANCH, TUSKET RIVER. 



James Hatfield. 
.\bram L. Hatfield. 
David Hamilton. 
Titus Hurlburt, jun. 
Job Hurlburt. 
Albert Hurlburt. 
George Saunders. 
William N. Halstead. 
John Halstead. 
William Andrews, jun. 
Job Raynard, sen. 
Job Raynard, jun. 
C. V. N. Blauvelt. 
John W Raynard. 
Jacob Raynard. 



YARMOUTH TOWNSHIP. 

Peter Marlin. 
Wells Hamilton. 
Henry Hamilton. 
John Hamilton. 
Charles Andrews. 
Anthony Hatfield. 
Daniel Hamilton. 
Joel Andrews. 
James King. 
William W. Andrews. 
Samuel Andrews, sen. 
John Andrews. 
David .Andrews. 
Thomas .Andrews. 
Nehemiah Andrews. 



Titus Hurlburt, sen. 
Abram Hurlburt. 
J. Norris Raynard. 
John Woods. 
James C. Hatfield. 
Nathaniel Hatfield. 
Jacob Hatfield. 
Hugh N. Hatfield. 

Edward Whito. 

Robert Hewitt. 

Edward Raynard. 

David Hatfield. 

John A. Hatfield. 



SALMON RIVER, PLYMOUTH, AND LITTLE RIVER. 



James L. Hatfield. 
John Hallam. 
Henry Wyman. 
Mark Wyman. 
Wellington Wyman. 
Rufus Kinney. 
Cornelius Mood. 
Eustace Nickerson. 
James Sweeney. 
Henry Montague. 
Peter Earl. 
Abram Earl, sen. 
Rufus X. Robbins. 
Henry Archer. 
William BuUerwell, sen. 
John BuUerwell. 
William BuUerwell, jun. 
Robert BuUerwell. 



Joseph BuUerwell. 
Thomas BuUerwell. 
Andrew Jeffery. 
John Purdy. 
Robert Purdy. 
Joseph Purdy. 
James Purdy. 
Robert Sims. 
George Sims. 
William Hatfield, sen. 
Seth Johnson, sen. 
Jotham Johnson. 
Josiah Johnson. 
Stephen Johnson. 
Joseph Johnson. 
Jesse Gray. 
William E. Baker. 
Eleazer Crocker. 



Daniel Crocker. 
Thomas K. Smith. 
Richard Van Horn. 
John Larkin. 
Amos Larkin. 
William Larkin. 
Edward Perry. 
Edward S. Perry. 
Nathan Kinney. 
Alexander Bail 3d. 
George Allen. 
Gilbert Pinkney. 
Elijah Pinkney. 
Nathan Weston. 
Benjamin Trefry. 
William A. Trefry. 



BAIN ROAD AND BROOKLYN. 



Alexander Bain, sen. 
Benjamin Goudey. 
Thorndyke Landers. 
."Vmos Baker. 
Timothy Wetmore. 
-Amos B. Brown. 
Zachariah Corning. 
Joseph Bain. 
David Flint 2d. 



Samuel Flint, sen. 
Henry Pitman. 
Samuel Flint, jun. 
Tames Murphy. 
Stephen Durkee. 
Samuel Graham. 
Joseph Pitman, sen. 
Joseph Pitman, jun. 
Joseph Pitman 3d. 



William Pitman, sen. 
Benjamin Holden. 
Moses Morrill. 
Abner Walker. 
Francis Ryerson. 
Oliver Pitman, sen. 
John Pitman, sen. 
Moses Vickery. 
William Vickerv. 



io6 



CAPE FOURCHU TO DARLING'S LAKE. 



Joseph Studley. 
Cieorge Thompson. 
Christopher Kosi. 
Wellington Killani. 
Forster Perry, 
lienjamin Pitman 3d. 



Amos H. Pitman. 
William H. Pitman. 
John Thurston, sen. 
John Thursti<n, jun. 
David Hibbard. 
George Leizer. 



James Moore. 
Samuel Hurrill. 
< leorge Pitman. 
William P. Churchill. 



CAPE FOURCHU TO DARLINGS LAKE, COAST LINE. 



Ezekiel Haker. 
Richard Power. 
Thomas IJeveridge. 
Edward Sweeney, sen. 
Edward Sweeney, jun. 
Hugh Sweeney. 
John .Sweeney. 
Samuel Stanwood. 
David Stanwood. 
Henjaniin Stanwood. 
Daniel Doane. 
Ephraim Wyman. 
James Jeffery. 
Abrani Wyman. 
George Cann. 
Stephen Rose, jun. 
John Sollows. 
Richard F"letcher. 
George S. Fletcher. 
Henry Wyman. 
Samuel Cann. 
Richard Rose. 
Stephen Rose, sen. 
David Rose, sen. 
Kelley Rose. 
David Rose, jun. 
John Rfise. 
Ebenezer Rose. 
William Bain, sen. 



(leo. Dudley Porter. 
Rufus Porter. 
Richard Harris. 
ICdward Harris. 
Benjamin Tooker. 
Zebulon Servant. 
William Harris. 
Charles Bell. 
Jacob Tedford. 
Joseph Raymond. 
Alexander H. Lovitt. 
Samuel Harris. 
Nathan Scovil. 
Ebenezer Harris. 
John Weston. 
Zachariah Foote, sen. 
Zachariah Foote, jun. 
Zachariah Foote 3d. 
Robert Foote. 
John Foote. 
Richard F'oote. 
Isaac Foote. 
Levi Scovil, sen. 
Levi Scovil, jun. 
James Scovil, jun. 
James Sullivan. 
Ezra Harris. 
Jonathan Harris, sen. 
Jonathan Harris, jun. 



James Ritchie. 
William Ritchie. 
David Robinson. 
Reuben Harris. 
Nathan Harris. 
Samuel Rodney, sen. 
Samuel Rodney, jun. 
Milford Tedford. 
Moses Shaw. 
James Shaw. 
Samuel Vickery. 
James Robbins. 
Joseph Bent. 
James Bent. 
William Bent. 
Alexander Bent. 
James Trask. 
Alexander MacRae. 
Aaron Baker. 
Thomas Beveridge. 
Robert Beveridge. 
John Nickerson. 
Thomas Churchill. 
Nathan Churchill. 
Richard Churchill. 
David Churchill. 
Vincent Harris. 



DANE'S CORNER TO CHEGOGGIN RIVER. 



John Raymond, sen. 
Thomas Dane, sen. 
Richard Williams. 
Paul Trask. 
Andrew Teaplod. 
Elias Trask. sen. 
F'eter Stafford. 
James Hobkirk. 
Eliakim Killam 3d. 
John Williams. 
Lyman Cann. 
Alexander Bain 2d. 



Alexander Bain 3d. 
Ansel Goudey. 
James B. Bain. 
Joseph Shaw, sen. 
Zebina Shaw, sen. 
Zachariah Chipman. 
John Churchill. 
Abner W. Huntington. 
Maurice Dalton. 
Abraham Killam. 
Stephen Churchill. 
William MacKinnon. 



Randall MacKinnon. 
Calvin Cann. 
Mark Killam. 
Samuel Corning. 
Nelson Corning. 
Jonathan MacKinnie. 
Thomas Brown, sen. 
Thomas Brown, jun. 
Joseph Sullivan. 
Moses Sollows. 
Aaron Sollows. 



IXFLUENCE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 197 

This enumeration of the names of the older farmers of the township, 
though eml)racing many of tlie Knglish settlers upon the Tusket River 
and its branches lying partly in Argyle, shows how widely diffused 
throughout the rural districts has been the inHuence of the families who 
first settled upon the shores of Chebogue River and Yarmouth Harbor. 
It was intended to include only the names of the men of the second 
and third generations ; but, as the enumeration i)roceeded, some names 
of the first, and others of the fourth, generation could not well be 
omitted in continuing the line of succession to some of the properties, 
and in exhibiting the influence of the " fathers upon the children unto 
the third and fourth generation," in leading them to follow that line 
of life which is best calculated to insure good health, good morals, a 
comfortable independence, and a serene old age. 

The influence of the early settlers upon the different districts extends 
even farther ; for, in a large majority of the instances where the names 
of permanent residents appear differing from those who participated in 
the grant of the township in 1767, they will be found to be those of 
men from " foreign parts," who, visiting Yarmouth from time to time, 
were unable to resist the inducements to an alliance with the daughters 
of the " first families." For instance, Christopher Strickland married 
a daughter of Sealed Landers, grantee ; Samuel S. Poole and James 
Cain married daughters of Beth Barnes, grantee ; Thomas Byrnes and 
Miner Huntington married daughters of John Walker, grantee ; Thoma's 
Dane, James Jenkins, Zebina Shaw, Joseph Shaw, and Zachariah 
Chipman married daughters of James Brown, grantee; Nehemiah Patch, 
John Richan, Waitstill Lewis, and Benjamin Barnard married daughters 
of Eleazer Butler, grantee ; and John T. Phillips, William Clements, 
John MacCormack, John Trask 2d, and Deacon John Crosby, as well 
as Henry Hilton, Stephen Rose, and David Rose, married daughters of 
Judge James Kelley, grantee. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Maritime Interests of the County. — Early Settlers Skilled Navigators. — Interchange of 
Commerce with other Ports. — Gradual Growth and Extension of Trade. — Increase 
in Number and Capacity of the Vessels. — West-India Trade. — Other Foreign Trade. — 
Circumstances causing Increase of Tonnage of the Port. — Pompey and County of 
Yarmouth. — View ot Shipping previous to 1800. — From 1800 to 1810. — Ship-owners 
of these Periods. — Sa>.-.uel Marshall. — Description of Marshall's Wharf in 1S15.-- 
Anthony Landers. — Influence of Arrival ot Jacob Tooker, Bartlett Gardner, James, 
John, and William Jenkins. — List of Master Ship-builders of the County. — Boat- 
builders and Spar-makers. — Names of Leading Ship-owners from 1761 to i?'S6. — 
Number, Description, and .Aggregate Tonnage of Vessels owned wholly or in part by 
Each of them. — Special Reference to English and French Ship-owners of .\rgyle. — 
Shipping of Varmoutli at Different Periods, with Average Tonnage of Vessels. — Com- 
pared with the Shipping of Canada. — The Great Michael of James IV., which "wasted 
the Woods of Fife." — Yarmouth's First Clyde-built Iron Ship. — The Great Refublic 
of Donald MacKay. — Her Last Voyage across the Atlantic. — Other Ships of Donald 
MacKay. — Their Record never surpassed. — Ships of New ' .ngland about the Begin- 
ning of the Century. — Shipping of Yarmouth County Jan. i, 1S86, with Names of 
Owners. — Names of Ship-masters of some of the Old Yarmouth-County Families ; 
Kelleys, Hiltons, Haleys, Robbinses, Perrys, Cooks, Canns, Hatfields. 

THE rise and progress (and temporary decline) of the maritime 
interests of the county next claim attention. 

In order that the early settlers might permanently establish them- 
selves at Chebogue and Yarmouth, it was essential that they should have 
constant and reliable means of communication with Halifax and ports 
of New England. Thence were to be drawn such commodities as 
would for some years be necessary for the maintenance of the infant 
colony, to be received in exchange for furs and fishery products which 
were then their only exports. ' y i^ 

Halifax, first settled in 1749, had, in 1752, with its suburbs, attained 
a population of 4,250, which in ten years had increased to about 6,000, 
and already offered a market which could only be f pplied by sea. 
Shelburne, which claims to have one of the best harbors in America, 
received, in 1783, at the close of the American war, a large immigration 



MARITIME AFFAIRS. 199 

principally from New York and New Jersey, but supplemented by dis- 
banded officers and others from the British army and navy ; and it had, 
in 1787, a population estimated at 13,000. Here, too, was opened up 
to Yarmouth farmers and fishermen an avenue for trade ; and as along 
the whole coast between Yarmouth and Halifax there were numerous 
harbors, easy of access, it was quite practicable for vessels of twenty to 
thirty tons to make the voyage safely during eight months of the year. 

Every Yarmouth family, therefore, required a shallop or sailing-craft 
of some kind ; for as there were no roads, and none possible for many 
years, the only means of communication was by water, not only with 
the outer world, but with each other. The fifty families who had 
arrived from 1761 to 1764 inclusive, were scattered along both sides of 
the Chebogue River, from the head to Chebogue Point ; along both 
sides of Yarmouth Harbor, from Bunker's Island to Sealed Landers's mill, 
and near Kelley's Cove. Some had pitched their tents at Little River ; 
and others, not long afterward, made the first clearings and erected their 
humble habitations upon the shores of the " Salt Pond " and Chegoggin 
River. To be able to handle a sailing-craft became, therefore, a neces- 
sity of their existence ; and the skill they then acquired as navigators 
has been handed down from generation to generation. 

A few years later, surplus farm products were added to the list of 
exports ; and next, the saw-mills erected at Durkee's Island, Milton, 
Hebron, and Ohio, furnished building materials, which, with dried and 
pickled fish, made up assorted cargoes for Newfoundland, Bermuda, 
and the West Indies, meeting remunerative markets, and laying the 
foundation of the foreign trade of the port. 

Corresponding with the increase of commodities for exportation, 
for which there was a never-failing demand abroad, was the increase in 
the capacity of their vessels to forty and fifty tons, whi' h, previous to 
1800, was found large enough for a profitable adventure to Bermuda or the 
West Indies. The number and capacity of their vessels gradually out- 
growing the supplies for exportation, cargoes of lumber were procured 
at New- Brunswick ports for the Newfoundland and West-India markets, 
sometimes purchased, and at other times carried under charter-party. 
This, with the coasting-trade with other ports of Nova Scotia, and a 
constantly increasing traffic with the United Slates, constituted the main 



200 RATES OF FREIGHT. 

features of the employment for Yarmouth vessels until about the year 
1840. It is true, that, previous to that date, a few vessels of a larger 
class had been built, and experimental voyages had been made across 
the Atlantic with timber and deals ; but the outcome had been, on the 
whole, discouraging. 

But from 1840 to 1880 the increase in the tonnage of the county 
was, with scarcely an interruption, rapid and continuous; and Yarmouth 
shipping occupied a prominent place in the carrying-trade of the world, 
various circumstances contributing from time to time to warrant the 
increasing number and capacity of the vessels. 

These, in brief, stated somewhat in the order of their occurrence, 
have been the directions in which the larger classes of Yarmouth vessels 
have been engaged, outside of the coasting-trade with home ports, with 
ports of New Brunswick and Newfoundland, and the trade with New 
England : — • 

Carrying building materials, fish, and farm produce from Yarmoui.i 
to the West Indies, returning direct with molasses, sugar, and rum, or 
salt, on ship's account, or with the same on freight to the United States. 
Spruce lumber costing $10 per thousand would bring from $25 to $35 in 
the West Indies, and $10 to Si 2 per thousand was a common rate under 
charter. 

Timber and deals from New Brunswick or Canadian j-orts to Great 
Britain or Ireland, returning with coal or iron to the United States. 
Freights, 30/- to 40/- per ton for timber ; 1 10/- to 130/- per standard 
for deals ; coal and iron freights to the United States ranging from 20^'- 
to 40/- per ton. 

Coal to Mediterranean or Black-Sea ports during the Crimean 
war. ;-.'--'--■ -^ ;'-'":>- -. -/---,;':, 

Coal from Great Britain to \Vest Indies, Cuba, or ports on north- 
eastern coast of South America, returning with sugar, molasses, or rum 
to Europe ; freight outward, 20/- to 30/- for coal ; 60/- to 80/- per 
ton for sugar, and equivalent rates for other goods. 

Grain from United States to Europe, freights varying from g(/. to i /6 
per bushel. 

Coal-oil from United States to Europe, freights varying from 5/6 to 
7/6 per barrel, and naval stores at proportionate rates. 



MARITIME PROGRESS. 201 

Pitch-pine timber fiom southern United-States ports to Europe at 
from 35/- to 45/- per ton. 

Lumber from St. Lawrenct; ports to south-eastern coast of South 
America at from $15 to $22 per thousand. 

Sugar S6 to S9 per cask. Cuba to northern United-States ports. 

Coal from Great Britain to south-eastern and south-western coast of 
South America, returning with guano at from 60/- to 80/- per ton ; or 
with grain from San Francisco (of late years), from 60/- to 85/- per ton. 

Cotton, at times during the whole period since 1840, at rates of 
freight ranging from one penny per pound, downward. 

Coal-oil to China and the East, at varying rates, but less remuner- 
ative than the average of the foregoing. 

From 1855 to 1875 was the period of greatest prosperity to Yarmouth 
shipping; for then vessels of all classes from 250 tons to 1,500 tons 
could, in one direction or another, find profitable employment. But the 
speculative and generally paying rates of freight attainable in former 
years have disappeared before the system of electric telegraphs and 
ocean-cables. The "war tariff" of the United States continued twenty 
years after the termination of the war in consequence of the wasteful 
expenditure that tariff engendered, forbids the importation of coal, pig- 
iron, or railroad iron fron. Europe. The bounty-fed production of beet- 
sugar in Continental Europe is gradually impoverishing the planters in 
the West Indies, Cuba, and South America, and has so destroyed their 
markets for Nova-Scotia fish and other natural products. Iron steam- 
ships, via the Suez Canal, monopolize the carrying-trade between Europe 
and the East Indies, in which Yarmouth ships formerly engaged. The 
cessation of the war period in Europe, the late favorable seasons, and the 
consequent larger returns from the European harvests, have obliterated 
the high grain-freights once prevailing at the Atlantic ports of the United 
States, and more recently at San Francisco. .And above all, the multi- 
plication of "ocean tramps," as the Yankees call the iron freighting- 
steamers, has created a competition for the general carrying-trade of the 
world, before which sailing-vessels of all nations, and the magnificent 
fleet of Yarmouth ships among the rest, must eventually succumb. Still, 
the achievements of the past deserve a permanent enrolment ; and a 
retrospective view of the links intervening between the little Pompey, of 



20a THE PILGRIM FATHERS. 

1 761, of 25 tons burden, and the County of Yarmouth, of 1886, regis- 
tering 2,154 tons, may sometimes serve to occupy a leisure hour. 

The descendants of the " Pilgrim Fathers " and Puritans of New- 
England annually gather around the festive board in commemoration 
of " Forefathers' Day," when the little May/tower arrived at Plymouth ; 
and they celebrate it, too, in a more rational manner than do the late 
Yarmouthians celebrate the 9th of June. It would seem more fitting 
were the names transposed , for, in view of the blustering aggressiveness 
of Cape Cod and Gloucester fishermen during the last one hundred 
years, Pompey would have been a more appropriate name for the craft 
which carried the " Pilgrims " to Plymouth, while a Mayflower would 
have better harmonized with the subsequent history of the peaceful 
colony which Sealed Landers and his companions founded at Chebogue 
and Yarmouth. • 

Apropos to the above designation of a certain phase of Yankee 
character, this story may be repeated : — 

"Washington, D.C., Dec. 29, 1885. The authorities of a New- 
England town recently applied, through their Congressman, to the War 
Department for a transcript of the military records of the soldiers fur- 
nished to the army by the town during the rebellion. To furnish these 
was against the ordinary rules of the department ; but as they were for 
" historical purposes," to be used at some approaching anniversary, a 
concession was made. The files were examined, and disclosed the fact 
that the names of about 60 citizens of the township had been drawn in 
the wheel, and 24 of these persons were, upon examination, accepted. 
Further search disclosed th'j fact that 23 of them furnished substitutes, 
and the other fled to Canada." -^ 

It is interesting to stud;' the statistics of Yarmouth shipping from its 
earliest days contained in Mr. Lawson's " Record," which seems to have 
exhausted all available sources of information. The figures of the first 
twenty-five years are necessarily imperfect. In 1765 there appear 
to have been 8 vessels averaging about 20 tons, up to which time 
about 50 families had arrived who remained permanently ; though, no 
doubt, they owned at that time a good many more smaller craft, suitable 
for the fishing-grounds, which were closer at hand and far better stocked 
than they are to-day. 



EARLY SHIP-OJVNERS. , 203 

In 1787 and 1788, when 114 families had arrived (in addition to the 
natural increase), 35 vessels are recorded; viz., — 

I schooner 69 tons. 

3 " 40 " to 50 tons. 

6 " 30 " " 40 " 

14 " 20 '■ " 30 " 

II " under 20 tons. 

From 1788 to 1800 there were 73 vessels added to the list, only 4 
of which exceeded 60 tons; viz., — 

1790. Brig Argo 64 tons. Owned by Zephaniah Kingsley. 

1797. Schooner Thomas and Dehor ah . 63 " " " Joseph Tooker. 

1797. ?>\oo^ Industry ^'iZ " " " Samuel Marshall. 

1798. Schoontr Frosfer'ty 63 " « « Samuel Marshall. 

During the next ten years there were added no less than 104 vessels 
(the number of families in 1808 being reported by Dr. Parish at 340, 
and the population 2,300), including 13 over roo tons; viz., — 

iSoi. yost'ph and Lois 103 tons. Owned by Joseph Tooker. 

1802. Arabella 103 " " " Benjamin Barnard. 

1806. Falkirk 18 1 " " " Samuel S. Poole. 

1807. Penelope 156 " " " Ebenezer Perry. 

1807. Trafalgar 105 " " " Ebenezer Ricker. 

1807. yacob and Benjamin 104 " " '' Joseph Tooker. 

1808. Lady Sherbrooke 290 " " " Shipley and Taylor. 

1808. Bittern 18S " " " Anthony Landers. 

1S09. Claude Scott 261 " " " Samuel Marshall. 

1S09. Dasher, 132 tons, owned by William Robertson and Thorndyke Corning. 

1009. Hunter, 118 tons, owned by James Shipley and George Hunter. 

1809. Sally, 102 tons, owned by Solomon, Ebenezer, Henry, and John Ryder. 

1810. Queen Charlotte, 117 tons, owned by Robert Kelley, James Lent, and J. V. N. 

Hatfield. 

Included were also 

3 vessels From 90 tons to too tons, 

2 " " 80 " " 90 " 

8 " " 70 " " So " 

9 " " 60 " " 70 " 

S " " 50 " " 60 " 

owned by the following parties ; vir., — ,'- v ,,- v, •••' . 

James Kelley i - .■" 

John Magray , . I 

John Killam -«■-.. 1 

Daniel Kinnev i 1 



204 ^ SAMUEL MARSHALL. 

Samuel Marshall 3 

John and James Durkee i 

Israel Horton I 

Harriett and Reuben Gardner i 

Lemuel and Maurice Ilobb-i .' i 

William Larkin I 

Solomon Ryder I 

Waitstill and lienjamin Lewis i 

Edward. Thomas, and Ichaliod Crosby 2 

John, Xathan, and Thomas Kinney 2 

Theophilus Crosby i 

John and Joseph Larkin 1 

Silas Clements and Horace Kaker i 

Comfort, Oliver, and Jeremiah Haley i 

Joseph Ellis, Elkanah and Reuben Clements 2 

Paul, Benjamin, and Hilaire D'Entremont 2 

Ebenezer Ricker, and Joseph and William Abbott i 

27 

We find Samuel Marshall in iSoi the owner of two othernew vessels 
of forty-five and thirty-five tons respectively. Samuel Marshall, then, 
was the leading ship-owner of Yarmouth, up to the year 18 10. He was 
also the leading merchant. He owned the property and built the house 
on Argyle Street, afterward occupied in succession by Rev. Thomas A. 
Grantham, Robert D. Butler, William Kinney, George Stairs Brown, Rev. 
George- Christie, and now by Charles R. Kelley. He built, and con- 
ducted his business at, " Marshall's Wharf," which, with the connecting 
premises, is thus described in a letter written soon after Mr. Marshall's 
death, about 1814 : — 

" Mr. Marshall had it built purposely for the convenience of the fish- 
trade. It consists of a wharf situated in a central part of the harbor, 
which renders the stand for business very advantageous, as craft can 
come directly alongside, discharge and take in what may be wanted 
without the trouble of trucking. For customers by land, no place could 
be more agreeable ; it being situated just below the main road leading 
through Yarmouth, and about midway between two cross-roads, the first 
leading to Tusket Village, and the second to the Cove and Chebogue 
River. At the head of the wharf lies the hulk of a large timber-ship 
which breaks off the wind and sea from vessels lying at the wharf in 
stormy weather ; and at the upper end of the wharf stands, partly off and 
partly on the earth, a neat, comfortable dwelling-house with a large 
cellar under the whole of it, and at the east corner of the house a large 



LAirSOA'S RECORD. 205 

fish-store, with a cellar for pickled fish, and room on the three upper 
floors for thirty-five hundred (juintals of fish. Opposite stands a dr^ 
goods store, completely fitted for bus-ness, with a cellar under it. Just 
below stands a small salt-store, sufficient to hold salt enough for the 
season, and Xo prevent the salt bein^ put in the same store with the fish, 
which would itampen them. The fish-store has a screw in it, and every 
thing is so conveniently arranged that business may be profitably 
conducted there." 

It will be observed that Anthony Landers makes his first appearance 
in Mr. Lawson's book in 1808 as the owner of the Bittern, and next in 
181 1 as the builder of the Pete^ Waldo, captured in 181 2 by a Yankee 
privateer. Mr. Lawson also mentions the Cgonia, two hundred and 
eighteen tons, built for Mr. Landers in 1823, and the next year wrecked 
at the Orkney Islands. There is some discrepancy between Mr. 
Campbell's and Mr. Lawson's dates and figures referring to Mr. Landers's 
movements ; but nowhere in either book can be found any foundation for 
Mr. Campbell's statement on p. 134 of his History, that "the honor 
of having, so to speak, origiiiated the foreign trade of the port, belongs to 
a man whose name does not appear in our lists, — Anthony Landers, a 
native of Sunderland, England." 

From 1810 to 1879 there was an almost constant increase in the 
annual tonnage of the county. Since 1879 there has been a rapid 
decrease ; though the average tonnage of the vessels increased until 1882, 
when that also began to fall awav, — a condition of affairs which seems 
likely to continue for some time at least in the future. 

Further details can be better supplied by Mr. Lawson's interesting 
volumes ; and, indeed, the whole subject has been here so far dealt with 
merely to make it clear that the. families of the early settlers of Yarmouth 
and Argyle and their descendants, by direct or collateral lines, are 
entitled to the honor of building up the maritime interests of the 
county, as well as of opening up and constructing the roads, building 
the lauls, clearing away the forests, and cultivating the lands. 

The following list and summary will exhibit this fact in a still 
clearer light, first in order being the family-names of all resident 
Yarmouth-County ship-owners since 1761 ; and when the name cor- 
responds with that of an early settler, it may be understood that his 



206 



SHIP-OI'VNERS. 



family has had a share in developing the shipping interests of the 
county : — 



Abbinett. 


Clark. 


Foote. 


Hutchinson. 


Abbott. 


Clements. 


Forbes. 


Jacques. 


Alexander. 


Clune. 


Fouli» 


Jeffery. 


Allen. 


Coffin. 


Eraser. 


Jenkins. 


Amirault. 


Coggins. 


Frost. 


Johnson. 


Anderson. 


Cook. 


Gardner. 


Jolly. 


Habin. 


Corning. 


Gaudet. 


Kelley. 


Bain. 


Corporon. 


Gayton. 


Kenealy. 


Haker. 


Cothereau. 


Geddes. 


Kerr. 


Barnard. 


Crawley. 


Germain. 


Killam. 


Barnes. 


Crocker. 


Goldfinch. 


Kingsley. 


Barrows. 


Crosby. 


Goodwin. 


Kinney. 


Bates. 


Crowell. 


Goudey. 


Ladd. 


Baxter. 


Currier. 


Gowen. 


Landers. 


Beal. 


Daley. 


Grantham. 


Larkin. 


Belliveau. 


Dallinger. 


Gray. 


Law. 


Bent. 


Dane. 


Gridfey. 


Leavitt. 


Betts. 


Darby. 


GuUison. 


Le Blanc. 


Benlar. 


Davis. 


Guest. 


Lennox. 


Beveridge. 


Davison. 


Haines. 


Ivcnt 


Bingay. 


Dean. 


Haley. 


Lewis. 


Black. 


D'Entremont. 


Haloran. 


Lir.dsay. 


Blanchard. 


DeVilliers. 


Halstead. 


Lonergan. 


Blauvelt. 


Dewolfe. 


Hammond. 


Long. 


Blethen. 


Doane. 


Harding. 


Lovitt. 


Bond. 


Dodds. 


Hardy. 


Lyons. 


Boucher. 


Doty. 


Harris. 


Mac Al pin. 


Boudreau. 


Doucette. 


Haskell. 


MacCarthy. 


Bourque. 


Dowley. 


Hatfield. 


MacConnell. 


Boyd. 


Dudman. 


Hawley. 


MacCormack. 


Boyle. 


Dunseith. 


Hebert. 


MacDonald. 


Braine. 


Dunham. 


Heckman. 


MacDonnell. 


Brooks. 


Duon. 


Hemeon. 


MacGill. 


Brown. 


Durkee. 


Hersey. 


MacHenry. 


Bryar. 


Eakins. 


Hibbard. 


MacKinnon. 


Burchell. 


Earl. 


Hilton. 


MacLaren. 


Burgess. 


Eaton. ;, ■ 


Hines. ' 


MacLaughlin, 


Burrill. 


Eldridge. 


Hobbs. 


MacLean. 


Butler. 


Ellemvood. 


Holmes. 


MacManus. 


Bydder. 


Ellis. 


Homer. 


MacMuUen. 


Byrnes. 


Elwell. 


Hood. 


MacNiel. 


Burns. 


Fait. 


Horton. 


Magray. 


Cain. 


Parish. 


Huestis. 


Manning. 


Campbell. 


Ferguson. 


Hughes. 


Marshall. 


Cann. 


Fleet. 


Hunter. 


Messenger. 


Carty. 


Fletcher. 


Huntington. 


Meuse. 


Churchill. 


Flint. 


Huston. 


Michie. 



SHir-nUILDERS. 



207 



Mildon. 


Perrv. 


Saunders. 


Townsend. 


Millar. 


Phillips. 


Scott. 


. rask. 


Moody. 


Pinkney. 


Scovil. 


Trefry. 


Morehouse. 


Pitcher. 


Servant. 


Tremain. 


Morgan. 


Pitman. 


Shaw. 


Tupper. 


Morrill. 


Poole. 


Shehan. 


Utley. 


Morrisey. 


Porter. 


Shipley. 


Valpey. 


Moses. 


Pothier. 


Shurtliff. 


Van Emburg, 


Moul.iison. 


Potter. 


Simonson. 


Van Horn. 


Moulton. 


Powell. 


Sims. 


Van Norden. 


Murphy. 


Purdy. 


Slocomb. 


Vickery. 


Murray. 


Rankin. 


Sollows. 


Viets. ' 


Myers. 


Raymond. 


Smith. 


Vivian. 


Neal. 


Redding. 


Spinney. 


Walker. 


Newell. 


Kichan. 


Sproule. 


Watson. 


Nickerson. 


Richard. 


Stanwood. 


Webster. 


Noble. 


Richards 


Steele. 


Weddleton. 


O'Brien. 


Richarc'son. 


Sterritt. 


Weston. 


O'Connor. 


Ricke;. 


.Stoneinan. 


Wetmore. 


Oliver. 


Ring. 


Stowe. 


Wheeland. 


Ormsby. 


Ritchie. 


Strickland. 


Whipple. 


Otis. 


Robbins. 


Sullivan. 


White. 


Palmer. 


Robc-ts. 


Surette. 


Whitehouse. 


Parfitt. 


Robertson. 


Sutciiffe. 


Wilcox. 


Parker. 


Robinson. 


Sutton. 


Willett. 


Parr. 


Rogers. 


Symonds. 


Williams. 


Patci. 


Rose. 


Taylor. 


Williamson. 


Patt ;n. 


Rowe. 


Tedford. 


Winter. 


Pearl. 


Rust 


Thurston. 


Witter. 


Pearce. 


Ryder. 


Tilley. 


Woodworth. 


Pease. 


Ryerson. 


Tinkham. 


Wyman. 


Pennington. 


Sanderson. 


Tooker. 


Young. 



With the advent of the present century the enlarging foreign trade 
of Yarmouth demanded a different class of vessels than had theretofore 
been found adequate to the requirements of the coasting-trade ; and the 
influence of the arrival of Jacob Tooker in 1 784, of Bartlett Gardner, 
James, John, and William Jenkins in 1797 and 1798, all master builders, 
was soon manifest in the increasing capacity of the new vessels. 

Bartlett Gardner had eight sons, two of whom, Reuben and Simeon, 
were master mariners ; four sons, Heman, Andrew, Daniel, and Nelson 
were master ship-builders ; and two, Harvey and Freeman, were boat- 
builders. 

Benjamin Rogers and John Richards, John and Oliver Vickery, 
learned the art of ship-building from Bartlett Gardner or one of his 



208 



SHIP-BUILDERS. 



sons; "nd all the names of Gardner A^hich appear in the foliowii;'^ lists 
are those of the sons or grandsons of Bartlett Gardner. • 

William Jenkins, sen., had four sons who were master builders, — 
Robert, William H., Griffitii, and George H. Jenkins ; and William 
Jenkins, son of John, built ships here before he left Yarmouth for New 
Jersey some thirty years ago. 

A tablet inserted in the solid rock at the summit of the Mountain 
Cemetery, bearing join'ly the names of Jacob looker, Bartlett Gardner, 
James, John, and William Jenkins, would appropriately commemorate 
the influence on succeeding generations of these five j;ioneer ship- 
builders of the last century. 

The following list comprises the names of the master ship-builders, 
boat-builders, and spar-makers of Yarmouth and Argyle Townships. 



Jacob Tooker. 
Hartlett G.irdner. 
James Jenkins. 
John Jenkins. 
William Jenkins, sen. 
John MacCorniack. 
Andrew Gardner. 
Heman Gardner, sen. 
Daniel G.irdner. 
Nelson Gardner. 
Henjamin Rogers. 
John Richards. 
John Vickery. 
Oliver Vickery. 
Kufiis Churchill, sen. 
Lyman Cann, sen. 



SHIP-BUILDERS. 

Robert Kutler. 
Willoiighby Powell, 
lienjamin Raymond. 
Reuben M. Ra\mand. 
Dennis Horton. 
Uenjamin Richards. 
Simeon Gardner, jun. 
Nathaniel B. Gardner. 
Ileman Gardner, jun. 
William Jenkins, jun. 
Robert Jenkins. 
William II. Jenkins. 
Griffith Jenkins. 
George II. Jenkins. 
Eleazer Raymond. 
James Nelson Gardner. 



William E. Gardner. 
Ralph IJutler. 
James H. Kinney. 
Whitman Crawley. 
Jacob .Mien. 
George Allen. 
James .Mien. 
Charles K. Horton. 
Donald Ross, sen. 
Donald Ross, jun. 
George Ross. 
Henry K. Richards. 
Frederick Weston. 
J. Whitman Raymond. 



Dominique Koudreau. 
Jean 15. Pothier. 
Sylvain Pothier. 
Robert Sims. 
Jeremiah .Sims. 
Joseph Jeffery. 



1 larvey Gardner. 
Freeman Gardner. 
Heman Gardner, jun. 
Prince Doane. 



SHIP-BUILDERS, ARGYLE TOWNSHIP. 

William .Abbott. 
Maurice Hobbs. 



Stephen Jeffery. 
Gabriel Servant. 



Stephen Gillis. 
Pierre Surette. 
Denis Surette. 
Andrew Ricker. 

BOAT-BUILDERS. 

Benjamin Gardner. 
Reuben Gardner, jun. 
George H. Gardner. 
Charles Gardner. 



Levi Nickerson, sen. 
William A. Frost. 
Ambroise Amirault. 



James A. Butler. 
Jonathan S. Barrows. 
Albert Butler. 
Norman f. Dane. 



sh/p-oivnilRs. 209 

SPAR-MAKERS. 

John Turner, sen. Ansel Kinnev. George Churchill. 

John Turner, jun. lienjamin Kinney. 

The following summary exhibits the names of the men who have 
been most prominent as Yarmouth-County ship-owners at different 
periods from 1761 to 1S85 inclusive. The dates are intended to indi- 
cate the year of their first anfl of their last investment, and they will be 
found to be approximately correct. It purports to give the number, 
class, and aggregate tonnage of the vessels in which the parties have 
been interested as sole or partial owners. For the most part, the men 
whose names appear, were the principal or managing owners of the 
vessels opposite their names ; in a few instances the parties named were 
neither the principal nor managing owners ; in others, they were both 
principal and managing owners ; but the paper as a whole is intended to 
show the extent of the adventures in which our ship-owners have been 
engaged. 

The statement is compiled mainly from Lawson's Record of Shipping. 
A close examination of the custom-house books would disclose transfers 
of ownership from lime to time which would in some degree affect the 
aggregate interest of some of the later and larger ship-owners, and yet 
not materially alter the relative results. 



2IO 



SHIP-OWNERS. 



LEADING SHIP-OWNERS. 



Dale. 


Owner'* Name. 


. 


1 










1 


Tonnage. 






J 


.| 


•c 


1 


•i 


J 


•8 








i , 


- 


B 


ea 


tn 


X 




176a to 1783 


Selh Bamcs 


5 


Unreruin. 


176a '.0 1796 


, Ephraim Cook . . 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


" 


1762 10 1788 


James Cain . . . 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


II 


1765 to iSoi 


James Kelley . . 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


249 


1785 to 1806 


Samuel S. Poole . 








I 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


235 


1787 to 1816 


Abner Barrows . . 








- 


- 


- 


. - 


- 


S 


163 


1787 to 1826 


Joshua Trefry . . 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


178 


1787 to 1810 


Thomas Fhnt . . 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


S 


III 


1787 to 1828 


Comfort Haley . . 






10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10 


479 


1787 to 1802 


Benjamin Barnard 








I 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


360 


1787 to t8o4 


John M.igray . . 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


"53 


1788 to 1814 


John Cann, sen. . 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


323 


1788 to 1829 


John Killam, jun. . 








- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


5 


435 


1791 to 1823 


Horace & Amos Baker . . 






- 


- 


- 


- , - 


7 


407 


1791 to 1816 


Amos & Jacob Hilton . . 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9 


373 


1794 to 1816 


Wailstill Lewis 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


245 


1797 10 i8ro 


Samuel Marshall . 








- 


J 


- 


- 


- 


9 


709 


1797 to 1840 


Joseph Tooker, sen. 






II 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


«3 


1,228 


1800 to 1817 


Job Hatfield. . . 






3 


I 


I 


- 


- 


- 


4 


333 


1801 to 1817 


Solomon Ryder 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


394 


1804 to 1814 


Ebenezer Perry . . 








- 


I 


- 


- 


- 


4 


3«7 


1804 to 1838 


Israel Lovitt . ■ 








I 


X 


- 


- 


- 


3 


39« 


1805 to 1831 


Bartleti Gardner, & S 


ons . 




6 


i 


3 


- 


I 


- 


II 


I.H3 


1806 to 181S 


KIkanah Clements . 






6 


. 




- 


~ 


~ 


6 


435 


1808 to 1824 


James Taylor . . 






- 


- 


4 


I 


1 


- 


6 


1,701 


1808 10 1828 


Anthony lenders . 






I 


- 


7 


3 


3 


- 


»3 


3.446 


181 1 to 1845 


George Bingay . . 






8 


3 


6 


3 


- 


- 


18 


a.97' 


1812 to 1835 


David Flint, sen. . . 






8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


610 


1813 101841 


Robert Kelley . . . 






10 


3 


3 


I 


- 


- 


'5 


t.377 


1817 to 1845 


James Jenkins, sen. . 






3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


5 


483 


1818 to 1852 


Joseph Stoneman . . 










- 


_ 


- 


- 


6 


456 


1818 to 1846 


John Bmgay . . . 










- 


- 


I 


- 


7 


7'4 


1820 to 1827 


Benjamin Bingay . . 










3 


- 


- 


- 


5 


706 


1822 101858 


E. W. B. Moody . . 










10 


8 


I 


I 


38 


7.2'7 


1824 to 1849 1 


George \V. Bond . . 










3 


3 


- 


- 


5 


1,059 


1825 to 1849 


James Baker . . . 










I 


3 


- 


- 


8 


1,156 


1826 to 1839 i 


Reuben Clements . . 










3 


- 


- 


- 


4 


586 


1828 to 1849 


Ebenozer Scott . . . 










3 


3 


- 


- 


8 


'.578 


1830 to 1840 


George Trefry . . . 










I 


- 


-•• 


- 


5 


574 


1830 to 1877 


J. V. N. Hatfield . . 










I 


3 


I 


- 


9 


2,998 


1830 to 1865 


Robert Guest . . . 










3 


6 


- 


- 


16 


4,397 


1832 to 1879 j 


Benjamin Rogers . . 






18 


10 


I 


4 


- 


- 


33 


4.539 


1833 to 1872 


John Ryder .... 






4 




- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


6J3 


1833 to 1862 j 


John Cann 2d . ■ . 






a 




2 


3 


- 


- 


7 


1,383 


1834 to 1865 


Joseph Shaw . . . 






3 




2 


4 


4 




14 


6,391 


1834 to 1885 


Samuel Killam . . . 






3 




5 


8 


6 




30 


'3.438 


1835 101869 


I'homas Killam . . 






ao 


10 


II 


7 


6 




57 


14.469 


1835 to 1865 


Lyman Cann, sen. 






4 


3 


3 


3 


- 




13 


'.959 


1836 to 1867 


William Robertson . 






I 


I 


3 


9 


- 




14 


6,161 



SHIP-OWNERS. 



211 



LEADING SHIP-OWNERS. — Continutd. 




Owner'* Name. 



1837 10 
1837 to 
1837 to 
1837 10 

1837 to 

1838 10 
1838 to 
1840 10 

1840 10 

1841 tu 

1841 to 

1842 to 
1S44 to 
1844 to 

1844 to 

1845 to 

1846 to 

1846 to 

1847 to 
1847 to 
1847 to 
1847 to 

1849 'o 

1850 to 

1 850 to 

1851 to 

1852 to 

1852 to 

1853 to 

1854 to 
1854 to 
1854 to 

1854 to 

1855 to 
1855 to 
1855 to 

1855 to 

1856 to 

1856 to 

1857 to 
1857 to 
1857 to 

1857 to 

1858 to 
1838 to 
i860 to 
1861 to 
1861 to 
1861 to 



855 
855 

866 
880 

874 
878 
868 
857 
873 
872 
863 

875 

88s 
866 
869 
87 1 
875 
885 

883 
856 
881 

875 
8S1 
864 
875 



865 

879 

884 

874 
883 
884 
883 
883 
885 
883 
864 
879 
883 
880 

877 
883 
883 
880 
885 
883 
880 
88s 
88s 



Allen & Brown 

1'homas Barnard 

Nathan Utley 

Gilbert Sanderson 

Dennis Horton 

Benjamin Murphy 

Ira Raymond & Co 

Thomas Allen, sen 

John VV. Ix)vitt 

W. H. Moody, sen 

Charles & fleorge W. Tooker . . . 

Ryerson" & Moses 

Abel C Robbins 

Amasa Durkee 

VV. H. Townsend 

N. K. Clements 

Andrew Ix>vitt 

William Burrill and William Bur- 
rill & Co 

Joseph B. I.oviit 

Thomas Dane 

Aaron Goudcy 

George S. Brown 

John W. Moody 

W. H. Jenkms 

liowman Corning 

Thomas, Edward S., and Thomas 
J- Perry 

George Killam 

William K. Dudman 

George H. Lovitt 

William Rogers 

Benjamin Hilton 

A. F. Stoneman 

l.yman E. & H. E. Cann .... 

Lyman & Hugh Cann 

John & James J. Ix)vitt 

Henry & N. B. Lewis ...".. 

Young & Baker 

Joseph Burrill 

Richiiii T. Crosby & Sons . . . 

John Murphy 

Nathaniel Churchill 

Hatfield Brothers 

Zebina Goudey . . 

G. J.&JamesC- F.irish . . . . 

William D. Loviit 

James Adolphiis Hatfield .... 

Joseph W. MacMullen 

George K. Trefry 

James M. Davis 



J 

I 
5 
5 

I 
I 
4 
4 

4 

6 

»5 

8 

3 
1 



•3 

3 



2 

'7 

9 



I 
»3 





1 


1 


•1 


m 


1 


1 

i 


- 


» 


4 






7 


3 


I 


3 






8 


S 


3 


s 


- 




•9 


7 


S 


I 


- 




»9 


t 


- 


7 






M 


- 


- 


to 






II 


4 


5 


9 






a8 


3 


4 


5 






'7 


- 


5 


II 






»7 


I 


1 


4 






9 


3 

»4 

8 


1 
5 

6 


3 
16 
aa 


10 
la 




»4 
64 
60 


a 


I 


7 






IS 


• 


a 


3 






10 


7 


I 


3 






»s 


- 


~ 


10 






13 


a 


- 


5 


3 




'3 


- 


- 


la 


a 




«4 


I 


3 


I 


- 




6 


5 

5 


a 
4 


9 
8 


5 

3 




36 

38! 


I 


a 


9 


6 




ai 


- 


I 


9 






II 


- 


- 


9 


' 


a 


'3 ' 


- 


I 


la 


II 


- 


a6l 


4 


2 


I 


- 


I 


»5 ! 


a 


I 


6 


4 


3 


«sl 


- 


- 


6 


7 




13 


a 


a 


9 


3 


- 


16 


- 


- 


7 


3 


- 


II 


a 
I 


I 


9 
9 


a 
6 


" 


37 
16 


- 


- 


17 


6 


3 


a6 


- 


- 


II 


la 


I 


34! 


I 


- 


8 




- 


17 


I 


I 


5 




I 


10 


- 


I 


4 




a 


15 


I 


I 


8 


11 


- 


21 


I 


I 


5 




- 


la 


a 


- 


6 


II 


I 


aa 


- 


- 


7 




3 


17 


- 


- 


10 




- 


14 


I 


a 


9 




- 


ai 


- 


a 


8 


la 


- 


a3 


- 


- 


a 


la 


- 


'7 


- 


- 


3 




- 


7 


- 


- 


3 




- 


10 


a 


- 


6 




I 


ai 



Tonnage. 



3.580 
«.734 
5.070 
J.4»a 
7.569 
6,643 
It,6i6 

7.f'59 

12,763 

3,628 

8,980 

a8,32o 

4,888 
2,621 
5.018 
7.7»7 

9.857 
11,654 

1.663 
12,805 

9,920 

13.977 
5,060 

8,374 

22.599 

3.732 

".031 

12.863 

8.443 

7.769 

10,143 

14,788 

17.793 
21,034 
12,115 
4.196 
'3.524 
20,772 
10,587 

18,377 
12,096 
10,610 

»7.557 

31,523 

19,228 

5.948 

8,820 

9.785 



212 



SHIP-OWNERS. 



LEADING SHIP-OWNERS. — C^«f/«fl'^^. 



Date. 



1862 101885 

1863 toi88i 
1863 101878 
1863 to 1876 

1863 101884 

1864 to 1882 

1865 to 1885 

1865 to 1885 

1866 to 1874 

1867 to 1884 

1868 to 1885 

1869 to 1875 

1870 to 1885 
1872 to 1877 
1875 to 1884 
1879 to 1885 



Owntr's Name. 



Joseph H. Cann 

James F. Scott 

Dennis & Doane 

Nathan W. Blethen 

Francis G. and William H. Cook 

Killam Brothers 

Loran E. Baker 

William Law 

Young, Kinney, & Corning . . 

Jeremiah H. Pothier & Co. . . 

Jacob V. B. Bingay 

! Byron P. Ladd 

I Benjamin Davis 

! Tliomas B. Flint 

j Parker, Eakins, & Co. . . . . 
\ Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. . . . 



g I 



n 



- 3 



I % 

5 : O 
« 

Si , 2 



Tonnage. 



5 

8 

31 

•7 
II 
16 
20 
it 

17 
II 
12 

'S 
10 

7 

18 

24 



5.948 

9,035 
16,809 

« 3.543 

9,32a 

\i,ivi 

14.853 
35,961 

7.389 

877 

8,735 

4,396 
*,393 
6,745 
1,578 
1,430 



Two new ships have been added to the Yarmouth Registry since the 
foregoing enumeration was completed, — the Louise M. Fuller, 1,680 
tons, built at Tusket for J. Adolphus Hatfield, P. Lent Hatfield, P'orman 
Hatfield, Job Hatfield, Edgar K. Spinney, William Law & Co., and 
Capt. A. IV. Blauvelt; and the Celeste Burrill, 1,763 tons, built in 
Clare for William Burrill & Co. and Capt. William D. Robertson. Two 
new brigs also have been registered, — the Aeronaut, 446 tons, and the 
Clare, 229 tons, built at Belliveau's Cove for William D. Lovitt. . 

No authentic records have been found available for supplying correct 
data of the vessels owned in Yarmouth County during the twenty-five 
years following 1761 ; and the foregoing summary has been compiled 
from Mr. Lawson's "Record of Shipping," published in 1876, and from 
the lists since pubhshed annually in " The Yarmouth Herald." 

Up to the year 1825 the English of Argyle Township had owned 
altogether 27 schooners, 1,575 tons; and the French, 13 schooners, 476 
tons. 

Twenty-five years later the figures stood : for the English, 40 schoon- 
ers, 2,276 tons ; for the French, 37 schooners, 1,280 tons. 

And on Jan. f, 1875, the English of Argyle had owned 89 schooners, 
4,699 tons; and the French had owned 104 schooners, 4,125 tons. 



SHIP-OWNERS. 213 

The shipping list of the county of Jan. i, 1880, includes 121 
schooners, registering 6,003 tons, of which the English of Argyle owned 
16 schooners, 760 ions; the French of Argyle owned 40 schooners, 
1,941 tons. 

Five years later, when the list showed 109 schooners, 6,579 tons, 
the English of Argyle owned 16 schooners, 1,122 tons: the French of 
Argyle owned 40 schooners, 2,204 tons. 

These figures show the changes, almost invariably in one direction, in 
the relative proportions of the tonnage of the small craft owned by the 
English and the French of the Township of Argyle. They show, too, 
how largely the French have contributed to the development of the 
fishery interests of the county, for in that direction, mainly, have their 
schooners been employed ; whereas, some of the larger schooners 
owned by the English of Argyle, especially in the earlier years, were 
engaged in other and less profitable business. 

It is noteworthy that while during the first fifty years the English ves- 
sels of the county were named Polly, Betsey, Patty, Sally, Sukey, Nancy, 
Peggy, and Freedom, Friendship, Success, Hope, Industry, Prudence, 
Prosperity, Adventure, Enterprise, Endeavor, and the like (out of twenty- 
four vessels owned in 1787 th'.re were seven Pollys and three Betseys), 
t\\Q first French vessels r ,.1 rded were the Seaflower oi Simon Amirault, 
in 1795; the Margaret of Pierre Surette, in 1797; the Micmac of 
Etienne D'Entremont, in 1 797 : the Minerva of Marc Amirault, in 1802 ; 
and the Rainbow of Btaoni D'Entremont, in 1804. We find with the 
English the Lord Nelson and Trafalgar va. 1806 and 1807; but Paul 
D'Entremont and his sons, in 1807, changed the keynote, and called 
their first vessel the Queen, a name Hilaire D'Entremont made more 
emphatic in 1808, when, with his Queen of England oi 63 tons, he wel- 
comed Anthony Landers ; and these hints were followed by the English, 
in 1808, 1 8 10, and 181 1, with the Lady Sherbrooke, Queen Charlotte, 
British Queen, and Prince Regent. 

Samuel Marshall ga''e us the first Hibernia in 1 799, and Solomon 
Ryder the first Britannia in 18 10, followed by James Crosby's Cale- 
donia in 18 1 2, which memorable year David Flint appropriately recog- 
nized with his Belisarius. 

Anthony Landers improved upon his Peter Waldo of 181- wit'- the 



214 



SHIPPING OF YARMOUTH. 



Thales in 1813 ; and just here it is worth recalling that John Cann built 
two brigs in 1847, naming one Thetis, and the other Thalia, from two 
nymphs of the sea, granddaughters of Oceanus and Terra. We find 
Wellington and Waterloo, in 1816 and 181 7, in close proximity to 
Betsey and Nancy and Mary Jane. 

Bartlett Gardner would seem to have given the name to the village 
with his brig Arcadia, of 200 tons, in 181 7, which, it may be safely said, 
was the handsomest brig built in the county to that date ; and Anthony 
Landers made a retrograde movement in 1819 with his \)X\g Better-Luck- 
Still. 

One of the D'Entremonts is again to the front, in 1840, with the first 
Acadian; sX'dxow^ James Taylor had honored a Fair Acadian sixittn 
years before, and Nathan Utley an Acadian Lass in 1833. 

And so, in more recent years, while we v/elcome Evangeline, Ange- 
line, Aldine, Kathleen, Beatrice, Vanguard, and Jessie May, there were 
few, probably, in 1883 and 1884, to lament the fate of the Nancy Ann 
or the Essence of Peppermint. 

The following table exhibits the shipping of Yarmouth at different 
periods since 1761. The highest point attained was in 1878, as the 
figures show, made up to Jan. i, 1879 : — 



DATE. 
I761 

1808 
I818 
1832 
1840 
1850 

i860, Jan. 

1870 

187s 

1879 

18S0 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1S84 

1885 

1886 



NO. or 

VESSELS. 
I 

:!6 
41 

75 

38 

124 

113 
>33 
858 

256 
297 
276 
262 
232 
228 
225 
222 
229 



AVERAGE 

TONNAGE. -■; TONNAGE. 

25 

554 21 

1,880 46 

3.469 45 

4.34S 49 

10,54 J .' . % . . 85 

17,890 158 

36.514 275 

82,147 3'8 

120,966 472 

i53.5'5 517 

144.354 523 

141.331 539 

133.078 574 

'24.357 545 

118,514 527 

117.176 528 

118,629 518 



SHIPS OF THE PAST. 21 5 

A comparison may be made with the Mercantile Marine of the 
Dominion of Canada, as given by the official report : — 

NO. OF AVERAGE 

DATK. VESSELS. TONNAGE. TONNAGE. 

1873 6,783 i,039,7'8 15s 

1874 6,930 1,158.363 '67 

1875 6,952 1,205,565 173 

1876 7.'92 1,250,839 174 

1877 7,362 i,3'o,46S 178 

1878 7,469 1,333.015 178 

1879 7.471 1.332,093 178 

1880 7,377 1,3", 218 178 

1881 7,394 ..... 1,310,89s 177 

1882 7,312 1,260,777 172 

1883 7,374 1,267,394 .... 172 

1884 7,254 1,253.747 173 

1885 7,315 1,231,856 168 

THE GREAT MICHAEL. 

James Logan, in his "History of the Scottish Gael," says, "The art 
of ship-building was brought to great perfection in Scotland. A ship of 
a remarkably large size, built by King James IV. (1488-15 13), con- 
sumed so much timber that she is said to have wasted the woods of 
Fife. This vessel was 120 feet long, 36 feet wide within the sides, 
which are said to have been no less than 10 feet thick ! She was fur- 
nished with 300 marines, 120 artiller}'-men, and 1,000 men-of-war, and 
cost ;^30,ooo. ' This great ship cu.nbered Scotland to get her to sea. 
If any man,' says Potscottie, ' believe that this description be not of 
verity, let him pass to the gate of Tillibardine, and there afore the same, 
ye will see the length and breadth of her, planted with hawthorns by the 
Wright who helped to make her.' " 

Scotland now builds her ships of material more durable than that 
supplied four hundred years ago by the " woods of Fife," excellent as 
that may then have been ; and Yarmouth, to test their quality, placed 
upon her books of registry in 1385, the new iron sailing-ship, Boivman 
B. Law, of 1,359 tons, built on the Clyde for the following owners, — 
Wlliam Law, Bowman B. Law, John Black, A. N. Rankin, Byron A. 
Abbott, Byron Robbins, James A. Hatfield, Amos D. Haley, Thomas 
Perry, George K. Trefry, John Hibb?. ', James F.Scott, Herbert H. 
Brown, Cereno Johnson, Ebenezer Scott, William Hibbard, — half of 
whom we recognize as descended from Yarmouth's early settlers. 



2l6 SHIPS OF THE PAST. 

THE GREAT REPUBLIC. 

Besides, the Pompey of 25 tons, which brought the first settlers from 
Cape Cod to Chebogue River, a celebrated vessel with which Yarmouth 
owners were concerned a century later, was the ship Great Republic, 
built at East Boston in 1853 by Donald MacKay, a native of Clyde 
River, Shelburne County. This ship was 325 feet long, 53 feet beam, 
had four decks, and measured originally 4,555 tons. She had three 
square-rigged masts, and a spanker- mast carrying spanker and gaff-top- 
sail. Her main-yard was 120 feet long and 28 inches in diameter; her 
fore-yard no feet and 26 inches in diameter; cross-jack-yard 90 feet 
long and 24 inches in diameter. She carried royals and skysails except 
upon the mizzen, which had no skysail. Her first voyage was from New 
York to San Francisco, under the command of Donald's brother, 
Lauchlan MacKay, formerly of the Sovereign of the Seas. While at New 
York the Great Republic came near being destroyed by fire ; and while 
repairing, her upper deck was removed. She made three consecutive 
passages from New York to San Francisco, averaging io6|^ days ; and on 
her first voyage, for ten successive days, she averaged 314 miles per day. 

In 1868, while she was lying in New York unemployed, Capt. 
John Smith Hatfield and Loran E. Baker purchased an interest in the 
Great Republic. Capt. Hatfield took charge of her, proceeded to St. 
John, N.B., and therice to Liverpool, Great Britain, with a cargo of 
timber and deals. This was her last voyage ; and John Smith Hatfield 
is entided to credit for justifying his confidence in the ability of Donald 
MacKay's great ship, though much enfeebled by age and the continued 
strain of past performance, to overcome the perils of the Bay of Fundy, 
and safely carry another heavy cargo across the North Adantic. 

Donald MacKay built altogether more than 120 ships, some of 
which made remarkable passages from New York and Boston to San 
Francisco. For example, — 

Sovereign of the Seas . . 2,400 tons . . 103 days. 

Flying Cloud 1,700 " . . 90 " 

Flying Fish 1,600 " . . 92 " 

Bald Eagle 1,600 " . . 107 " 

Empress of the Seas . . . 2,250 " . 118 " 

Staghound I.S50 " . . 112 " z/w Valparaiso. 

Westward Ho 1,700 " . . 107 " from Boston. 

Staffordshire loi ' " " 



SHIPS OF THE PAST. 217 

The Sovereign of the Seas, Capt. Lauchlan MacKay, mafie the 
passage from Sandwich Islands to New York in 82 days, having in 79 
days sailed 17,597 statute miles, an average of more than 9 miles an 
hour. The Flying Cloud, on her unequalled passage of 90 days, one 
day made, from noon to noon, 374 knots, equal to 433 statute miles. 

Donald MacKay built the Lightning, which made the passage from 
Melbourne to Liverpool in 65 days ; and the James Baines of 2,000 
tons, which in September, 1854, made the passage from Boston to Liver- 
pool in 12 days and 6 hours, and next from Liverpool to Melbourne in 
63 days, the shortest on record. 

But ships of such size and such performance belong exclusively to 
the last forty years; for previous to 1840, a ship of 500 tons was con- 
sidered large. In the early part of the century Salem owned the largest 
merchant fleet, and carried on the most extensive foreign trade of any 
American port. Yet out of 41 ships built at Salem, between 1783 and 
1800, the six largest were of 215, 214, 213, 190, 188, and 176 tons; 
and the Netu World, 1,400 tons, built by Donald MacKay, was, in 1846, 
the largest merchant vessel of the day. 

Christopher Turner, of Salem, between 1800 and 181 1, built 18 
vessels, the five largest being of 296, 286, 282, 256, and 188 tons. Enos 
Briggs, of South Salem, from 1790 to 1819, built 51 vessels, 11,500 tons, 
the largest of which was the Grand Turk, 5 60 tons, " a very monster in 
those days," launched May, 1791. 

Elijah Briggs, of Salem, between 1816 and 1829, built 12 vessels, 
the largest of which was the Rome, 314 tons, built in 1829. Elias 
Jenks, of Salem, from 1825 to 1843, built 16 vessels, the largest, the 
ship Carthage, 426 tons, built in 1837 ; and it is recorded that the ship 
George, 328 tons, betw n 1815 and 1836, made 16 voyages between 
Salem and Calcutta, the average outward passage being 116 days, 
homeward about 100 days; the shortest outward being 89 days, home- 
ward 93 days. 

These statements show the class of vessels with which the " merchant 
princes " of New England conducted their lucrative commerce with the 
East Indies, and they have been introduced that a comparison may 
be made with the progress of Yarmouth shipping during the same 
periods. 



2l8 



SHIPPING OF YARMOUTH. 



SHIPPING OWNED IN THE COUNTY OF YARMOUTH, 

Jan. I, 1886. 



When 
built. 


Vessels' Names. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Owners' Names ; Captains in Italics. 




Steamers. 






1885 


Alameda 


"3 


J. H. Churchill, C. P. Kinney, Ebenezer Crosby. 


1874 


Alpha 


306 


Samuel Killam. 


1884 


Arcadia 


63 


\V. H. & F. G. Cook; J. K., S. J., & A. M. Hatfield; G. K. 




• 




Trefry: H. G., Thomas, & A. H. Poole; Adelbert Jenkins, 
etal. 


187s 


City of St. John . . 


446 


Loran E. Baker, Harvey Doane. 


1873 


Dominion .... 


510 


Loran E. Baker. 


1881 


Freddie V 


26 


Hugh Cann, H. B. Cann. 


1883 


Island Gem .... 


IS 


S. J. & A. M. Hatfield, Ebenezer Crosby, A. H. & H. G. Poole. 


1883 


Islet 


5 


A. H. & Thomas S. Poole. 


1883 


Marina 

51 Ships. 


3a 


H. B. Cann. 


1880 


Abbie S. Hart . . . 


1.450 


\V. Law & Co., J. A. Hatfield, J. C. Parish, G. H. Guest, E. 
H. Lovitt, J. F. Scolt, 5. A. Goudey, William Currier, et al. 


1873 


Adolphus 


1,318 


A. C. Robbins, H. H. Brown, William & John Hibbard, J. 
A. Hatfield, Thomas E. Coming, J. C. Anderson, et al. 


1870 


Annie Bingay . . . 


1,048 


Jacob V. B. Bingay, Joseph H. Cann, Joseph Burrill. 


1873 


Annie Goudey . . . 


1,135 


L. E. Baker, Norman H. Bent. 


187s 


Annie M. Law . . . 


1,178 


W. Law & Co ; Thos.,Thos. J.,& E. S. Perry; Joseph Burrill, 
R. T. Crosby, S. R. Hilton, William & N. B. Currier, et al. 


1874 


Antoinette .... 


1,118 


W. Law & Co., J. H. Killam, J. F. Scott, George G, Sanderson, 
B. A. Abbott, Jos. Burrill, Ebenezer Scott, T. Corning, et al. 


1876 


Bertie Bigelow . . . 


1,142 


William D. Loviit, G. G. Crosby, George L. Burchell. 


187s 


Bonanza 


1,078 


R. T., Harris, Richard, James, Joseph H., & Joseph R. Crosby; 
George A. & J. H. Harris, Thomas & CJeorge L. O'Brien. 


1879 


Charles 


1,500 


John Murphy, Charles W. Murphy, R. B. Raymond. 


1874 


Charlie Baker . . . 


1,063 


L. E. Baker, Stephen P. Raymond. 


t884 


County of Yarmouth . 


a.154 


William D. Lovitt. 


1884 


Ellen A. Read . . . 


1.75° 


W. Law & Co. ; J. A. & N. B. Hatfield; Thomas, Thomas J., 








& E. S. Perry; E. K. Spinney; George A. & H. A. Hood; 








William Currier, et al. 


1878 


Equator 


'.273 


Henry & N. B. Lewis, Hugh & Hugh E. Cann, Elijah E. 
Phillips, Francis G. & William H. Cook, Henry & J. E. 
ICenealy, et al. 


1883 


Euphemia .... 


1.367 


Henry & N. B. Lewis, F. G. & W. H. Cook, Henry Kenealy, 
Abram M. & Samuel J. Hatfield, George K. Trefry, et al. 


1878 


Everest 


1,680 


William D. Loviit. 


1883 


Frederick B. Taylor . 


1.798 


W. Law & Co., J. A. Hatfield, J. A. Tilley, J. Hibbard, Josiah 
Crosby, Thomas Perry, J. B. Lovitt, L. E. Cann, Lemuel C. 
Goudey, et al. 


187s 


Hectanooga .... 


1,066 


Abel C. & Byron Robbins, George L. Burchell, Cereno Johnson, 
Job Hatfiel'I, v.. A. Abbott, et al. 


1878 


Ismir • 


1,359 


Jarob V". 5. Ti^^ay, Joseph H. Cann, George B. Cann, G. G. 








Sanderson. 


1875 


John Bunyan . . . 


i.«93 


Loran E. Baker, Zenas H^. Spronle. 


187s 


Kinbum 


1,198 


J. W. Moody, F. L. Crosby, J. C. Farish, Estate G. J. Farish, 
Sheldon & Alexander P. Lewis, C. \V. B. Tooker, James W. 
Wyman, tt al. 



SHIPPING OF YARMOUIH. 219 

Shipping owned in the County of Yarmouth. — Continued. 




When 
built. 



1877 I^nnie Burrill 
1871 I Lillie Soullard 
1875 ; Lizzie Burrill 
1874 Lydia . . . 



1878 I Mabel Taylor 
1874 Magnolia . . 



1883 
i88t 
1878 
1880 

1879 
1884 
1880 
1 881 
1874 

1878 



Mary L. Burrill 
Minnie Burrill 
Morning Light 
N. B. Lewis 



Narwhal . . 
Naupactus . 
Nettie Murphy 
Nyl-Ghau . 
Otago . . . 



Ruby 



1877 Saint Cloud . 

1878 j San Stefano . 

j 

1874 I Shelbume 
1885 Stalwart . . 



1875 Stamboul . . . 
1875 ! Stewart Freeman 
i88t i Thomas N. Hart 



1877 j Tsemogora 



1876 j Vancouver 



1882 
1884 
1882 
1873 



Vanduara 
Vanloo 
Vendome . 
William . 



I 
1879 I William Law 



1868 

187s 
1873 



Winnifred . . 

44 Barks. 
Addie H. Cann 



Aneroid 



1,328 

997 
1,185 



Owners' Names; Captains in Italics. 



1,398 
998 



1,455 
1.465 
1,310 

1.325 

',327 
'.399 
1.373 
1,253 

«.095 



i.39» 

1,528 
1,198 

1,164 

'.545 

i 

[ 1,248 

1,485 
1,460 



1,253 

i 1.376 
I 1,367 
; ',496 
' 1.550 
I 998 



1.599 

t,OI2 

650 
983 



William Burrill & Co., Jl^tUiam D. Robertson. 

Edward C. Dennis, Robert S. Eakins, et at. 

William Burrill & Co., yames R. Blauvelt. 

William Law; Thomas, Thomas J., Edward S., Robert C, & 

W. K. Perry; A. C. Robbins, J. B. Lovitt, James F. Scott, 
I Harris & Richard Crosby. 
W. Law & Co., J. A. Hatfield, Charles E. Durkee, James C. 

Farish, Joseph liurrill, Estate W. K. Dudman, et al. 
A. F. Stoneman, Joseph W. MacMullen, T. B. Dane, Dodds 

& Jolly, Oscar Davison, J. W. Moody, George R. Smith, 

Michael Dmvley, et al. 
William Burrill & Co. 

William Burrill & Co., William D. Robertson. 
Geo. //. Perry, S.imuel Killam, S. B. Davis, Fred. A. Ladd. 
N. B. & Henry Lewis, Hugh E. & Hugh Cann, Benjamin 

Gullison, H. Kenealy, Bradford R. Hilton. 
John Lovitt, James J. I.ovitt, L. D. iVeston. 
John Lovitt, James J. Lovitt. 

John Murphy, Charles W. Murphy, R. B. Raymond. 
John Lovitt, James J. Lovitt, Edward H. Lovitt. 
N. B. & Henry Lewis, Hugh & Hugh E. Cann, Francis G. 

Cook, Benjamin Gullison, H. E. Kenealy. 
Abel C. & Byron Robbins, James F. Raymond, John A. Tilley, 

Josiah Crosby. 
William D. Lovitt. 
L. E. Baker, Benj. Hilton, G. G. Crosby, Theoph. Corning, J. 

C. Farish, R. M. Ferguson, Eben. Scott, Z. W. Sproule, et al. 
Estate L. M. M. Willet, E. J. ilurphy, D. J. Murphy. 
Jacob V. B. BIngay, John Lovitt, James J. Lovitt, Joseph H. 

Cann, George B. Cann, George G. Sanderson. 
John Lovitt, Jas. J. Lovitt, Jacob V. B. Bingay, Jos. H. Cann. 
Ix)ran E. Baker. 
W. Law & Co., J. A. & N. B. Hatfield, J. A. Tilley, John W. 

Moody, J. R. Blauvelt, James F. & Eoenezer Scott, Byron 

Robbins, et al. 
John & James J. Lovitt, Estate T. B. Flint, Dennis C. Weston, 

George G. .Sanderson, Augustus Cann, Geo. H. Guest, et al. 
George H. Lovitt. 
George H. Lovitt. 

George H. Lovitt. • ,; 

William D. Lovilt. 
Benjamin & Ed. Hilton, IV. R. Journeay, T. C. Trefry, 

Rowland H. Crocker, Estate W. K. Dudman. 
W. Law & Co. ; Thos.,Thos. J., & E. S. Perry; Geo. H. Guest, 

S. R. Hilton, R. T. Crosby, J. A. Hatfield, Jos. Burrill, et al. 
George L. Burchell, James F. Scott. 



Lyman & Hugh Cann, Benjamin Murphy, Charles E. Brown, 
A. C. Haines, J. Nelson Gardner, Edson Churchill. 

R. T., Harris, Richard, Joseph R., Joseph H., and Joseph 
Crosby; H. H. Brown, T. Coming, T. O'Brien,].!). Dennis, 
Joseph Burrill, et al. 



220 



SHIPPING OF YARMOUTH. 



Shipping owned in the County of Yarmouth. — Continued. 



When 
built. 

1873 
1877 
1870 

1870 

1885 

.875 
1881 

1878 

1878 

1872 
1872 
1882 

1881 
1873 
1876 

1871 

1873 

1871 
1872 

1877 



Vessels' Names. 



Annie tiurrill 
Aspotogon 
Autocrat . . 



Bachelors . . 
Bowman B. Law 



I 



Ecuador . . . 
Emilie L. Boyd 



Emanuel Swedenborg, 
Fanny L. Cann . . 



George B. Doane 
Gordon . , 
Guiana . . 

H. B. Cann . 
Herbert C. Hall 
Hugh Cann . 

Kate Burrill . 

Kate Cann . 

Lennie . . 
Lima . 

Lizzie Perry . 



^872 M. & E. Cann 
1873 Maria Stoneman 



1876 
1873 
1873 

1877 
1875 
1873 

1873 
1882 
1872 
1880 
1871 

1876 

1870 



Mary I. Baker 
Milo ... 
Mizpah . . 

Navarch . • 
Natant . . 
Nellie Moody 

Nellie T. Guest 
Neophyte 
Palermo . . 
Patagonia 
Republic . . 

Romanofif 

Sarah B. Cann 



Ton- 
I uage. 

i 

897 
j 861 
\ 665 

655! 

I 1359 I 

1. 059 
1,240 

799 

797 [ 

i 

941 ! 

604 I 

1,26s I 

I 1299 i 
622 I 

1.073 I 
690 

95« ' 

I 
984] 
892 

I 
1,122 j 

I 

I 

920 j 

959 

843' 

6841 

898 I 

i 

994 i 

1,072 I 

746 I 

883 I 
1,056 I 

799 j 
«.i99 I 

843 

1,049 

757 



Owners' Names', Captains in Italics. 



Wm. Burrill & Co., Wm. D. Robtrtson, James R. Blauvelt. 
A. R. Purkee, J. C. Farish, Dennis Crosby, S. & A. P. Lewis. 
J. VV. Moody, A. F. Stoneman, Joseph W. MacMulUn, Freeman 

Gardner, E. ]V. Kenealy. 
Hugh, H. B., Lyman, & Hugh E. Cann: BtHjamtH Murphy, 

G. W. B. Tooker, Edward Allen, Loran D. Cann. 
W. Law & Co., A. U. Haley, Thomas Perry, H. H. Brown, 

G. K. Trcfry, J. A. Hatfield, B. A. Abbott, et al. 
Killam Bros., Bowman Coming, Geo. A. Hood, Hugh Hughes. 
W. Law & Co., G. H. Guest, Thomas & E. S. Perry, George 

C' jsby, T. Corning, J. B. Lovitt, C. Raymond, et al. 
Zebina Goudey, John Mrrphy, J. iy. A ndersoit, 'R.T. Crosby, 

Theophilus Corning, J. H. Harris. 
Lyman & Lonn D. Cann, B. .Murphy, H. & R. Crosby, C. E. 

Brown, J. C. Farish, W. & N. B. Currier, N. A. Wyman, 

etat. 
A. C. Robbins, John Hibbard, G. L. Burchell, Herbert H. Brown. 
Abel C. Rob in'.. 
Killam Bros , W. D. Killam, £. C. Byrnes, H. A. & G. A. 

Hood. 
Hugh Cann, H. B. Cann, Rodolph Cann. 
Samuel KilUm, Benjamin & Samuel B. Davis, et al. 
N. B. & Henry Lewis, Henry & J. E. Kenealy, Geo. EUridge, 

Hugh, Hugh E., Lyman E., and Herbert H. Cann. 
W. Burrill & Co., James R. Blauvelt, William D. Robertson, 

etal. 
Hugh, Lyman, George E., & H. B. Cann, J- 'j- Smith, 

Benjamin Murphy, Samuel A. Crowell. 
William D. Lovitt, Estate Smith Horton. •■ ■ - - 
Killam Bros., E- C. Byrne , D. Richards, William & John 

Hibbard. 
W. Law & Co , Thomas & T. J. Perry, George Crosby, R. 

MacHenry, Geo. H. Guest, H. H. Perry, Wm. Currier, et al. 
Hugh, H. B., Lyman, Hugh E. Cann. 
A. K. Stoneman, John W. Moody, A. Webb Blauvelt. ' 
Loran E. Baker, Zenas W. Sproule. 
A. C. Robbins, Charles D. Bro'.vn, Thomas Long. 
N. B. & Henry Lewis, Hugh, Hugh E., & George E. Cann, 

Francis G. Cook, Michael Dowley. 
John Lovitt, James J. Lovitt, Edward H. Lovitt. 
John Lovitt, James J. Lovitt, Israel L. Walker. 
A. F. Stoneman & Co., John W. ^T ody, Joseph Goudey, Es- 
tate George Earl, Loran D. Ca et al, 
Thomas Guest, Samuel E. Messenger. 
John Lovitt, James J. Lovitt. 

Zebina Goudey, Israel L. Walker, Theophilus Corning, et al. 
Killam Bros., William Hibbard, Henry A. Hood. 
Henry Lewis, Benjamin Hilton, Elijah E. Phillips, William 

H., Francis G., & W. A. Cook, George K. Trefry, et al. 
A. F. Stoneman & Co., John W. Moody, Amos D. Haley, 

George W. Doty, Dodds & Jolly, James C. Farish, et al. 
Hujh, Hugh E , & H. B. Cann, Francis G. Cook, Nathan B. 

& Henry Lewis. 



SHIPPING OF YARMOUTH. 



2i\ 



Shipping owned in the County of Yarmouth. — ConthiueJ. 



I 



When V 1 ■ V Ton- 

. ., Vessels Names, 

built. ' nage. 



Owners' Names; Captains in Italics. 



1875 Sokoto .... 
1871 : Southern Belle . . 



1872 I Talisman .... 

I 
1879 Thomas Perry . . 

1879 Venezuela . . . 
1870 W. E. Heard . . 
• 38 1 Zebina Goudey . . 

1 Barkentine. 

1885 ! Sentinel .... 



1875 
1884 



11 Brigantines. 

Acadia 

Aldine 



1869 Arthur 

1883 

1876 

i88z 

1877 

1871 

1874 

1873 

1878 



E879 
1875 



Boston Marine . . , 
Florida . . . . . 

Lottie E 

Louisa Coipel . . 
M. E. Coipel . . 
Nellie Crosby . . . 
S. N. Collymore . 
St. Michel ... 

113 Schooners. 

Alamode .... 
Alfarata .... 



T878 ' Alfred 

1884 Alma 

1885 Alph. B. Parker 



1878 
1876 
1879 

1882 

1883 

1876 

1873 



Angeline . . 
Anna Louisa 
Anna MacGtC 



Annie D. 



Annie M. Bell . 

Arizona . . . 

I Balarose . . . 



1878 i Banneret . 
1875 j Barbaroni 

1883 Beatrice . 



958 
587 

953 
1,193 



983 

587 
1,087 



488 



341 

344 
123 
172 
99 
167 
143 
"5 
440 
221 

131 



28 

47 

46 
18 

39 

67 

47 
57 

70 



Samuel Killam, W. R. Journeay, R. H. Crocker. 

A. C. Robblns, Samuel B. Robbint, L). W. Clark, Ceorgt B. 
Frater. 

W. Law & Co., Albert Raker, J. A. Hatfield, J. B. Lovitt, 
James R. Blauvelt, Joseph Burrill, G. G. Sanderson, // al. 

W. Law & Co., Thomas, Edward S., & Thomas J. Perry, George 
Crosby, George H. Guest, James G. Allen, Joseph Burrill, 
William Currier, et al. 

Killam Bros , William D. Killam, E. C. Byrnes. 

A. C. Robbins, James F. Raymond, Estate L. C. Raymond. 

Zebina Goudey, Cereno Johnson, James G. Allen, William W. 
Cook, Lemuel E. Robbins, Wilham Currier, George G. San- 
derson, John W. Anderson. 



8S 



45 



55 
93 



109 



William D. Lovitt. 



Benjamin & Samuel B. Davis. 

William D. Lovitt. 

Parker, Eakins, & Co. 

Jeremie H. Pothier & Co. 

Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 

William Crosby. 

Parker, Eakins, & Co. 

A. F. Stoneman & Co. 

Benjamin & S. B. Davis, Fred'k A. Ladd, \V. Wallace Crosby. 

James M. Davis, Prince H. Durkee. 

Jeremie H. Pothier et Cie. 



Joseph & Theodore Le Blanc, Ma'c A Amirault, et al. 

C. T., W.. Isaac, & Hilaire D'Entremont; D. Morrisey; D. T., 

S. G., Jacques, & Cyriaque Amirault. 
Parker, Eakins, & Co. 
M. Le Blanc, et al. 
Maximin, Timoth<?e, Philippe, Hilaire, Edmond, Jacques, & 

Josue Le Blanc. 
Parker, Eakins, & Co. ■■;; 

Reuben, Harvey, & C. Goodwin, et al. 
George D., J. S., L. M., & J. B, J. D'Entremont; N., S., 

L. v., M., R., Jacques, & Marc Amirault. 
GeorgeD.,J. B., H. T., J. S., & L. M. D'Entremont; S.,Marc, 

& Michel Amirault; C. Rudolf. 
Nicolas, Sylvain, Benjamin, Henri, Anselme, Michel, Augustin, 

R.,& Lion V. Amirault. 
S. D., L. D., R., v., L. C, M., Andre, Jean C, & Jacques 

D'Entremont; Zacharie Surette, et al. 
Andri, Isaac, Ambroise, A. C, Max., Guillaume, F. I. X., 

J. J., & Louis A. D'Entremont; Louis B. & Denis Amirault. 
C. & Reuben Goodwin, Hilaire D'Entremont. 
Ambroise, S. D., C. J., A., U. D., Ldon, Etienne, Hilaire, & 

Pierre Duon, et al. 
A. F. Stoneman & Co. 



J22 



SHIP/'/XG OF YARMOUTH. 



Shipping owned in the County of Yarroouth. — Continued. 



When 
built. 



V'essela' Namei . 



1865 Benjamin Killam 

1877 Brenton . 

1873 I Brisk . . 

1883 j Byron . . 

1876 ; Chlorus . 

1883 Circassian 

1880 I Coral Leaf 



188s 
1870 



Coup d'Etat 
Diploma . 



i86a E L. Perkins 
1884 E' Raymond 
1884 : Edith A. . . 



1870 



Electric Flash 
Emma S. . . 



18R4 Ethel . . 
1878 Etta . . 
1885 Eva Mac . 
1877 I Florence B. Parr 
1885 Fly . . . . 
1868 I Forest Flower 

i 
1875 Gipsey . . 
1885 Guide . . . 
1883 Harry Lewis 
1885 Hatlie Emeline 

1883 j Hazel Dell . 

1884 j Hazel*Glen . 



1879 


Ida Peters . 


1880 


Index . . . 


1877 


J. D. Payson 


1877 


J. M. Manning 


1859 


J. W. Kinney 


1884 


Jacques . . 




Jessie May . 


1869 


Jonathan . . 


1849 


Josephine 


1883 


Kathleen . . 


1874 


Kelso . . . 


1884 


King&>her . 


1885 


Komaroflr . . 


188a 


Lennie . . 



Ton- 
nage. 



Owners' Names; Captains in Italics. 



I 



54 
70 
68 

"4 

57 
"5 
68 

ti 

83 



50 



"7 
107 

19 
90 

15 
40 



38 

III 

II 

87 

97 

3» 
«7 
41 
56 
5a 

S8 
»4 
53 

19 

"7 
III 

47 
10 

99 



Hnrvey k. R. Perry, C. O'Brien. 

Parker, Eakms, & Co. 

Simon, Isaac, Josue, Ambroisc, Jean B., & Joseph L. D'Entre- 

mont: Simon, A., L., & J. I,. Le Blanc. 
Byron Mines. 

A. F. Stonem.in & Co. 

William Ryder, Benjamin Hines, James & Jeremiah Gayton. 

George B., J. J., C. E., Ji. Harvey Goodwin; Isaac Van Era- 
burg, Hezekiah Smith. 

Mathurin D'Entremont. 

Louis, Simon, Fran(;ois, & Zacharle Duon; P. Le Blanc; 
Michel, I'lacide, Nicolas, Hilaire, Louis C, Gervais, V., & 
Ix>uis B. D'Entremont; S. Surette. 

A. F. St'jneman & Co. 

I Robert S. Eakins. 

I George D., Henri F., Louis M., & Simon D'Entremont; 
Mac, Theodore, Cesar, Michel, & Alfred Amirault; James 

I Archer. 

Marc, Cyriaque, &Josu^ Amirault: Geo. D., F.J , David, Ger- 
vais, Patrice. Leon A , Guill.tume, & Louis A. D'Entremont. 

Benjamin & Maximin Le Blanc, James M. Davis, J. H. 
Churchill, James Nickerson, Geoige £. Bales, 

Jeremie H. Pothier & Co. 

Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 

James MacCarthy. 

Parker, Eakins, & Co. 
i Solon & Remi Heb^rt, Simon Le Blanc. 

Jacob Daley, R. Hines, Isaac Van Emburg; J. H., Thomas, 
George B., & Caleb Goodwin. 

Powell & Ellis. 

Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 

Henry & Nathan B. Lewis. 

Pierre V. Amirault. 

C. VV. Larkm, S. L. 
& P. Belliveau. 

C. W. Larkin, S. L. 
Amirault. 

Parker, Eakins, & Co. ':> 

Samuel C. Hood, Thomas Guest. 

George W. & A. B. Corning, J. H. Crosby. 

Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 

J. M. Davis, Arthur Morgan, W. W. Crosby, A. IV. Mac- 
Ki.-non. 

Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 

Arthur E. Allan. 

Guillaume, C. T., C. D., C. H., R. D., T., & L<!on D'Entremont; 
Alexandre & S. G. Amirault. 

Reuben Gardner. 

Benjamin Hilton, Genrge E. & H. B. Cann, George K. Trefry. 

Jeremie L. Pothier & Co. 

A. F. Stoneman ft Co. 

James M. Davis. 

George Crosby. 



, Oliver; A. R., F., & E. D. Le Blanc; J. 
, Oliver, E. B. Goodwin, Marc A. & Martin 



SHirriNG OF YARMOUTH. 



223 



Shipping owned in the County of Yarmouth. — Continutd. 



Wh«B 
buUt. 


Vcfiels' Namei. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Owners' Names; Captains in Italics. 


1870 


Lizzie 


"4 


D. M. Spinney, William Kinney. 


1883 1 Lloyd 


«3 


T. Corning, J. H. Harris, Henjamin Gullison, 


1883 1 Ultie W. Fair6eld . 


.64 


Jacob \' B. Hingay. 


1881 


Louisie 


85 


Jeremie H. Pothier & Co., /sattc GeodtuiM. 


1876 


Lucretia Jane . . . 


87 


Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 


1 88a 


Lumea 


30 


Jeremie H. Pothier & Co. 


1866 


Lydia Ryder . . . 


59 


Andrrf L., Uuis P., S. P., Hilaire, A., Jean J., Frederic, & F 
1. X. D'Entremont; A. Gaudet. 


1874 


Lynx 


59 


Hatfield, Kinney, & Co., Isaac Goodwin. 


i88s 


M. A. \jo\x\% . . . 


63 


Augustin, R , Zacharie, ChaiVs I)., Cyri.-ique, Lrfon, Francois, 
Anselme, Sylvain, Ambroise, Nicolas, Zcph.,& Hilaire Duon: 
Marc A. & L. Surette; Mathurin D'Entremont. 


1885 


Mabel R. H. ... 


37 


Timothy & W. A. Powell. 


1883 


Maggie Jane . . . 


13 


Abram & Henry Thurston, George Wyman. 


1877 


Mai (land 


44 


Henry & Nathan B. Lewis. 


1869 


Manzanilla .... 


50 


.\ndr^, Isaac, F. X., S. P., Arch., D., R^mi, & Ambroise 
D'Entrer.ionf, D. L. St Uenis Amirault. 


1883 


Maria 


109 


Byron Hires, Daniel Ryder. 


1878 


Mary F 


»7 


Parker, Eakins, & Co. 


1867 


Mary Jane .... 


79 


Henry Crowell, Comfort Clements, Estate William Winter. 


1885 


MaryO'Dell . . . 


13 


Lion V Amirault. 


1877 


Merino 


46 


Raymond, J. E , P. A., Leon V., Anselme, M., & J. Amirau t; 
P. & L. U Blanc, P. Belliveau, Louis M. D'Entremont, et at. 




Meteor 


37 


Benjamin Davis. 


1868 


Montebello .... 


9'i 


Parker, Eakins, & Co. 


1876 


Mystic 


79 


P. H. Durkee, J. M. Davis, £./. Lariin. W. J. Hatfield. 


1877 


Nokomis 


67 


Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 


187a 


Olika 


.■56 


Jeremie H. Pothier & Co. 


1884 


Onyx 


138 


Parker, Eakins, & Co. 


1883 


Opal 


97 


Parker, F.akins, & Co. 


18C6 


Pandora 


57 


A. F. Stoncman & Co. 


187a 


Pigeon 


33 


Hatfield, Kinney, & Co.; Mathurin, Theo., J. F., F., and M. 
Cothereau. 


1877 


Proditor 


53 


Louis & Isaac D'Entremont; Nicolas, Zacharie, Pierre, Louis 
R.,C. J, S.,& Michel Duon. 


1877 


Regina 


57 


Jere., .S. P.,.\rchange, Isaac, David, & Ambroise D'Entremont; 
Louis B. & David Amirault. 


1876 


River Rose .... 


53 


George, Anselme, Luc, & C. M. Boudreau; Maximin Le Blanc, 
M. Pothier. 


1882 


Roseneath .... 


110 


Byron Nines. 


1884 


Rowdy 


16 


D. A. & Joseph Roberts. -T 


1884 


S. A. Crowell . . . 


'3 


Luc Le Blanc ;/ (i/. . :j* ;;i%j^. . ^ V:, ,. .. 


1877 


Safe 


35 


Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 


1869 


Salvador 


54 


Lion, Ambroise, Sylvain, Augustin, Pierre, J., Z., Hilaire, 
Francois, & Michel Duon; Michel Bourque, Mathurin D'En- 
tremont. 


1884 


Sanford 


20 


Ab'am Thurston. 


.876 


Sarah J. Killam . . 


5« 


A. F. Sioneman & Co. 


1878 


Sea Foam .... 


75 


Jeremie H. Pothier & Co. 


1868 


Serene 


52 


Louis, D., Andri, & Simon Le 6'anc; Joseph J., Jacques, 


, 






Marc, Mandi, & J. Amirault; George David D'Entremont. 


18S3 


Sigefroi 


40 


Jeremie H. Pothier & Co. 


.883 


Sisters 


15 


Robert N. Crowell. 



224 



SHlP-AfASTERS. 



Shipping owned in the County of Yarmouth. — Concluded. 



WiMa 




Ton- 




btiili. 


Vetsclf' Namei. 


nage. 
«S 


Owners' Names: Capuint in Italica. 


1M5 


Stranger 


C N. Nickerson. 


1876 


Temple Bar . . . . 


47 


C. C, Ktienne, A., & S. Duon, T., C. V., J., & A. Amirault; 
Louis 1'. & (juillaume D'Enlremont. 


»879 


TlUnia 


S* 1 Hatfield, Kinney, & (Jo. 


i88s 


Uncle Sam .... 


9S 1 George D., Henri K.. & J. B. J. D'Enlremont; M. & A. 
1 Amirault; Frederic, Louis F,, & Joseph \x Klanc. 


1876 


Vanguard .... 


47 


M., M. v., r. W , & Louis A. D'Entremont; P. J., T., C. V., 
& J. Amirault, it al. 


•8«9 


Velocipede .... 


67 


Thomas Goodwin. 


1877 


Village lielle . . . 


40 


James Lennox. 


1879 


Vivid 


43 


Parker, Eakins, & Co 


1871 


W. E, Wier .... 


4t 


A. K. Sioneman & Co. 


187a 


Water Lily .... 


7» 


Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 


1867 


West Point .... 


38 


A. F. Stoneman & Co. 


1873 


Wide Awake . . . 


77 


A. F. Stoneman & Co. 


1883 


WiUieM 


»4 


Jo»iah Ellis. 


1876 


Will o' the Wisp . . 


4« 


Julien, Gervais, Isidore, Rdmi, Francois, Placide, Theodore, A. 
M., Louis, & U.iac IVEntremont; James Murphy, Cyriaque 
Amirault. 


-Ma 


Winnie L 


99 


Hatfield, Kinney, & Co. 


i8r3 


Yarmouth Packet . . 


76 


Wilson t;. Sims. 


186; 


Young Scotland . . 


47 


Jeremie H. Pothier & Co., J. F. & Henri Polhier, Andrd Le 
Blanc. 



9 Steamers 1,425 tons. 

SI Ships 67,445 " 

44 Barks 40,461 " 

I Barkentine 488 " 

II Brigantines 2,186 " 

113 Schooners 6,624 " 

229 Vessels 118,629 tons. 



SHIP-MASTERS. • 

The frequent recurrence of familiar names in these shipping statisti' s, 
reminds one of the many ship-masters some of the old families have 
produced, — a few instances of which may not inappropriately close this 
chapter. 

Capt. James Kelley, sen., was one of Yarmouth's earliest ship-masters ; and 
Mr. Lawson's "Record" tells us, that when he first came to Chebogue, in 1765, he 
■"brought a shallop "with him. apt. Kelley was a prominent magistrate and an 
influential citizen. He was known in later life as "the Judge," a title gained from 
the respect and deference paid to his judicial decisions. The public spirit for 



S/ff/'-Af/ISTE/HS. 225 

which he was distinguished, has been displayed in his descendants ; so we find 
among our municipal councillors of 1886, four of his great-grandsons, — Abram M. 
Hatfield, Nathan U. Lewis, James E. Allen, and Robert Kelley Rose. 

Capt. James Kelley had five sons, four of whom were ship-masters, — James, 
Samuel, Robert, and Israel : the other, Jacob, was a worthy magistrate. 

Capt. James Kelley 2d had two sons ship-masters, — James and Silas C ; and 
a third son, John, was the father of Capts. Edward and Henry Kelley. 

Capt. Silas C. Kelley had three sons ship-masters; viz., Silas, Jacob, and 
Thomas K. Kelley. 

Capt. Samuel Kelley, sen., had three sons Sihip-masters, — Samuel, Daniel, and 
John D. Capt. Cereno J. Kelley is the son of John D. Kelley. 

Capt. Robert Kelley had two sons ship-masters, — Charles William and Robert 
M. Two of his grandsons are Capt. Robert K. Kelley, son of Charles W.; and 
Capt. Albert, son of James Kelley. 

Capt. Israel Kelley had three sons shift-masters, — George, Charles, and William 
T. Kelley; and Capt. Ambrose I). Kelley, the son of Ambrose, makes up a total 
of twenty-four. And still the story is not half told; for among the Capts. Hilton, 
Clements, Crosby, Hatfield, Hammond, Phillips, Lewis, Rose, and MacCormack, 
we find m.iny descendants of C:pt. James Kelley, sen. 

1. Capt. Amos Hilton also "brought a shallop" with him to Chebogue in 1765. 

2. Capts. Thomas, Amos, Henry, David, and Jacob Hilton were his sons. 

3. Capts. Stephen and Nathan were sons of Thomas. Capts. Cornelius, 
Henry 2d, Israel, and Stilson 2d, were sons of Amos 2d. Capts. John and Henry 3d 
were sons of Henry ist. Jacob and John 2d were sons of Jacob ist. Capts. Joseph 
and David were sons of David ist. 

4. Capts. John, Edward F., Cornelius, and Calvin were sons of Cornelius ist. 
Capts. John R. and William Henry were sons of Henry 2d. Capts. Stilson R. and 
Bradford R. were sons of Stilson 2d. Capts Benjamin, Edmund, and Sylvanus 
were sons of John ist. Capt. Malcolm was son of Henry 3d. Capts. Edward and 
Jacob were sons of Taco'.< 2d. 

5. Capt. David Hilton was son of David 2d. Capt. Amos D. Hilton was son 
of Wentworth. Capt. Henry Hilton was son of Henry. 

1. Comfort Haley, sen., does not appear to have been himself a seafaring 
man. He seems to have directed his attention rather to providing quarterdecks 
for his neighbors' sons as well as his own, for his record as a ship-owner at 
Chebogue uutruns that of his contemporaries. 

2. His sons, Oliver, Comfort, Jeremiah, and Malachi, were shipmasters. 

3. Capts. S^mupi .». .; Oliver Ha'ey were sons of Comfort 2d. Capts. Ezra, 
Henry, Allen, and Thomas were sons of Jeremiah. Capts. Amos D., Jos^eph, and 
Robert were sons of Joseph. Capts. Gilbert C. and William V. Haley were sons 
'<i John. 



226 SHlP-AfASTERS. 

Scott. — i. Capts. Caleb, John C, Ebenezer, Edwards, and Amos H. Scott, 
were sons of John, the eldest son of the Rev. Jonathan Scott. 

2. Capts. Amos, Henry, and Joseph Scott, were sons of Amos H. Capts. John 
and Leman Scott were sons of Ebenezer. Capts. John C. and Jacob Scott were 
sons of John C. ist. Capt. Ebenezer Scott 2d (harbor-master), son of Edwards. 
Capt. James Flavel Scott, son of John F. 

3. Commodore James F. Scott, son of James F. Capt. Franklin Scott, son of 
Ebenezer 2d. Capt. Ellery S. and James Scott, sons of Amos 2d. 

RoBBiNS. — I. Capts. Benjamin, Lemuel, Ira, and James Robbins 4th. 

2. Capts. Benjamin and Evelyn Robbins, sons of Benjamin. Capts. Benjamin 
D., Lyman J., and Ira Robbins, sons of Ira. Capt. Lemuel Robbins, son of Lemuel. 
Capts. Samuel B. and John M. Robbins, sons of James 4th. 

3. Capts. Raymond, Byron, Jacob, and Evelyn Robbins, sons of Asa. Capt. 
Alvin Robbins, son of Chandler. Capts. Prince H., Charles, and Peter Rc'',i>ins, 
sons of Samuel, sen. 

1. Capt. Thomas Perry, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Perry, was born in 
1779, and in 1S03 was lost at oea. Capts. Ebenezer and John Perry, sons of 
John 1st. 

2. Capt. Nathaniel Perry 2d, son of Nathaniel. Capt. Edward Perry, son of 
Capt. Thomas. Capt. Ebenezer Perry 2d, son of Ebenezer. Capt. John Perry, 
son of John. Capt. Leonard Perry, son of Elisha. 

3. Capts. Thomas, Nathan K., Edward S., Robert C, Wentworth K., and 
Prince W. Perry, sons of Edward. Capts. Nathaniel 3d, Samuel, Ja^.e.-, Jonathan, 
an(^ Charles W. Perry, sons of Nathaniel 2d. Capt Thomas J. Perry, son of 
Joseph. Capts. Eleazer and Thomas Perry, sons of John (Chebogue). Capt 

.Ve) irgton Perry, son of Thomas. Capt. Harvey Perry, son of John (B. River). 
Capt. Samuel Perry, son of Cyrus. Capt. George W. Perry, son of Elias. Capt 
George H. Perry, son of Rufus. Capt. John G. Perry, son of Robert. 

4. Capt. Frank Perry, son of Nathan K. Capt. George H. Perry, son of 
George H. 

Capt, Ephraim Cooke commanded the Baltimore of 411 tons, one of the 
thirteen s'iips which accompanied Gov. Cornwallis in the sloop-ot-war Sphinx, and 
brought out the colonists to Halifax in June, 1749. The cen^i •» m^kes him a resi- 
dent of Halifax in 1752, with a household of sixteen. He was e'. idently a man of 
means, for he spent some thousands of pounds in improving the lands set apart for 
him at Halifax. He was as well a man of spirit, for it is recorded that he " insulted 
the judges of the Inferio'- Court," as many other men were provoked to do in those 
days : and when Gov. Cornwallis took sides with the court, Capt. Cooke abandoned 
his property at Halifax ; and in 1754 he went to Mahone Bay, and commenced a 



SHIP-MASTERS. 22/ 

settlement there. He built a block-house, put up a saw-mill, and built two vessels 
with a view to import cattle from Massachusetts Bay. 

Capt. Ephraim Cooke was also a humane man. In 1755, having chartered his 
vessel, the snow Edward, to Messrs. Apthorp & Co. of Boston, the agents of the 
Nova-Scotia Government, he took on board a number of the exiled Acadians 
allotted to Massachusetts ; and as was alleged, having been driven off the coast by 
heavy north-west gales, he landed them in the more hospitable West Indies. He 
claimed payment for the full time the voyage occupied, and his claim was paid. 
Here is a copy of it : — 

Boston, Septr. 7th, 1756. 
Messrs. Apthorp & Hancock 

To Ephm. Cooke, Dr. 

To Hire of the Snow " Edvurd," myself masr., from gth Octr. 1755 to 29th June 1756, is 8 
months & 5*, burthen 139 tont, at •, f I.illiijss sterlg. p. Ton, p. month, is £(>2 11 op. month. 

£^^^^ 2 o 
Deduct for Platforms, Water Casks, &c., la 2 o 

^^530 o o 
Errors excepted. 

JOHN ROWE, Attorney to Ephm. Cooke. 



The Yarmouth ship-masters of the name have been — 

1. Capt. Ephraim Cook, who, about 1762, settled on the eastern shore of 
Chebogue Harbor; and it seems quite likely that the "fort" .vhich Mr. Campbell 
says he assisted his father to build in 1755, was the block-house at Mahone Bay. 

2. Capts. Caleb and Manasseh Cook, sons of Ephraim. 

3. Capts. Caleb, David, Nehemiah, and Amos Cook, sons of Caleo. C;pts. 
George, Francis, Amos, and Enos, sons of Manasseh. Capts. Amos and Samuel 
Cook, sons of John. Capts. Ephraim and James Cook, sons of Ephraim 2d. 

4. Capts. Francis G., William H., and Joseph Cook, sons of Francis. Capt. 
Caleb Cook, son of David. Capts. Francis and John Cook, sons of Manasseh 2d. 
Capts. Zebina and James Cook, sons of James. 

5. Capt. William W. Cook, son of William. 

1. Capts. John and Hugh Cann. 

2. Capts. John, George, Samuel, and Hugh E. Cann, sons of John. Capts. 
Josiah and Harvey Cann, sons of Hugh ist. 

3. Capts. John, Israel, James, Thomas B., and Joseph H. Cann, sons of John 
2d. Capt. .Samuel Cann 2d, son of George. Capt. Lyman E. Cann, son of Hugh 
E. Capts. Lyman, Hugh, Angus W., and Augustus Cann, sons of Lyman, sen. 
Capt. Herbert H. Cann, son of Samuel, sen. Capt. William Cann, son of Josiah. 
Capt. Charles Cann, son of Hugh 2d. Capt. Harvey Cann, son of Harvey. Capts. 
Loran D. and Miner Cann, son of Loran. 

4. Capt. John Cann, son of John 3d. Capts. George E. and Henry F. Cann, 



228 SHlP-AfASTERS. 

sons of Samuel 2d. Capts. Thomas, Joseph, and Albert Cann, sons of Thomas B. 
Capt. Rodolph Cann. son of Lyman E. Capt. Archibald Cann, son of Lyman 2d. 
Capt. George B. Cann, son of Joseph H. 

The Hatfield family, of whom something further will be said in the 
next chapter, settled in Yarmouth County a generation later than the 
others ; and we have to place at the head of the list the name of the late 

1. Capt. John Van Norden Hatfield. 

2. Capts. Jacob K., John Smith, Samuel J., Abram M., James M., Edward B , 
and George A. Hatfield, sons of Jacob Hatfield 3d. Capts. Charles and Norman 
B. Hatfield, sons of Aninony. Capts. Thomas Hardy and Nelson J. Hatfield, sons 
of Samuel, sen. Capts. Stanley and Benjamin H. Hatfield, sons of James L. 
Capts. Jones and Enos Hatfield, sons of Abram. Capt. Inglis Hatfield, son of 
William [Tusket]. Capt. Frederick Hatfield, son of Jacob [Tusket]. 

3. Capt. James Wallace Hatfield, son of James C. Capts. Jacob Gorham and 
Samuel J., sons of Jacob K. 

Of these twenty-one Capts. Hatfield, no less than seventeen belong 
to one branch of the family, being the descendants of Abram Marsh and 
Constance Hatfield. 

The following table shows the shipping owned or registered at 
Yarmouth during the century ending with 1887 ; the vessels having been 
built for the most part in Yarmouth County, or in the adjoining counties 
of Digby or Shelburne, for Yarmouth owners. The statement is a 
continuation of Mr. Lawson's record for 1884 : — 

16 steamers 3.^49 tons. 

146 ships 156,180 " 

280 barks 165,897 " 

165 brigs 36,247 " 

19S brigantines 30,872 " 

1,133 schooners 56,789 " 

18 sloops 807 " 

1,956 vessels . . , 450,641 tons. 

Reference has already been made to the names given to vessels in 
former yea"s, when the commerce of Yarmouth was chiefly confined to 
West-Indian, r e.v-England, or domestic ports. More recently it was 
not uncommon to name a vessel for some popular ship-agent or mer- 
chant abroad, or for some member of his family ; and we therefore find 



SHIP-AGENTS. 229 

upon our books of registry the names of the following persons. Their 
place of residence is added ; — 

1826. Jean Hastie Glasgow. 

1S46. Charles Walton ' London. 

1847. CliarUs McLaiichlan St. John, N.B. 

1847. Louis A. Surette Boston. 

1848. James H. Braine New York. 

1851. John G. Hall Boston. 

1854. Robert B. Minturn New York. 

1854. Mary Leonard St. John, N B. 

1854. Robert Leonard St. John, N.B. 

1855. Robert Hastie . . , Glasgow. 

1856. Edmiston Bros Glasgow. 

1856. Samuel P. Musson Barbadoes. 

1556. Frederick P. Ladd Boston. 

1557. J. «Sr* A". Young Glasgow. 

1859. A. Ss' J. Fulton Glasgow. 

1859. Agnes C. James New York. 

1859. John Clemens Malaga. 

1859. Samuel B. Johnson Antigua. 

i860. Alice V. Goodhue Salem. 

1561. Eliza McLauchlan St. John, N.B. 

1861. Thomas Whitney Boston. 

1862. A. W. Singleton Glasgow. 

1562. E. A. Souder Philadelphia. 

1862. Charles Gtimm London. 

1863. George Bell Dublin. 

1863. Edward Hincken New York. 

1864. James B. Duffus Halifa.x. 

' 1864. Black Bros Halifax. 

1866. L. G. Biglow Baltimore. 

1865. E. H. Duval Quebec. 

1869. Herbert Beech Boston. 

1869. George W. Jones Cardiff. 

1869. Jerome Jones Boston. 

1870. Emily Lawther Belfast. 

1870. W. E. Heard Newport, G.B. 

1 87 1. Lillie Soullard Savannah. 

187 1. George W. Hunter Boston. 

187 1. James R. Boyd New York. 

1871. Charles F. Elwell New York. 

1 87 1. M. E. Coipel Martinique. 

1873. Herbert C. Hall Boston. . 

1874. George Bell Dublin. 

1875. Walter D. Wallet London. — «* 

1876. J.S.Wright Belfast. 

1876. Bertie Bigelow Philadelphia. 

1877. Louise Coipel Martinique. 

1878. Mabel Taylor Boston. 



230 SHIP-AGENTS. 

1880. Abbie S. Hart Boston. 

1881. Thomas N. Hart Boston. 

1881. Emilie L.Boyd New York. 

1883. Fred. B. Taylor Boston. 

1884. Ellen A. Read . . . .' Newton, Mass. 

1886. Louise M. Fuller Boston. 

Messrs. John G. Hall & Co. are the worthy successors of business- 
houses on Chatham Street, Boston, who, in the following order, have been 
agents for Yarmouth merchants and ship-owners for more than fifty 
years : — 

John M. Marston. Ladd & Sargent. John G. Hall & Co. 

Ladd & Collins. Ladd & Hall. 



CHAPTER XV. 

The Loyalists of Tiisket and Yarmouth. — Their Old Home at Elizabethtown, N.J. — Its 
Early History, and a Description of the Territory about i6;o. — The Hatfields, Tookers, 
HaUtead-4, and Ogdens among the First Settlers. — Their Course at the Rebellion of 
1776. — Sketclies from Sabine's " History of the Loyalists," of Tunis Blauvelt, Gabriel 
Van Norden, Robert Timpany, Robert Huston, Samuel -Andrews, James Lent, the Van 
Buskirks, and James Moody. — E.xtracts from James Moody's Narrative. — His Services 
and Adventures as described by Others. — His View of the Cause of the War. — 
Genealogical Table of some of the Old Tusket Families ; viz., HatfielHs, Raynards, 
Hurlburts, Gavels, Andrews, Halsteads, Blauvelts, Servants, Lents, Jefferys, Van 
Nordens, and Tookers, illustrating the Intermarriages of Three Generations. 

ON Sept. 3, 1609, Henry Hudsox, in his two-masted " Vlieboat " 
of eighty tons, called the Half-Moon, anchored at Sandy Hook ; 
and on Sept. 6 he landed on the shores of New Jersey. His voyage 
was originally designed for the prosecution of the fur-trade with the 
Indians; and this trade was continued until 1623, when the Dutch 
undertook to plant colonies of agriculturists in what they called the 
New Netherlands. They established military posts, around which 
the colonists gathered ; for their relations with the Indians were not 
always friendly, — sometimes, unhappily, the reverse. 

In 165 1 the Dutch entered into a treaty with the Indians, and tor 
a small consideration secured the conveyance of that part of New Jersey 
lying between the Raritan and Passaic Rivers, and extending back 
indefinitely into the country, as well as of a tract of land south of the 
Raritan, and of two more on Long Island. 

Under the Cromwellian rule (i 649-1 660), the colo.:ists of New 
England managed their civil affairs in their own way ; making their laws, 
appointing their magistracy, and regulating their taxation, without any 
objection from the Home Government. After the restoration of 
Charles II., in 1660, apprehensive of interference with their privileges 
of self-government, some of the English of the New Haven and other 



232 ELIZADETHTOWN, N.J. 

colonies made overtures to the Dutch for permission to settle upon their 
lands on Long Island and in New Jersey; and in the spring of 1661 
" Their High Mightinesses, the Dutch rulers, issued a general invitation 
to all Christian people of tender conscience, in England or wherever 
else oppressed, to erect colonies anywhere within the jurisdiction of 
Petrus SruYVESANT in the West Indies, between New England and 
Virginia in America." 

But the liberal-minded Peter was soon to be dethroned : for in 
August, 1664, an expedition from England, under Col. Robert Nicolls, 
cast anchor in the outer bay of New Amsterdam, and demanded the 
surrender of the town ; and after a ten days' negotiation, conducted with 
caution and courtesy on both sides, the Dutch surrendered both fort 
and town. New Amsterdam became New York, Nicolls was proclaimed 
deputy-governor under the Duke of York, and a few weeks sufficed to 
bring the whole province of New Netherlands into subjection to England. 
In October, 1664, a new treaty was made with the Indians of New 
Jersey ; and three of their chiefs conveyed to Johm Strickland, Johm 
Bailey, Daniel Denton, and their associates, among whom were 
Maithias Hatfield, Charles Tooker, Samuel Marsh, John and David 
Ogden, and Henry Lyon, sixty-five in all, a portion of New Jersey, on 
the north side of the Raritan, 46 miles long by 1 7 miles broad, and 
containing about 500,000 acres. In the spring of 1665 a considerable 
number of the associates arrived with their wives and children from 
Long Island, New Haven, and elsewhere, and took possession of their 
new homes in Achter Koll. 

The consideration to the Indian chiefs for this tract of land was 
twenty fathoms of trading-cloth, two coats, two guns, two kettles, ten 
bars of lead, and twenty handfuls of powder. The original Dutch 
settlers who chose to do so remained in possession of their improve- 
ments ; and, as there was ample room for all, the new-comers were 
welcome, and general harmony prevailed. • 

In the early summer, the colonists were again disturbed by the 
intelligence that the Duke of York had sold the territory west of 
the Hudson River to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, who had 
sent out an agent to confer with Gov. Nicolls for the transfer to their 
possession of the newly created province. 



DANIEL DENTON. 233 

In August, 1665, there arrived at the entrance to the creek upon 
which they had laid out their town, the ship Philip, having on board 
Capt. Philip Carteret, son of Sir George Carteret, a youth of twenty-six, 
accompanied by his friends, some thirty altogether. The new proprie- 
tors made no attempt to disturb those whom they found in possession 
of the lands purchased from the Indians. Such sites, or lands, as they 
desired to occupy, they in their turn acquired by purchase from the 
colonists. Capt. Philip Carteret himself bought out two of the Associates, 
— John Bailey and Robert Seeley; and the town took its name from 
Lady Elizabeth, the wife of Sir George Carteret, and was called 
Elizabeth Town. 

At a town-meeting held in February, 1666, it was agreed, with the 
approbation of Gov. Carteret, that the new town should consist of eighty 
families for the present, with an addition of twenty more afterward if 
deemed desirable. It was also agreed that every inhabitant should 
have a home-lot of four acres, with an additional two acres in the 
neighborhood. 

Daniel Denton, one of the Associates, writing about this time, thus 
describes the territory where this happy colony had just been so auspi- 
ciously established ; and this was the territory then occupied by the 
ancestors of many of the first settlers on the Tuskct River, from which, 
owing to their loyalty to their sovereign, and their attachment to British 
institutions, they became expatriated by the first American Rebellion. 

Says Mr. Denton, " I may say, and very truly, that if there be any 
terrestrial happiness to be had by people of all ranks, especially of an 
inferior rank, it must certainly be here. Here any one may furnish him- 
self with land, and live rent free, yea, with such a quanfity of land that 
he may weary himself with walking over his fields of corn and all sorts 
of grain ; and let his stock of cattle amount to some hundreds, he need 
not fear their want of pasture in the summer, or fodder in the winter, 
the woods affording sufficient supply, . . 

" For in the summer season you have grass as high as a man's knee, 
nay, as high as his waist, interlaced with pea-vines and other weeds ihat 
cattle most delight in, as much as a man can press through ; and these 
woods also, every mile or half a mile, are furnished with fresh ponds, 
brooks, or rivers, where all sorts of cattle, during the heat of the day, 



234 JOHN STRICKLAND. 

do quench their thirst, and cool themselves, these brooks and rivers 
being environed on each side with several sorts of trees and grape-vines. 
The vines, arbor-like, interchanging places, and crossing the rivers, do 
shade and shelter them from the scorching beams of Sol's fiery influence. 

"And how prodigal, if I may so say, hath nature been to furnish" the 
country with all sorts of wild beasts and fowl, which every one hath an 
interest in, and may hunt at his pleasure : where, besides the pleasure 
in hunting, he may furnish his house with excellent fat venison, turkeyr,, 
geese, heath-hens, cranes, swans, ducks, pigeons, and the like ; and, 
wearied with that, ne may go a-fishing wher j the rivers are so furnished 
that he may supply himself with fish before he can leave off the recrea- 
tion : where, besides the sweetness of the air, the country itself sends 
forth such a fragrance that it may be perceived at sea before they can 
make the land : where no evil fog nor vapor doth no sooner appear, 
but a north-west or a westerly wind doth immediately dissolve it, and 
drive it away. I must needs say, that if there be any terrestrial Canaan, 
'tis surely here, where the land floweth with milk and honey." 

Daniel Denton was a son of Rev. Richard Denton of Yorkshire, 
England, who was at Watertown, Mass., in 1634 ; at Wethersfield, Conn., 
in 1635 5 ^t Stamford, in 1641 ; and at Hempstead, L.I., in 1644, having 
been the first minister of each of the last three towns. His two sons, 
Daniel and Nathaniel, were among the first settlers of Jamaica, L.I., in 
1656. Daniel was the first town clerk; taught school, practised medi- 
cine, and served as justice of the peace. He wrote " A Brief Descrip- 
tion of New York," published at London in 1670, the first printed work 
on the subject in the English language. 

John Strickland was one of the first applicants to the Dutch 
authorities for permission to join their colonies on Long Island ar . m 
New Jersey. He came over, in 1630, with VVinthrop's colony. He 
was a member of a church at Watertown, Mass.; and, about 1635, he 
removed to Wethersfield, Conn. In 1644 lie, with a number of others, 
settled at Hempstead, L.I. In 1663 he was a freeholder at Jamaica, 
L.I., and, in 1666, a grantee of Huntingtor, L.I. 'i 

John Ogden was one of the first to remove to the new purchase in 
New Jersey, and erect a dwelling on the town-plot. He had five sons, 
— John, Jonathan, David, Joseph, and Benjamin. 



MATTHIAS HATFIELD. 235 

Mahhias Hatfield was a weaver, a handicraft in great request at 
that day; and, in 1644, he went to Elizabeth Town from New Haven, 
where he had taken the oath of fidelity, May i, 1660. He is supposed 
to have been the son of Thomas Hatfield of Leyden, Holland, a mem- 
ber of John Robinson's church, and a native of Yorkshire, England. 
Thomas Hatfield, who settled about the same time at Mamaroneck, 
N.Y., was probably his brother. His house-lot at Elizabeth Town con- 
tained 5 acres. He had also 22 acres of upland " in a triangle ; " 12 
acres of upland opposite Gov. Carteret's; 112 acres of upland on the 
" two-mile brook ; " 40 acres of upland towards the west branch of 
Elizabeth-Town River; 14 acres of meadow at Rawack, and 3 acres 
at Town Creek, — in all 208 acres. He was a boatman as well as a 
weaver, and seems to have been a man of considerable means. " For 
1,200 guilders (a large sum in those days) he purchased of Abraham 
Lubberson his dwelling-house and home-lot, with all other accommoda- 
tions belonging to said first lot, within the bounds of Elizabeth Town, 
both upland and meadow." 

Matthias Hatfield was the original owner of the land on which the 
First Presbyterian Church stands, and is entitled to the credit of having 
given it to the town for a church and burial-place. He died in 1687 ; 
his wife Maria (of Dutch nativ ry), and three sons, Isaac, Abraham, and 
Cornelius, surviving him, of whom more hereafter. It is not known, 
though it is quite probable, that he left daughters also. 

Charles Tooker came from England with a family named Mitchell, 
whose only daughter, Marv, he married. He lived first in the vicinity 
of Boston, Mass. As early as 1655 he resided at Southold, L.I., and 
was made a freeman of Southold in 1662, whence he removed to 
Elizabeth Town, and was one of the Associates in the grant from the 
Indian chiefs. He had a house-lot of 8 acres ; 2 1 acres of meadow on 
Thompson's Creek and adjoining the Great Island ; 69 acres on Two- 
mile Brook, and a parcel of land called " Peach-Garden Hill," contain- 
ing 86 acres, — in all 184 acres. His son Charles had three sons, 
Joseph, John, and Jacob. John, in 1776, was member of the common 
council, and afterward alderman, of Elizabeth To\vn. He took the 
American side, and was taken prisoner by the British in 1781. David 
Hatfield, an elder of the Rahway Church, was his companion in 
captivity for a like reason. 



2$6 JACOB TOOKER. 

Joseph Tooker, son of Charles 2d, married Mary Ogden, and had 
six children, — Jacob 2d, Mary, Joseph 2d, Charles, John, and Ahner. 
Mary married the only son of Gen. Hurd, and went to England ; but 
after some years they returned, and settled at Goshen, N.Y. Joseph 
Tooker 2d had one son, Joseph P., who was a flour-merchant in New 
York, and died there in 1839. 

Jacob TooKt.i ad was born in 1740. He married Margery, the 
great-great- o'randdaughter of Matthias Hatfield. In the fall of 1783, 
M:. looker, with his family, came from Elizabeth Town to Shelburne, 
removing to Tuskct the next spring, where he lived a few years, engaged 
in farming and ship-building, and then came to Yarmouth, where he 
died in 1827. Jacob Tooker and his son-in-law, Dennis Van Toyle, 
were the first English settlers at Tusket, where they built for themselves 
houses during the summer of 1784. 

In 1695, Isaac, Cornelius, and Abraham Hatfield, sons of Matthias, 
were admitted Associates in the land-grant of Elizabeth Town. Elder 
Isaac Hatfield, son of Isaac, was in 1772 trustee of the First Presby- 
terian Church.' In 1749, Hon. Abraham Clark, high sheriff of Essex 
County, married Sarah, eldest daughter of Isaac Hatfield. Mr. Clark 
was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He was 
member of Congress, 1 776-1 778 and 1 780-1 788. He died in 1794, 
aged sixty-eight. The Chevalier Jou^t, of an old Huguenot family of 
New Jersey, married another daughter of Isaac Hatfield. 

In T699, Cornelius and Abraham Hatfield, and sixty-three others of 
Elizabeth Town, petitioned the king to be placed under the civil 
government of New York. In the same year, Cornelius was appointed 
one of a committee of six to survey and divide all the lands among the 
parties interested. ■ - '" ■ , ^ /' • • 

In 1740, Cornelius Hatfield was appointed overseer of the poor, 
and trustee of the First Presbyterian Church. In 1755 he was a witness 
to the will of Gov. Belcher, who died in 1757. In 1752, Cornelius 
Hatfield advertised for sale " a likely parcel of negro boys and girls, 
twelve to twenty years of age." In 1762 he offered to lease "his 
dwelling-house at Elizabeth Town, two stories, six rooms on each floor, 
seven fireplaces, good cellar, large kitchen, good garden and young 
orchard, with six acres of land. The whole very pleasantly situated in 



JOHN HALSTEAD. 2^7 

the town." At the same time he offered for sale a lot of dry goods, 
ironmongery, and cutlery. 

In 1729, Maithias Hatfield ad, son of Abraham, and grandson of 
Matthias 1st, was admitted Associate in the land-giant. In 1738 his 
name appears in a petition to the king for a town charier, which was 
granted, and Matthias was named in it as one of the aldermen. He 
was appointed one of the magistrates of the town, and afterward high 
sheriff. His daughter Phuibe married Robert Ogden, and their sons 
were Gen. Matthias Ogden and (jOv. Aaron Ogden. One of their 
descendants was Gov. Daniel Haines. In 1 734, Matthias Hatfield 2d 
was an elder of the Presbyterian Church ; in 1 743 he was a delegate to 
England to present a petition to the king; in 1751 he removed Gov. 
Belcher with his effects from New York to Elizabeth Town " in three 
small sloops;" in 1755 he was one of the witnesses to Gov. Belcher's 
will. 

In "The History of Elizabeth Town," published in 1868 by the 
Rev. Edwin B. Hatfield, D.D., a Presbyterian clergyman of New York, 
who died in 1883, and whose book forms the groundwork for this sketch 
of the progenitors of some of the early settlers of Tusket, Matthias 
Hatfield 2d is styled " that incorruptible patriot." 

Timothy Edwards, son of Rev. Jonathan Edwards, and whose sister 
was the mother of Aaron Burr, married Rhoda Ogden, granddaughter 
of Matthias Hatfield 2d. He was deacon of the First Presbyterian 
Church in 1774; and, in 1783, "the venerable deacons Whitehead and 
Hatfield, with many others, had gone the way of all the earth." 

JoHx HAI.STEAD was one of the petitioners to the king for a charter 
in 1 738. When received, his name appeared in it as one of the coun- 
cillors. He was a church-warden in 1 749, and also in 1762. In 1750 
he was appointed on a committee to defend the town in a chancery 
suit. He was a justice of the peace in 1 760, and was still at Elizabeth 
Town in 1776. . •;';:.,,-: c '■'- • ; ■'.-'-'.-' 

The HoRTONS were among the first settlers of the " East End " of 
I^ng Island. Barnabas, Jonathan, Joshua, Caleb, and Benjamin Horton 
were all residents and landholders at Southold, L.I., in 1683 ; Jonathan, 
at that date, being the richest man in the town. 

Peter Tunis was in Elizabeth Town in 1 743. He belonged to an 
old Dutch family in New York. 



338 JOB HATFIELD. 

Major Morris Hathei.d, brother of Margery 'rocker and of Col. 
Job Hatfield, took the American side at the Rebellion, and was taken 
prisoner by the British in 1776. 

Major Rkhard V. Stocktov, of the New-Jersey Volunteers, married 
a daughter of Joseph Hatfield. The major was taken prisoner by the 
rebels in 1777. 

It is apparent, therefore, that the families were not united upon the 
issues of the war. Those who atlhered to the British Government dis- 
played a good deal of activity, and rendered valuable services to the 
troops. Col. Job Haikield and his brothers, John Smith, Abel, and 
James, with their cousin Cornelius, appear to have been engaged in 
various expeditions against the rebels. 

1778, Nov. 14. — "At an inferior Court of Common Pleas, held 
for the county of Essex on Sept. 15 last, were returned incpiisitions for 
joining the army of the King of Great Britain, and other treasonable 
practices, found against John Smith Hatfield, Job Hatfield, .\bel 
Hatfield, James Hatfield, Jacob Tooker, and eighteen others. On 
Feb. 17, 1779, final judgment was entered against all these persons, 
except Job and Abel Hatfield, Jacob Tooker, and John Stiles, jun., and 
their estates sold at auction." 

1779, Feb. 24. — Cornelius Hatfield (whose father, Col. Cornelius, 
Dr. Hatfield says was " a most excellent and honored member of the 
Presbyterian Church and thoroughly patriotic ") and John Smith Hatfield 
acted as guides to the Forty-second and Thirty-third Regiments in their 
advances to Newark Bay. 

June 12. — ■ Cornelius Hatfield and five other Loyalists crossed over 
from Staten Island, the headquarters of the Royalist forces, made a 
raid on Lieut. Haviland's house, seized him, and took him prisoner to 
the island. - ' 

1780, Jan. 25. — Cornelius, Job, and John Smith Hatfield, as 
guides, conducted the British troops over the ice from Staten Island to 
a raid on Elizabeth Town. They burned the court-house and some 
other buildings, and took off some of the inhabitants. Col. Abraham 
Van Buskirk commanded this party. 

1780, Nov. 25. — Gen. Gaines wTites, " Yesterday Capt. Cornelius 
Hatfield, with adventure peculiar to himself, after an incursion upon the 
Jonathans in Jersey, brought off a lieutenant and five or six others." 



COAWEUUS HATFIELD. 239 

1 781, April 21. — A party of al)Oiit seventy came over to Elizabeth 
Town from Staten Island, " accompanied as usual by Capl. Cornelius 
Hatfield," committed some depredations, ami returned to their boats. 

July 22. — Lieut. Meeker and fourteen privates were taken pris- 
oners below Newark by a party of Loyalists, under the command of 
Capt. Hatfield. 

From a New- York Paper of Feb. 6, 1782. — "Last Friday 
night a party consisting of thirty refugees, and commanded by Capt. 
Cornelius Hatfield, proceeded from Staten Island to Elizabeth Town, 
where they took nine prisoners, among them Mr. Reed, a rebel con- 
tractor. All were brought to Staten Island, where they are treated in 
the same manner as is Mr. Smith Hatfield, lately seized by the Westfield 
people, though he was then under the sanction of a flag of truce, 
carried to Burlington, and there loaded with irons. These rebels are 
by the refugees kept in close durance as hostages for the safe return of 
Smith Hatfield, a valuable individual of their body. His companion, 
Lewis Blanchard (afterward of Yarmouth), fortunately escaped from 
the rebels at Princetown, travelled two miles into a wood, where he was 
concealed till he could disengage himself from his chains, and, after 
being flayed by the intense frost, has arrived, an object of ccmmiseralion, 
among his overjoyed friends at Staten Island." 

1782, April 10. — Capt. Cornelius Hatfield, together with Capt. 
Blauvelt, at the head of an expedition of Loyalists in the armed brig 
Arrogant, captured, a short distance up the North River, " a Pettiauger 
and some small boats, with about ten prisoners." 

In 1 789, John Smith Hatfield, having returned to Elizabeth Town, 
was arrested on a charge of being concerned in the hanging of a spy 
named Stephen Ball, on Staten Island, in 1781. He was released on 
bail, left the country, and his recognizances were discharged. In 1807, 
Capt. Cornelius Hatfield, who had gone from ' England via Nova Scotia 
to Elizabeth Town, to take possession of a valuable property left him 
by his father," was arrested on a similar charge instituted by the friends 
of Ball. He was discharged by the court ; the judge having been of 
the opinion, that, by the spirit of the treaty of 1782, he was not then 
answerable for that transaction. Capt. Hatfield returned to England, 
where he died at an advanced age, a Loyalist to the end. _ 



240 THE LOYALISTS. 

1868. — Abel S. Hatfield owned the stone house, some two hundred 
years old, corner of Pearl and Hatfield Streets, Elizabeth Town, which 
Matthias Hatfield ist bought in 1673. 

At the peace negotiations in the fall of 1782, one of the stipulations 
was, " Congress shall earnestly recommend to the Legislatures of the 
respective States to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and 
properties, which have been confiscated, belonging to British subjects," 
etc. Congress unanimously agreed to this condition, and did issue the 
recommendation to the States which the treaty contemplated. But when 
a number of Loyalists went to the United States to claim restitution of 
their property, their demands were unheeded. Some of them were 
Imprisoned, and afterwards banished. 

The British Government then appointed commissioners to ascertain 
the losses sustained by the Loyalists. The commissioners began their 
labors in 1 783, and from time to time made reports of the results of 
their investigations. The twelfth and last report was made in 1790, 
when the whole matter was finally disposed of; the Government paying, 
in liquidation of the claims satisfactorily proved, fifteen and a half 
millions of dollars. 

The " History of the Loyalists," by Lorenzo Sabine, gives brief 
sketches of some of the men who came from New Jersey, New York, 
and elsewhere to Shelburne, and thence to Tusket and Yarmouth at the 
close of the war. Mr. Sabine visited Yarmouth in 1861, to collect 
material for his work ; and some of his notices, which will interest 
Yarmouth readers, are here reproduced. 

"Tunis Blauvelt of New Jersey; in the war an active partisan. 
Lost considerable property in consequence of his loyalty. At the peace, 
went to Shelburne, N.S., with a family of six, and three servants. 
Settled finally at Tusket, where he kept a boarding-house. Died in 
1830, leaving seven children, of whom two are now (1861) ship-masters. 
His second wife was Hannah, daughter of Gabriel Van Norden. 

" Gabriel Van Norden of New Jersey, At the beginning of the 
war, he removed to New York, where he opened a house of entertain- 
ment. At the peace, accompanied by his family of eleven persons 
and three servants, he went from New York to Shelburne, where the 
Government granted him a town-lot. His losses in consequenre of his 



THE LOYALISTS. 241 

loyalty were estimated at fifteen hundred pounds, for which the British 
Government made provision. He settled near Yarmouth (at Arcadia), 
and died, quite old, in 18 10. 

" Robert Timpan\' of New Jersey, major Third Battalion New- 
Jersey Volunteers. Was born in Ireland, and educated at Glasgow. 
He was in continual service during the war, and repeatedly distinguished 
himself. He was twice wounded. In 1786 he went to Digby, and, 
four or five years later, settled at the head of St. Mary's Bay. His last 
years were passed at Yarmouth (Arcadia) with his daughter Charlotte, 
wife of Gabriel Van Norden, jun. He died in 1844, aged a hundred 
and two, when he was abie to read without spectacles, and had retained 
his faculties to the last. 

" Robert Huston was a farmer, living near Philadelphia. He 
belonged to a troop of dragoons, and was engaged in many skirmishes. 
At the peace, he went with his family to Shelburne, and thence to 
Yarmouth, where he died in 1842, aged eighty-eight, leaving two 
daughters, one of whom married Edward K., son of Major Timpany. 
Tlie other daughter was Mrs. Margery, wife of Capt. John Hardy. 

" Samuel Andrews of North Carolina was major in the loyal militia. 
Early in 1776 he was commissioned as lieutenant under Gen. Mac- 
Donald, and was taken prisoner. In 1781 he raised a company, and 
joined Lord Cornwallis. He was engaged in the capture of Gov. 
Burke ; and, when Fanning was wounded, he assumed the command, 
and conducted the prisoners into the British lines. Promotion followed. 
At the evacuation of Charleston, he retired with his family to Florida. 
Obnoxious to the Whigs by his course during the war, he was one of 
the three whom they refused to pardon. I have a copy of his memo- 
rial, claiming compensation for his services, in his own handwriting, by 
which it appears that he lost by confiscation a farm, dwelling-house, two 
stores, a grist-mill, a storehouse, two negroes, fifty head of cattle, several 
horses, sheep, furniture, etc. He was in Shelburne in July, 1785, for 
the purpose of pressing his claims upon the commissioners. 

"James Lent, son of Adolphus, of Tappan, N.Y., was an ensign 
in the Queen's Rangers. Went to Shelburne at the peace, and about 
1783 (1785) removed to Tusket, where he died in 1838, aged eighty- 
five. 



242 THE LOYALISTS. 

" Abraham Lent, brother of James, was colonel of militia. Went 
to Shelburne in 1 783, but returned to Tappan in 1 790, and purchased 
his father's mansion with the money paid him by the British Government 
for his losses as a Loyalist. 

" Jacob Van Buskirk of New Jersey was captain of the New-Jersey 
Volunteers. After the war went to Shelburne. 

" Lawrence Van Buskirk, captain in King's Rangers. At the 
peace went to Shelburne, where he died in 1803, aged seventy-four. 
His property in New Jersey, worth twenty-four hundred pounds, was 
confiscated. 

" Abraham Van Buskirk of New Jersey, lieutenant-colonel of New- 
Jersey Volunteers. In 1783 went to Nova Scotia. In 1784 he was 
first mayor of Shelburne, where he died. 

" James Moody, in 1 782, was lieutenant in First Battalion New- 
Jersey Volunteers. He was a celebrated partisan, and performed many 
exploits peculiar to that species of warfare. He delighted in seizing 
and carrying off Whig committee-men, and was fond of relating the 
means he employed to catch them. At the peace, he settled in Nova 
Scotia, where he was known as Col. Moody. He died at Sissiboo in 
1809, aged sixty- five. He received half- pay." 

So far Sabine. 

Col. Moody, who was the grandfather of E. W. B. Moody, wrote an 
account of his adventures, which was published at London in 1 783. 
In the preface, he says, " Seven years ago, few human events seemed 
more improbable than that he, a plain, contented farmer, settled upon 
a large, fertile, pleaisant, and well-improved farm of his own, in the best 
climate and happiest country in the world, should ever beat his plough- 
share into a sword, and commence a soldier. Nor was it less improb- 
able that he should ever become a writer, and be called upon to print 
a narrative of his own adventures. Yet necessity and a sense of duty, 
contrary to his natural inclination, soon forced him to appear in the 
former of these characters, and the importunity of friends has now 
prevailed with him to assume the latter." 

In reference to the causes of the rebellion, Col. Moody says, "He 
thinks it incumbent on him to declare that it ('the unhappy quarrel') 
did not originate with the people of America, properly so called. They 



JAMES MOODY. 243 

felt no grievances, and therefore could have had no inducements to risk 
substantial advantages in the pursuit of such as were only imaginary. 
In making this declaration, he is confident he speaks the sentiment of 
a great majority of the peasantry of America. But, in every country, 
there are multitudes who, with little property, and perhaps still less 
principle, are always disposed, and always eager, for a change. Such 
persons are easily wrought upon, and easily persuaded to enlist under 
the banners of pretended patriots and forward demagogues, of whom 
also every country is sufficiently prolific." 

To the nature and value of Lieut. Moody's services, his commanding 
officers bear testimony. Brigadier-Gen. Skinner wrote under date of 
Jan. 30, 1 783, " While Mr. Moody was under my immediate direction, 
he destroyed a considerable magazine of stores near Black Point, taking 
prisoners two colonels, one major, and several other officers. He 
broke open the Suffolk jail, rescuing a number of Loyalists that were 
imprisoned in it, one of whom was under sentence of death, besides 
performing many other important services." 

Major-Gen. Pattison wrote, "At one tii " Mr. Moody was absent 
five weeks in different parts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and 
brought authentic and full information of the situation and resources 
of the several detachments of the rebel army, under the command of 
Gens. Washington and Gage, in the year 1779, and of the pr:^spects the 
rebels had at that time of procuring a loan uom France." 

Mr. Roome, secretary to Major-Gen. Pattison, wrote, " Mr. Moody 
made various excursions into the country without the British lines ; took 
several rebel mails, containing intelligence of great importance, and 
brought them safe to New York." 

The Rev. Dr. Inglis, rector of New York, and afterward first bishop 
of Nova Scotia, wrote under date of May 11, 1782, "Mr. Moody is 
one of the most active partisans we have, and perhaps ran more risk 
than any other man during the war. He has brought in three rebel 
mails, and has often been in the greatest peril amongst false brethren. 
The history of his adventures will entertain and astonish you. He goes 
home at Sir Henry Clinton's desire, who has promised to do something 
for him adecjuate to his services." 

Col. Moody himself, toward the close of his narrative, says, " The 



244 THE HATFIELD FAMILY. 

profession of arms is foreign from the habits of one who has lived, and 
wishes only to live, in quiet, under his own vine and his own fig-tree ; 
and he can truly say, that, if his sovereign should be graciously pleased 
to confer on him the highest military honors, he would most gladly 
forego them all, to be once more re-instated on his own farm, with his 
wife and children around him, as he was seven years ago." 

Col. Moody represented Annapolis County in two Parliaments, — 
from 1793 to 1806. 

Matthias Hatfield ist, of Elizabeth Town, who died in 1687, 
had three sons, — Isaac, Cornelius, and Abraham : the last, born 1670, 
died 1 706. 

Abraham Hatfield ist married Phcebe , and had four sons, — 

Jacob, Joseph, Matthias 2d, and Abr.xham 2d: the last, born 1695, 
died 1745. 

Abraham Hatfield 2d married Margaret VVinans. They had 
seven sons and two daughters, — Abraham 3d, jf^ohn, Sarah, David, 
Samuel, Elias, yacob, Phoebe, and William. The second son, John, 
married Deborah, daughter of Abel Smith, and had thirteen children, — 
Jane, Margery (born 1747, and married Jacob Tooker, afterward of 
Yarmouth), John Smith, Abel, j^ob ,^born 1754, who came to Tusket 
in 1785, and married Jane Van Norden), James, Morris, Mary, 
Deborah, Sarah, Daniel, Jacob, and Phoabe (born 1769). 

Jacob Hatfield, 6th son of Abraham 2d, born 1730, married Mary 
Lyon, and had four sons, — James, born 1 753 ; yacob Lyon, born 1 758 ; 
Elias W. ; and Abram Marsh, — and one daughter, Mary. 

The three brothers, James, Jacob Lyon, and Abram Marsh Hatfield, 
came from Elizabeth Town to Shelburne in 1 783, and thence to Tusket 
during the summer of 1785. It will be noticed they were cousins of 
Col. Job Hatfield, and from these four all of the name of Hatfield 
in Yarmouth County have descended. 

In the belief that it may prove of interest, an endeavor has been 
made to construct a genealogical table, illustrating the intermarriages 
between members of some of the old Tusket fami)-es already noticed, 
as well as of a few others to which these have been allied. The table 
is not complete in all its parts, because fuller particulars were not within 
reach ; and, although it may not be at every point correct, care has been 



HATFIELD GENEALOGY. 24$ 

taken to avoid mistakes. Where the lists of names are imperfect, blank 
spaces are left which may be filled in by those into whose hands the 
book may fall, who may have th-^ iiiiv;rc5t and the opportunity to 3upply 
what is deficient. 

GENEALOGY. 

[Abbreviations used, — se., aged; b., born; d., died; d., daughter; s., son; w., widow; m,, married.] 

James Hatfield, b. 1753, d. 1806, had one son, Jacob, jun., and one daughter, 

Phoebe, who married Deacon John Gavel. 
Jacob Hatfield, jun., in 1802, married Sarah Nickerson, and had issue: — 
James C, m. Fhcebe Raynard, d. J(jb, sen. 
Desire, nn. George Halstead, s. William N. 
Elizabeth, m. Edward Raynard, s. Job. 
Mary, m. Cornelius Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon. 
Nathaniel, m. Cornelia Hurlburt, d. Titus 2d. 

Margery Hurlburt, d. John, sen. 



Hugh N., m. 

2. Sarah Hurlburt, d. John, sen. 

Margery, m. John Brayne, s. John. 

Sarah, m. James R. Blauvelt, s. Tunis. 

James C. Hatfield, s. Jacob, jun., m. Ph(£be Raynard, d. Job, sen. 

Issue : William. 

Arthur. 

Joseph. 

Edward, lost at sea; unmarried. 

James Wallace. 

Helen, m. Benjamin Hamilton, s. Henry. 

Hannah, m. David Hatfield, s. Capt. James. 

Alice. 

Nathaniel Hatfield, s. Jacob, jun., m. Cornelia Hurlburt, d. Titus 2d. 

Issue : Nathaniel, m. Edna Vickery, d. Jeremiah. 

Agnes, m. Edward Nickerson, s. Daniel. 

Mary, m. William Bullerwell, s. Joseph. 

Lois, m. George Saunders, s. Richard. 

Elizabeth, m. Elias Hatfield, s. Cornelius. 

!i. Margery Hurlburt, ) 
i ds. John, sen. 
2. Sarah Hurlburt, ) 

Issue : Jacob, m. Deborah Albrecht. 

Elisha, m. Mary Gavel, d. Andrew. 

George, m. Lydia Lent, d. Abram S. 

Phoebe, m. William Williams, s. John. 

Maria, m. ~ 

Sarah, m. George Hemeon. 

Desire, died unmarried. 



246 HATFIELD GENEALOGY. 

John Brayne, s. John, m. Margery Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 
Issue : Norman. 

I. Louisa Earl, d John. 



Wentworth, m. 

2. Sarah Wood, d. Jacob. 

Jacob Lyon Hatfield, m. Mary Van Norden, d. Gabriel, sen. 

Issue : 1790. James, m. Elizabeth Lent, d. James. 

1791. Jane, m. Israel Nickerson, s. Hugh. 

1793. Mary, m. Abram Lent, s. James. 

1795. John, m. Jane Gavel, d. Deacon John. No issue. 

1797. David, m. Sarah Gavel, d. George* .. 

■ / 
1799. Phoebe, m. Job Raynard 2d, s. Job. 

1801. Hannah, m. James Servant, s. Abraham. 

1S02. Cornelius, m. Mary Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 

1804. Sarah, m. John V. X. Hatfield, s. Col. Job. 

C I. Jane Raynard, d. Job, sen. 
1806. William, m. \ 2. Elizabeth Jeffery, d. Archibald. 

{ 3. Lydia Jeffery, d. Archibald. 

iSoS. Jacob 4th, m. Eleanor Jane MacKinnon, d. Major John. 

1810. Theodosia, m. Job Blauvelt, s. Tunis. 

Capt. James Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon, m. Elizabeth Lent, d. James, sen. 

Issue : Abram L., m. Mary Jeffery, d Archibald. 

James Adolphus, m. Deborah Rogers, d. Benjamin, sen. 

Isaac S., m. Sarah Harding, w. Tracey G. 

( I. Jane Hurlburt, d. Titus 2d. 
David, m. \ 

( 2. Hannah Hatfield, d. James C. 

( I. Janet Hatfield, d. William. 
Richard, m. ] 

( 2. Almira Saunders, d. George. 

!i. Mary Alice Hatfield, d. David, sen. 
2. Fanny Hatfield, d. Jacob 4th. 

( I. Deborah Hatfield, d. William. 
Forman, m. i 

( 2. Sarah 1 y. 

Peter Lent, m. Caroline Harding, d. Tracey G. 

I. Mary Raynard, d. Edward. 



Charles \V., m. , „ . „. , , ^, ,,»^ 

2. Georgia Kirby, d. Thomas, M.D. 

Ann, m. John Gavel, s. Deacon John. 

I. Abijah Crosby, s. Deacon John. 



Maria, m. , tt r- 1 n t u 

( 2. William H. Gavel, s Deacon John. 

Caroline, m. Rev. Charles Knowles. 

Phoebe, m. John Hayes, s. William. 

' 7° Mary, m. John M. Bingay, M.D., s. James. 

David Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon, m. Sarah Gavel, d. George. 

Issue : Mary Alice, m. John Ashley Hatfield, s. Capt. James. 



Issue: Elias, m. \ 



HA TFIELD. 247 

Cornelius Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon, m. Mary Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 
I. Mary Andrews, d. David ist. 
' 2. Elizabeth Hatfield, d. Nathaniel. 

Bowman, m. Eliza Hamilton, d. Daniel. 

Charles K., m. Fannie Raynard, d. Edward. 

Jacob, m. Lois Crosby, d. Abijah. 

Robert, died unmarried. 

Catharine, died unmarried. 

Julia, m. James Forster Crosby, s. Lemuel. 

Anne, m. William Wood, s. John R. 

Adaviila, m. John Wood, s. James. 
William Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon, m. i. Jane Raynard, d. Job, sen. 

2. Elizabeth Jeffery, d. Archibald. 

3. Lydia Jeffery, d. Archibald. 
Issue : Inglis, m. Mary Crosby, d. Abijah. 

Adeline, m. A. Webb Blauvelt, s. Job. 

Deborah, m. Forman Hatfield, s. Capt. James. 

Arabella, m. Theodore Martell, s. Rev. Anthony. 

( I. Frederick Hatfield, s. Jacob 4th. 
Jane, m. ] 

( 2. Douglas Waters. 

Janet, m. Richard Hatfield, s. Capt. James. 

Jacob Hatfield 4th, s. Jacob Lyon, m. Eleanor Jane MacKinnon, d. Major 

John, 

Issue : Francis. 

Frances, m. John Ashley Hatfield, s. Capt. James. 

Frederick, m. Jane Hatfield, d. William. 

Job, m. Helen W. Eakins, d. Robert S., sen. 

Jackson, m. Agnes Hilton, d. Philip. 

George K., m. Mary Kerr. 

Asa. 

Elizabeth Maria, m. Rev. Peter Stuart MacGregor. 

AiiRAM Marsh H.\tfield married Constance Jones. 

I. Sarah Crocker, d. Daniel . 



' 2. Bathsheba Barrows, d. Abner. 

Jacob 3d, m. Margaret Kelley, d. Samuel. 

( t. Elizabeth Ravnard, w. William. 
Anthony J., m. j 

( 2. Sarah Hamilton, d. Daniel. 

Samuel, m. Rebecca Ellis, d. Samuel. 

James L., m. Mary Ann Raynard, d. Job. ' 1 

Abram, m. Mary Cook, d. Manasseh. 

Mary, m. Samuel Kelley, s. Samuel. 

Bridget, m. Benjamin Horton, s. Jonathan. 



248 HA TFIELD. 



William Hatfield, s. Abram Marsh, m. J 



Abram Marsh Hatfield, continued. 

Elizabeth, died unmaryicd. 

Zilpha, m. Abram L. Blauvelt, s. Tunis. 

I. Sarah Crocker, d. Daniel zA. 

[2. Bathsheba Harrows, d Abner. 

Issue : Anthony, died unmarried. 

William J., m. Elizabeth Churchill, d. Nathaniel, sen. 

Sarah, m. Nathaniel Churchill, jun., s. Nathaniel. 

Lois, m. Juhn Murphy. 

Elizabeth, m. Amos Pinkney, s. Gilbert. 

Jacob Hatfield, s. Ab'-am Marsh, m. Margaret Kelley, d. Samuel. 

Issue : Jacob K., m. Hannah Gorham of Liverpool. 

John Smith, m. Annie MacPhail of Mull Island. 

Samuel J., m. Mary Hatfield, d. Capt. J. V. N. 

( I. Louisa Pinkney, d. J hn. 
Abram M., m. { 

( 2. Margaret Short, d. Capt. Short of Bangor. 

James M., lost with his ship on Newfoundland. * 

Edward B., m. Eliza Hatfield, d. Capt. John V. N. 

George A., m. Agnes Huntington, d. Herbert, M.P.P. 

Sarah H., m. Jacob Utley, s. Jacob. 

Annie B., m. William A. Porter, s. Horace B. 

Margaret E., ni. Rev. John D. Murray. 

Helen Wilson, died unmarried. 

( I. Elizabeth Raynard, w. William. 
Anthony J. Hatfield, s. Abram Marsh, m. J 

( 2. Sarah Hamilto.n, d. Daniel. 

Issue : Charles, m. Isabella Kelley, d. Samuel. 

Norman B., m. Malvinia Gavel, d. John 4th. 

Samuel, m. Helen Brown. 

Sarah E. 

Job. 

Abram M., m. Alma A. Adams, d. Moses. 

Wentworth. 
Samuel Hatfield, s. .\bram Marsh, m. Rebecca Ellis, d. Samuel. 
Issue : Thomas Hardy, m. Mary Walsh. 

Nelson J., m. Elizabeth Lovitt, d. Israel, jun. 

Ezekiel, died unmarried. 

Hannah, m. James Hogg. 

Adelaide. 
James L. Hatfield, s. Abram Marsh, m. Mary Ann Raynard, d. Job. 
Issue: Stanley. 

Benjamin Horton, m. Ellen Russell. ^ 

._. — . Amos, m. Williams. _. , ^- ---.-;— .;__„.._ 

Edgar. 



RA YNARD. 249 

James L. Hatfield, continued. 

Mary, m. Robert Purdy, s. Joseph. 

Alice, m Cleorge Ryerson, s. Francis. 

Louisa, m. William W. Ryder. 
.\iiRAM HATFrELD, s. Abraiti Marsh, m. Mary Cook, d. Manasseh. 
Issue : Jones, m. Abigail Allen. 

Enos, died at sea, unmarried. 

•"harles. 

V, m. Isaac Ryder. 

Licborah, m. Samuel Wilson. 

Zilpha, m. Elias Trask, s. Elias. 

Harriet, m. Henry Stone. 

Lucetta, m. Cole. 

Janet, m. Morgan. 

Adelaide, m. Forster. 

Samuel Kelley, s. Samuel, m. Mary Hatfield, d. Abram Marsh. 
Issue : Isabella, m Charles Hatfield, s. Anthony J. 

Lois, m. William Wyman, s. Henry. 

Alice. 

Samuel, m. Laura Williams. 
Benjamin Horton, s. Jonathan, m. Bridget Hatfield, d. Abram Marsh. 
Issue : Smith, m. Deborah Pinkney, d. Gilbert. 

Mary, m. Nathaniel Larkin. 

Janet, m. Thomas J. Perry, s. Joseph. 

Ellen, m. Charles Larkin. 

Constantine, m. Reuben Hiltz. 

Phoebe, m. S. L. Oliver. 
JoK Raynard, sen., came from New York to Shelburne in 1791, and thence to 
Tusket. He settled at Raynardtown in 1796, and d. there in 1825, aged 62. 
I. Catharine Gavel, d. John, sen. 



He married , ^, ,, , t , 

2. Maria Horton, d. Jonathan. 

Issue : Job, m. Phoebe Hatfield, d. Jacob Lyon. 

Edward, m. Elizabeth Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 

William, m. Elizabeth Hurlburt, d. William. 

Margaret, m. Joseph Kinney, s. John. 

Sarah, m. W^ells Hamilton, s. Daniel. 

Jane, m. William Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon. 

Phoebe, m. James C. Hatfield, s. Jacob, jun. 

By 2d wife : — 

Mary Ann, m. James L. Hatfield, s. Abram Marsh. 

Maria, m. Aaron Blauvelt, s. Tunis. 

_ Henry Greggs, m. Deborah Roberts, d. John. 

George, m. Jane Wilson, w. Charles. 



250 PA YNARD. 

■ Job Raynard, jun., m. PHa';BE Hatfiei-o, d. Jacob Lyon. 
Issue : Job, died unmarried. 

John W., m. Catharine Hurlburt, d. Titus 2d. 

Jacob, m. Eliza Crowell. 

Victoria, m. John Halstcad, s. William N. 2d. 

Arabella, m. Calvin Hurlburt, s. James. 

Susan, m. William Kicker. 
Edward Raynard, m. Elizabeth Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 
Issue : James Norris, m. Hannah Nickerson, d. Daniel. 

Benjamin, m. Lucy Hurlburt, d. Abraham. 

William, m. Phoebe Hamilton, d. Daniel. 

Robert, m. Lavinia Hamilton, d. Henry. 

Walter. 

Frances, m. Charles K. Hatfield, s. Cornelius. 

Jane, m. David Lamoreux. 

Charlotte, m. James Forster, s. James. 

Deboi-,.h, m. George Robertson, s. William. 

Mary, m. Charles W. Hatfield, s. Capt. James. 

Margaret. 

Sarah, died unmarried. 
William Raynard, m. Elizabeth Hurlburt, d. William. 

Issue : , m. Jonathan S. Barrows, s. Jonathan. 

Henry Greggs Raynard, m. Deborah Roberts, d. John. 
Issue : Job. 

Jane. 

Alice. 
Joseph Kinney, s. John, m. Margaret Raynard, d. Job, sen. 
Issue : Joseph, m. Rebecca Moulton, d. Philip. 

Phoebe Jane, m. John Turner, s. John. 

Stephen, m. Zilpha Bridgeo, d. William. 

John, m. Ccrdelia Hemeon, d. Jacob. 
I. Gideon Hemeon, s. Crocker. 



Hannah, m. ' 

' 2. William Durkee, s. Robert 2d. 

( I. John Cain, s. Seth B. 
Melinda, m. \ 

{ 2. Martiu Hankinson of Weymouth. 

Nehemiah, died yourg. 

Job, died young. 

George, died young. 

George, died young. 

Ansel, m. Alvinia A. Churchill, d. John. - 

William, ra. Mary Isabella Eakins, d. Robert S. 

Martha, m. John E. Murphy, s. Jeremiah. 

Benjamin, m. Mary Crowell o£ Barrington. 



HURLBURT. 25 1 

Wells Hamilton, t. Daniel, m. Sarah Raynard, d. Job, sen. 
Is^ue : David, lost at sea, with brigantine Jirwess, In 1S44. 
John, lost at sea. 

Harvey, lost at sea, with brigantine Jewcts, in 1844. 
William, lost at sea. 

Edward R., m. Mary . 

Mary Ellen, m. John E. Stanley. 
Catharine, m. Charle Oldreive. 
Titus Hurlburt, sen., came from Connecticut to Shelburne about 17S5, and 

thence to Tusket. He married Leonard, and had issue: — 

Israel, m. Mary Andrews, d. Samuel. 

I. E!iz.-ibeth Halstead, w. William N. 



William, m. , 

. 2. Johnson. 

( I. Sarah Andrews, d. Samuel. 
John m. ) 

( 2. Sarah Curry, w. 

Titus, m. Catharine Gavel, d. George. 

I. Phcebe Gavel, d. George. 



Job, m. , 

{ 2. Hethiah Rankm. 

Isaac, m. Eleanor Gray, d. Jesse. 

James, m. Jemima Mangham. 

Abraham, m. Sarah Pennell. 

Phoebe, m. Luke Keogh. 

.Sarah, m. Simon Kavanagh. 

Mehitable, m. Daniel Nickerson. 

Israel Hurlburt, s. Titus, m. Mary Andrews, d. Samuel. 

Issue : Samuel, m. Susan Van Emburg, d. John. 

Absalom, m. Keziah Marling, d. Barnet 1st. 

Israel, m. Margaret Andrews, d. Robert. 

Joseph, m. Sara Frontain, d. Augustin. 

George, m. Deborah White, d. David. 

Mary. 

I. Elizabeth Halstead, w. William N. 



William Hurlburt, s. Titus, m. , 

(2. Johnson. 

( I. William Raynard, s. Job, sen. 
Issue: Elizabeth, m. \ . ,, ^ . , ., ». , 

( 2. Anthony Hatfield, s. Abram Marsh. 



1. Sarah Andrews, d. Samuel. 

2. Sarah Curry, w. 



John Hurlburt, sen., s. Titus, m. | 

( I. Mary Andrews, d. Robert. 
Issue : John W., m. } 

( 2. Ann Carney. 

David, m. Edith Van Emburg, d. John. 

I. Eleanor Van Emburg, d. John. 



William, m. , ., . ., t^ • j t j 

2. Abigail Dennis, d. Leonard. 



252 HURLBURT. 

JuHN HURI.BURT, COIttillUed. 

!i. Mary Hurlburt, ) 
} ds. George. 
2. Martha Hurlburt, ' 

Titus 3d, m. Louisa Gray. 

Margery, tn. Hugh N. Hatfield, s. Jacob, jun. 

Sarah, ni. Hugh N. Hatfield, s. Jacob, jun. 

Zilpha Ann, m. William White, s. David. 

Titus Hijrlburt 2d, s. Titus, tn. Catharine Gavf.i., d. George. 

Issue : C»rnelia, m. Nathaniel Hatfield, s. Jacob, jun. 

-Sarah, m. Jacob H. Gavel, s. Dea. John. 

Rebecca, m. Ebenezer C. I'orter, s. James. 

Margery, m. Henry Saunders, s. Richard. 

John Hardy, m. Lucinda Crosby, d. William. 

Theodosia, m. Abner Gavel, s. John " Uniacke." 

Catharine, vn. John W . Raynard, s. Job 2d. 

Jane, m. David Hatfield, s. Capt. James. 

1. Phcebe Gavel, d. George. 

2. Bethiah Rankin. 
Issue : John Halstead, m. Ruth Hannah Crocker. 

Eunice, m. Abram Kavanagh, s. Simon. 

Phoebe, m. George H. Hurlburt, s. Isaac. 

Susan, m. Joseph Gavel, s. Jacob H. 

Elizabeth, m. George Riddle. 

Albert, m. Jane Crosby, d. Abijah. 
Isaac Hurlburt, s. Titus, m. Eleanor Gray, d. Jesse. 
Issue: George H., m. Phcebe Hurlburt, d. Job. 

Isaac, went to Western States. 

Charles, m. Lalia Gavel, d. William H. 

Irene, m. Robert Andrews, s. Robert. 

Sarah Ann, m. William Kavanagh, s Simon. 

Elizabeth, m. Charles Rogers, s. Levi. 

Lois, m. David Gilliland. 

Ellen. 
James Hurlburt, s. Titus, m. Jemima Mangham. 

I. Maria Bower, d. Philip. 



Job HikLHURT, s. Titus, m. 1 



Issue : William W., m. 

2. Anne IJower, d. William. 

Calvin, m. Arabella Raynard, d. Job 2d. 

Norman, m. Lydia Gavel, d. John 3d. 

Freeman, m. Martha Ricker. 

Rowland, m. Frances Gavel, d. William H. 

Charles, died unmarried. ' — -r~^ — ^-- - 

Weymouth, m. Maria Sims, d. Robert, sen. 



HURLBURJ. 253 

James Hitri.burt, continued. 

Sarah, m. John T. Gavel, s. John 3d. 

Kliz.iheth, m. James Harvey Hamilton, s. Samuel. 
Abraham Huri.rurt, s. Titus, nt. Sarah I'ennell. 
Issue : George. 

Ashley. 

Lucy, m. Benjamin Raynard, s. Edward. 

Phccbe, m. Handley Roberts, s. Ilandlcy. 

Elizabeth. 

Mahulda, m. Nathan MicConneil, s. Joseph. 

Sarah, m. George Allen, s. Lewis. 

Maria, m. Solomon Roberts, s. Handley. 
Luke Kkoch, m. Pikehe Hurlburt, d. Titus, sen. 
Lssue : John, m. Ruth Frost. 

Luke, ni. Lambert, d. James. 

Mary, m. Ezra Rankin, s. Archibald. 

Phoebe, m. James F. (iray, s. James. 

James, died unmarried. 

Denis, m. in Australia. 
Simon Kavanagh, m. Sarah Hurlburt, d. Titus, sen. 
Issue : Abram, m. Eunice Hurlburt, d. Job. 

William, m. Sarah A. Hurlburt, d. Isaac. 

Jacob, m. Hilton. 

Simon. 

Phoebe, m. John Benham. 

Sarah, m. Tunis Blauvelt, s. David. 

Anne, m. Daniel Hamilton, s. David. 

Eunice, m. John Hamilton. 

Catharine, m. Frank Little. 

Elizabeth. 

Delight, m. Edward Kingsley Goudey, s. Thomas. 

Eleanor. 

Mary, m. Morgan. 

Maria. 
Daniel Nickerson, m. Mehitable Hurlburt. d. Titus, sen. 
Issue : Eustace, m. Maria Gavel, d. Andrew. 

Edward, m. Agnes Hatfield, d. Nathaniel. 

Daniel, m. Louisa Cline. 

Cynthia, m. Nehemiah Andrews, s. John. 

Hannah, m. J. Norris Raynard, s. Edward. 
John Gavel, sen., came from New York to Shelburne, and ihence to e'er;. 

He married , and had issue : — 



254 GA VEL. — A NDRE WS. 

John Gavel, continued. 

George, m. Fraser. 

John, m. Phoebe Hatfield, d. James, sen. 
Catharine, m. Job Raynard, sen. 

I. William N. Halstead, sen. 



Elizabeth, m. , 

2. William Ilurlburt, sen., s. Titus. 

George Gavel, s. John, m. Fraser. 

Issue : John, m. Lydia Barrows, d. Abner. 

Abraham L., m. Dayton. 

George, m Gilliiand. 

William, m. Sweeney. 

Catharine, m. Titus Hurlburt 2d, s. Titus. 

Elizabeth, m. Gilliiand. 

Sarah, ni. David Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon. 

Mary, m. David Hamilton, s. Daniel. 

Ann, m. Henry Hamilton, s. Daniel. 

Phoebe, m. Job Hurlburt, s. Titus, sen. 

Deacon John Gavel, s. John, m. Phcebe Hatfield, d. James, sen. 

j T. Hannah Crocker, d. Daniel 2d. 
Issue : Andrew, m \ 

( 2. Sarah Hobbs. 

Jacob H., m. Sarah Hurlburt, d. Titus 2d. 

John, ni. Ann Hatfield, d. Capt. James. 

William H., m. Maria Crosby, w. Abijah. 

Mary, m. James King, s. Robert. 

Bridget, m. Daniel Hamilton, s. Daniel. 

Phoebe, m. Job Hamilton, s. Daniel. 

Jane, m. John Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon. 

Eliza, m. Abram Smith Lent, s. Rev. James. 

Samuel Andrews, from North Carolina, m. Mary . 

Issue: John, m. Rebecca Morton. 

Robert, m. Mary Powell, 

Abner, m. Sarah Travis, w. No issue. 

Joe], emigrated. 

Thomas, m. Mary Wood, d. John. 

Samuel, emigrated. 

Nathan, m. . 

David, went to New Brunswick, and married there. 

Alexander, m. Hannah Kinney, d. Nathan. 

I. Eleanor Hamilton, d. Daniel. 



William W., m. , 

Martha MacConnell, w. James. 

Mary, m. Israel Hurlburt, s. Titus, sen. 

I. John Van Emburg. 



Amelia, m. , , » j 

,2. William Prosser, from London. 



ANDREWS. 255 



Samcel Andrews, continued. 

Sarah, m. John Hurlburt, sen., s. Titus. 
Two or three others died young. 
John Andrews, s. Samuel, m. Rebecca Morton. 

Issue : John, m. Jane . 

William, m. Isabella Bullerwell, d. William. 
Joel, ni. Mary Ann Morton, d. Archibald. 

, I. Cynthia Nickerson, d. Daniel. 



Nehemiah, m. 

. 2. Mary Gavel, d. Andrew. 

( I. John Hamilton, s. Daniel. 
Martha, m. J 

( 2. Charles Andrews. 

Rebecca, m. Thomas Bullerwell, s. William. 
Robert Andrews, s. Samuel, m. M.\ry Powell. 
Issue : Mary, m. John W. Hurlburt, s. John. 

Margaret, m. Israel Hurlburt, s. Israel. 

Keziah, m. Joseph Allen. 

Robert, m. Irene Hurlburt, d. Isaac. 

John, m. Elizabeth Trefry, d. Joshua. 

Elizabeth, m. William Black. 

Bridget, m. Joseph Enzer. 
Thomas Andrews, s. Samuel, m. Mary Wood, d. John. 
Issue : Samuel, m. Marie Deveau. 

Maria. 

Mary. 

Christiana. 
Alexander Andrews, s. Samuel, m. Hannah Kinney, d. Nathan. 
Issue : Alexander, m. Orlinda Hersey, d. Zadoc. 

W^illiam. 

Pearl. 

Mary. 

Hannah. 

,„ . r- , (1. Eleanor Hamilton, d Daniel. 

William W. Andrews, s. Samuel, ni. \ 

(2. Martha MacConnell, w James. 

Issue : William, m. Tabitha Marling, d. Peter. 

David, m. Sarah Marling, d. Peter. 

James, m. . Killed in American war. 

Abner, 

Hannah, m. Charles Gaffney. 

Ellen. ^ . ii-^- ^ 

Sophronia. 

Cord. lia, died unmarried. -- = 

Mary Jane, died unmarried. 



(I. 

Robert, m. J 



256 HA LSTEA D. — BLA UVEL T. 

William \V. Andrews, contimted. 

Sarah, died unmarried. 

Janet, died unmarried. 

f I. Amelia Van Emburg, w. John. 
William Prosser, m. | 

( 2. Mary Trask, w. John. 

Issue: James, m. Emeline Valpey, d. Calvin. 

I. Mary Dennis, d. Leonard. 

Emeline Prosser, w- James. 

William, died unmarried. 

John, died unmarried. 

By 2d wife : — 

Frances, m. George Smith. 

Joyce, m. Charles Reeves, s. Edward. 

Edna, m. . 

William X. Halstead came from New Jersey to Shelburne, and thence to 

Tusket. Married Elizabeth Gavel, d. John, sen. 

Issue : William N.. ni. Mary Kinney, d. John. 

George, m. Desire Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 

Sarah, m. John Wood, s. John. 

William N. Hals'-ead 2d, m. Mary Kinney, d. John. 

Issue : William, went to Melbourne, Australia. 

John, ni. Victoria Paynard, d. Job 2d. 

Alice, m. Charl. vppleton. 

GtORGE Halstead, s. William N. ist, m. Desire Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 

Issue : George, m. Amanda Jane Burrell. 

Jacob W., died in California. 

Agnes, died unmarried. 



Tunis Blauvelt, m. j /- 1 • 1 

"2. Hannah \an Norden, d. Gabriel. 

Issue : Margaret, m. Aaron Van Buskirk. 

Jane, m. John Williams. 
By 2d w'ife : — 

Cornelius V. N., m. Maria Raynard, w. Job, sen. No issue. 

James R , m. Sarah Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 

Job, m. Theodosia Hatfield, d. Jacob Lyon. 

David, m. Margaret Servant, d. Abraham. 

Aaron, m. Maria Raynard, d. Job, sen. 

Abram L., m. Zilpha Hatfield, d. Abram Marsh. 
James R. Blauvelt, s. Tunis, m. Sarah Hatfield, d. Jacob, jun. 
Issue : Eraser, m. Lucy Gardner. 

Nathaniel, m. Harriet J. Sweeney, d. John. 

Franklin, died unmarried. 

Abram. 



SERVANT. 257 

James R. Blauvelt, continued. 

Aaron. 

Hardy. 

Charles. 

James. 

Agnes, m. James Brayne, s. William. 

Julia, m. James Forster, s. James. 

Margery. 
Job Blauvelt, s. Tunis, m Theodosia Hatfield, d. Jacob I.yon. 
Issue : Job Sterns, m. Charlotte Perry. 

Aaron Webb, m. Adeline Hatfield, d William. 

John R., m. Anne Knowles, d. Rev. Charles. 

Charles, died unmarried. 

Jacob. 

Hannah Maria, m. Henry Wyman, s. Henry. 

Jane, m. Charles Bennison, s. Samuel W. 
David Blauvelt, s. Tunis, m. Margaret Servant, d. Abraham. 
Issue : Maurice. 

Tunis, m. Sarah Kavanagh, d. Simon. 

Abraham, lost at sea. 

Robert R., m. Mahala Robbins, d. Asa. 

Margaret, m. Samuel Robbins, s. Samuel. 

Isabella, m. Alfred Servant, s. Abraham 2d. 
Aaron Blauvelt, s. Tunis, m. Maria Ravnard, d. Job, sen. 
Issue : Job, m. Margaret Crosby, d. Capt. William 2d. 

Avery, in England. 

Jane, ni. Frederick Crosby. 

Ellen, m. Eraser Gavel, s. George. 

Wallace, m. Eva Gavel, d. Abner. 
Abram L. Blauvelt, s. Tunis, m. Zili'HA Hatfield, d. Abram Marsh. 
Issue: Gertrude, m. Albert Kempton. 

Ralph. 

Elizabeth. 

Robert, died unmarried. 

Yates, died unmarried. 

Magdalen, died unmarried. 

Mary, died unmarried. 

Abraham, died unmarried. 

Joseph, died unmarried. 
AiJRAHAM Servant, sen., m. Penelope Yarrow. 

Issue : iVbraham, m. Charity Van Norden, d. Stephen. ------ 

James, m. Hannah Hatfield, d. Jacob Lyon. 



258 LENT. 

Abraham Servant, continued. 

Jolin, 111. Mary Greenfield. 

Margaret, m. David Hlauvelt, s. Tunis. 

Mary, m. Peter Van Norden, s. Stephen. 
Abraham Servant 2d, s. Abraham, ni. Charity Van Xorden, d. Stephen. 
Issue : Zeljulon, m. Mary I'orter, d. Ghipnian. 

Alfred, m. Isabella Blauvelt, d. David. 

Penelope, m. Charles Savary. 

Henrietta, died unmarried. 

Rebecca, m. Joseph Saunders, s. Abner. 

Charlotte, ni. Grouse. 

Sarah, m. Norman Moses. 
James Servant, s. Abraham, m. Hannah Hati-ield, d. Jacob Lyon. 
Issue : William, m. Jane Williams, d. John. 

Laura, m. Rufus Crowcll. 

Jacob. 

James. 

Eleanor. 

Theodosia. 

Cornelius, drowned. 
John'Servant, s. Abraham, m. Mary Greenfield. 
Issue : Gabriel. 

John, died unmarried. 

Elizabeth, m. John N. Purdy, s. Robert. 
James Lent, sen., m. ISridcet Smith of New York. 
I. Lydia Jeffery, d. Matthew ist. 



Issue : James, m. , . 

( 2. Elizabeth Harding, d. Rev. Hams. 

Abram, m. Mary Hatfield, d. Jacob Lyon. No issue. 

Peter, died unmarried. 

Elizabeth, m. Capt. James Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon. 

ii. Lyuia Jeffery, d. Matthew ist. 
2. Ei.izAiiF.TH Harding, d. Rev. Harris. 
Issue : James M., m. Theodosia Cochran, i-> New York. 
Abram S , m. Eliza Gavel, d. Deacon John. 
Lydia, m. Thomas Kirby, M.D. 
Bridget, m. Stephen N. Allen, s. James. 
Alice, m. Alfred Crosby, s. Capt. William ist. 

I. Charlotte Vaughan, d. Capt. Daniel. 



William, m. , . , „ ,.,.,.. 

2. Matilda Brown, w. William. 

Harris H , m. Alice Cook. 

Julia, m. Archibald Ray. 



JEFFERY. 259 

Matthew Jeffery, sen., came from Glasgow to Halifax and Shelburne, and from 
thence to Argyle, where he settled at the foot of Eel Lake upon the 
property afterward owned by Joseph Josuti Pothier. About sixty years 
ago, Mr. Jeffery, with his wife and three sons, John, Amos, and Robert, 
removed to Canada. 
Matthew Jeffery, m. Lydia Randall. 
Issue : Elizabeth, m. Nathaniel Hobbs. 

John, m. Travis. 

I. Hannah Frost. 



Matthew, m. , 

2. Mary Elwell, w. John. 

David, m. Joanna Spinney. 

Archibald, m. Mary Frost. 

f t. Sarah Barrows, d. Abner. 

Andrew, m. \ 2. Elizabeth Hemeon, d. Adam. 
1 
[3. Isabella Andrews, w. William. 

Ellen, m. Ennis. 

Lydia, m. Rev. James Lent, s. James. 

Robert, m. Griffin. 

Amos, m. Griffin. 

Nathaniel Hobbs, m. Elizabeth Jeffery, d. Matthew, sen. 

Issue : Jane, m. Hemeon. 

Eleanor, ni. Hemeon. 

Adeline, m. C ".n 

Isaac. 

; I. Hannah Frost. 



Matthew Jeffery 2d., s. Matthew, m. , 

'- Mary Elwell, W.John. 

I-sue : Lydia, ni. Theodore Churchill, s. Lemuel 2d. 

Abigail, m. James Xickerson. 

Freeman, m. Rebecca Gardner, d. Reuben. 

Matthew, m. Elizabeth MacKinnon, d. Colin. 

Stephen, died young. 

George, m. in California. 

James, m. Mary Dennis, d. Ambrose 3d. 

Stephen, m. Louisa Kenney. 

Archibald Jeffery, s. Matthew ist., m. Mary Frost, 

f I. Zilpha Landers, d. Thorndvke. 
I 
Issue : Joseph, m. \ 2. Mary Pitman, d. Joseph. 

[ 3. Sarah Perry. 

Stephen, m. Lydia Nickerson. 

Amos, m. Rogers, d. Levi. 

Mary, m. Abram L. Hatfield, s. Capt. James. 

Elizabeth, m. William Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon. 

Lydia, m. William Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon. 



26o VAX NORDEN. 



Andrew Jeffery, s. ^[atthew ist, m. 



■ I. Sarah Barrows, d. Abner. 

- 2. Ki.iZAHETH Hemeon, d. Adam. 

3. Isabella Andrews, w. William. 

Issue : i<S23. April 8. Sarah, m. John B. Dodge of Annapolis. 

1S23. April 8. Lydia, m. George Dodge of Annapolis. 

1828. April 22. .Andrew H., m. abroad. 

1830. Feb. 12. IMary M., m. Rufiis N. Robbins, s. Rufus N. 

1S32. Feb. 5. Archibald, m. Ruth Purdy, d. Robert of Plymouth. 

( I. Austen Burdick of New Haven, Conn. 
1S34. Dec. 13. Adelaide, m. j 

( 2. Joel Coffin of New York. 

1837. Aug. 18. Thomas B., ni. Mary Purdy, d. Robert of Plymouth. 

1839. Oct. 30. Melissa A. J., m. Henry Bailey of Middletown, Conn. 

1843. July 5. Elizabeth H., m. Hiram C. Beardsley of Meriden, Conn. 

1847. Aug. 26. John \V., m. Sarah Smithers of Havelton, N.Y. 

1849. Jan. 30. David C, m. Charlotte J. Potts of Michigan. 

1850. Oct. II. Rufus J., m. Hannah Sims, d. Ceorge 2d. 
1855. Feb. 27. George D., m. Albina Wyman, d. Israel. 
1855. P'eb. 27. Amos R., died in childhood. 

1861. Jan. 4. Amos R., m. Eleanor Balfour Beaton, d. John of River- 
dale. 
David Jeffery, s. Matthew ist, m. Joanna Spinney. 
Issue : Robert, m. Catharine Pitman, d. .\sa. 

Aaron, m. Mercy Ann Goudey, d. Stejihen. 
John, m. Eunice Frost. 

I. Freeman Tra.sk, s. James. 



Susan, m. 

2. James D. Archibald. 

Joanna, m. Jesse Churchill, s. Thomas. 

Gabriel Van Norden, son of John and Theodosia Van Norden, born Oct. 25, 

1737, m.. May 19, 1757, Jane Westervelt, daughter of Stephen and 

Helligont Westervelt, born Feb. 20, 1741. 

Issue: 1758. John, m. Magdalen Maine, d. John. 

1760. Cornelia, m. Andrew Van Buskirk. 

1763. Stephen, m. Henrietta Earl, d. Peter. 

1765. Cornelius, m. Phcebe Smith, d. Job. No issue. 

1767. Theodosia, died 1779. 

1770. Hannah, m. Tunis Blauvelt. 

1772. Mary, m. Jacob Lyon Hatfield. 

1774. Abigail, m. Henry Saunders, s. Joseph. 

1776. David, m. Mary Cain, d. James ist. No issue. 

1779. Elsey, died in infancy. 

Jane Van Norden died Dec. iS, 1779, in her thirt) -ninth year. Gabriel Van 

Norden m. next, on March 29, 1780, Magdalen Maine, widow of 

John Maine, and had issue : — 



I'AJV NORDEN. 26 1 

CIabriel Van Norden, continued. 

1781. Gabriel, died 1783. 

1782. William, died in infancy. 

1784. Jane, m. Col. Job Hatfield. 

1785. Sarah, died in infancy. 

17S7. Sarah, ni. William Robertson. 

1789. Gabriel Bydder, m. Charlotte Timpany, d. Major Robert. 

1790. Elizabeth, m. John Williamson. 
1794. Theodosia, m. Charles C. Coffin. 

The foregoing is a transcript from the record in the Van Norden family Bible, 

printed at Amsterdam, A.D. 1671. 

John Van Norden, s. Gabriel, m. Magdalen Maine, d. John. 

Issue: Sarah, m. Col. Bazalgette. 

Stephen Van Norden, s. Gabriel, m. Henrietta Earl, d. Peter. 

Issue : Peter, m. Mary Servant, d. Abraham, sen. 

Gabriel, ni. Mary Williams of She'burne. 

Charity, m. Abraham Servant 2d, s. Abraham. 

Stephen, m. Ann Geddes. 

John, m. Lucy Morse. 

Jane, m. Sealed Landers 4th, s. John ist. 

Abraham, m. Snow of Port La Tour. No issue. 

Rachel, not married. 

Peter Van Xordkn, s. Stephen, m. Mary Servant, d. Abraham, sen. 

Issue : David, died unmarried. 

Rowland, m. Emily Jane Earl, d. Abram, sen. 

May, m. Edward Earl, s. Abram, sen. 

( I. Job Williams, s. John. 
Catharine, m. \ 

( 2. Jacob Vickery, s. Jacob. 

Gabriel Van Norden, s. Stephen, m. Mary Williams of Shelburne. 

Issue : John, m. Wealthy Swaine. 

Mary Jane, m. Clark Wetmorc, s. John. 

Stephen, lost at sea. 

Howard, m. Annis Crosby, d. Lemuel. 

Alfred, m. ' faria Crosby, d. Lemuel. 

Phcebe, died unmarried, »t. 18. 
Henry Saunders, s. Joseph, m. Abigail Van Norden, d. Gabriel, sen. 
Issue : 1797. Stephen, m. Lois Moses, d. William. 

1798. Jane, m. Stephen Poole of Paradise, N.S. 

1800. Richard, m. Desire Cahoon of Port Medway. 

1S03. Henry, m. .Sarah Saunders, d. William. 

1805. Asaph, m. Olive Cook, d. Manasseh. 

1808. Mary, died unmarried. 



262 l-'AA' NORDEN. 

Henry Saunders, contintied. 

1811. Rufiis J-, m. %fary Ann Harris, d. William. 

l8i2. David V. N., m. Mary Curry, d. Eliphalet. 

1815. Edward, died unmarried. 

181S. Abigail, died unmarried. 
Sealed Landers 4th, s. John ist, m. Jane Van Norden, d. Stephen. 
Issue : Joseph, lost at sea ; unmr.rried. 

David V. N.. m. Elizaljeth Shaw, d. Jesse. 

Sealed, died in West Indies ; unnjarried. 

Stephen, m. Isabella Adams of Massachusetts. 

John Nelson, m. Elizabeth Hlackadar, d. Christopher. 

Lydia, m. Israel Whitehouse, s. Joseph. 

Mary, m. George Strickland, s. Jonathan. 

Rachel, m. Thomas Savage. 
John Van Norden, s. Stephen, m. Lucy Morse. 
Issue : Abner M., m. Spinney. 

Emeline, died unmarried. 

Caroline, died unmarried. 

And others who died young. 
Gabriel Bydder Van Norden, s. Gabriel ist, m. Charlotte Timpany, d. 
Major Robert. 
Issue: Sarah A., m. David Smith, M.D., of New York. 

Magdalen, m. Peter Ogden of New York. 

Jane, m. Charles Hine of New York. 

Mary Ann, m. Rev. Richard Avery. 

( I. Kliza Kingav, w. John G. 
Robert, m. 1 

( 2. Catharine Glass-ford of California. 

Maria, m. George H. Redding, s. Fitz W. 

Thomas, m. in California. 

John Williamson, m. Elizabeth Van Norden. d. Gabriel, sen. 

Issue : Mary Ann, m. John Maclntyre of New York. 

John, a cosmopolitan, followed the sea. 

Jane, m. Olmstead, M.D., of New York. 

Theodosia, m. Robert Phipps. 

Ellen, m. Samuel Avery, M.D., of New York. 

George, went to Australia in 1852. 

Robert, m. Eleanor Ann Brown, d. Robert. 

James, now in California. 

Eliza, m. David Sterritt of New York. 

Thomas Avery, m., and now in San Francisco. 

Malvinia, m. Amos Chase of New York. 

Avery, died in West Indies. 



EARL. 263 

WiLUAM RonERTSON, m. Sarah Van Nouden, d Gabriel, sen. 
Issue : John, m. Susan Stalker. 

Sarah, m. Thomas Crovvell. 

William, m. Anne flomer. 

Robert, m. Sarah Richan, d. William. 

Janet, died unmarried. 

Gabriel, m. Isabella Stalker. 

Charles, died unmarried. 

Thomas, m. Letitia Crowell. 

Maria, m. Daniel Sargent. 
Charles C. Coffin, m. Theodosia Van Norden, d. Gabriel, sen. 
Issue : Miriam, m. Ferrand. 

Eliza, died unmarried. 

Magdalen, m. Robert Prothero. 

Paul Chase, m. Frances Brown of New York. 

Frances, m. Samuel Shether. 

Charles, died in infancy. 

Charles. 

Peter Karl, m. . 

Issue : Henrietta, m. Stephen Van Norden, s. Gabriel ist. 

Elsie, m. Crowell. 

Enoch. 

Abraham, m. Clara Wyman, d. James. 

, m. Samuel Robbins. 

Abraham Karl, s. Peter, m. Clara Wy>l\n, d. James. 

Issue : John, m. Levisa Whitehouse. 

( I. Zebina Shaw, s. Moses. 
Drusilla, m J 

( 2. Zachariah Churchill, s. Zaccheus. 

Eleanor, m. Angus Walker, s. James. 

( I. Mary Van Norden, d. Peter. 
Edward, m. ) 

( 2. Tinkham, w. 

William, unmarried; lost at sea. 

Abraham, m. Wealthy Ann Sweeney, d. James. 

David, m. Mary MacKinnon, d. Major John. 

Lorenzo, m. Lois Kinney, d. Rufus. 

Anne, m. Charles Kinney, s. Rufus. 

Alice, died unmarried. 

Emily Jane, m. Rowland Van Norden, s. Peter. 

Mary, m. Thomas Purdy, s. Joseph. 

Elizabeth, m. Daniel Bennison. 

1. Jane Smith. No issue. 

2. Jane Van Norden, d. Gabriel, sen. 
Issue: 1801. Cornelius V. X., died unmarried. 



Col. Job Hatfield, s. John, m. \ 



\ 



264 HATFIHLD. 

Col. Job Hatfield, continual. 



1802. John V. N., m. I 



John Van Norden Hatfield, s. Col. Job, m. | 



I. Sarah Hatfield, d. Jacob Lyon. 
! 2. Marv K. Kendrick. 

1803. Deborah, m. Benjamin Trefry, s. Joshua. 

1804. Gabriel, married and died in the Western States. 
1808. Phoebe, m. Edward H. Hingay. 

18 10. Magdalen, m. Stephen V. Kinney, s. John. Went to Michigan. 

181 1. Jane, m. Charles Tooker, s. Joseph. 
1813. Job, a bachelor. 

1817. Margery, m. Edgar Grantham, s. Rev. Thomas. 

1819. Theodosia, m. James Trefry, s. James 2d. 

( I. John G. Hingay, s. IJeniamin. 
1823. Sarah Eliza, m. "^ *= ^ ^ 

' 2. Robert Van Norden, s. Gabriel B. 

Note. — Maria, d. John G. and Sarah E. Bingay, m. James Wentworth Bingay. 
Charlotte, d. Robert and Sarah E. Van Norden, m. Edgar Clements. 

1. Sarah Hatfield, d. Jacob Lyon. 

2. Mary E. Kkndrick. 
Issue : Two sons died in infancy. 

Lois Ann, m. Henry T. Goudey, s. George. 
Job Lyon, m. Martha Harding, d. Israel. 
Mary, xvf. Samuel J. Hatfield, s. Jacob 3d. 
Eliza, m. Edward B. Hatfield, s. Jacob 3CI. 
Jane, m. N. J. B. Tooker, s. Charles. 
Charlotte V. N. m. Edward N. Moody, s. Elisha W. B. 
By 2d wife : — 
Abel. 
Margaret. 
Cornelia. 
Andrew. 
Jacob Tooker, s. Joseph, m. Margery Hatfield, sister of Col. Job. 
Issue : 1765. Mary, m. Jol.n Kreuzer of .Staten Island. 

( I. Dennis Van Toyle. 

1767. Deborah, m. ) 

' I 2. Job Smith. 

1768. Joseph, m. Lois Barnard, d. Benjamin. 

( I. David Thompson of Dundee. 
1771. Margery, m. \ 

( 2. Benjamin Barnard 2d, s. Benjamin. 

\ I. Rufus Utley, s. Nathan ist. 

1773. Sarah, m. \ 2. William Grayson of Liverpool, England. 

[ 3. Peach of New York. 

!i. David Thompson of Dundee. 
2. Benjamin Barnard 2d, s. Benjamin. 
Issue : Two sons, died unmarried. 



TOOK'ER. 265 

Margrry Tooker, cfltitiiiiifii. 

Margery Thompson, m. llernard Hannah. Mrs. G. J. Farish, their daughter. 

Jane Thompson, m. James Hunter, s. George. 

Deborah Thompson, m. Loran Dewolfe Ellis, s. Deacon Joseph. 

Mary Ar\ne Thompson, m. Fitz W. Redding. 

Thomas liarnard, died unmarried. 

Anne Barnard, m. John Flint, s. David. 

Lois and Elizabeth, died unmarried. 
Fitz W. Redding, m. Mary Ann Thompson, d. David. 
Issue : Benjamin B., m. Mary Putnam. 

Lucy S., m. J. Whitney Jones. 

Mary, m. Reuben Z. Clements, s. Elkanah 2d. 

George \l., m. Maria Van Norden, d. Gabriel B. 

Anne, m. George C. Garrison of St. John, N.B, 

William, died unmarried. 

And two other sons William died young. 
John Flint, s. David, m. Ann Barnard, d. Benjamin 2d. 
Issue: Margery, m. Lorenzo D. Raymond. 

Ann, m. Rev. W. C. Brown. 

Jane, m. Thomas M. Lewis, s. Charles. 

Thomas B., m. Mary Dane, d. Thomas B. 

John C, died at Bermuda unmarried. 

Aaron, died in childhood. 

Lois, died in childhood. 
RuFUS Uti.ev, s. Nathan ist, m. .Sarah Tooker, d. Jacob 
Issue : Jacob, m. Abigail Keliey, d. Jacob. 

Hannah, m. Walter Hayse of New York. 

Sarah, m. Francis Crichton of New York. 

Margery, m. Lenora of New York. 

Jacob Utlev, s. Rufus, m. .Xbigail Kelley, d. Jacob. 
Issue: Jacob, m. Sarah H. Hattield, d. Jacob 3d. 

William, m. Elizabeth Emerson of Hull. 

Charles, lost in Melrose. Unmarried. 

Sarah, m. Pearl Durkee, s. Amasa 2d. 

( I. Augustus W. Balkam, s. Laban S. 
Deborah, m. { 

( 2. Herbert Redding. 

Ellen, m. Lyman Kelley, s. Daniel. 

Joseph Tooker, s. Jacob, m. Lois Barnard, d. Benjamin, sen. 

Issue: 1793. Thomas B., m. Alice James. Had one d., died young. 

1795. Deborah, m. James Bond, s. Joseph N. 

1797- Joseph, m. Mary Patch, d. Nehemiah. 

1799. Lois, died young. ^ - - 



266 IVOA'i-SA'. 

JOSEI'H TOOKER, (OH/inUft/. 

1801. Jaco'i, (lied unmarried, act. ;i. 

1804. lienjamin, m. Lydia Wyman, d. Jesse. 

„ ^ T , ( I. Lucv Clements, d Reuben. 

1S06. John, ni. J 

( 2. Emily Ilersey. 
1808. Mary, m. Joiin Fornian. Mrs. James I!. Moody, their only daughter. 
iSio. Charles, m. Jane I latficld, d. Col. Job. 
1812. George W., ni Kliza Parish, d. Henry C. No issue. 

1814. Loi?, .1. Then . s V. B. Hingay, s. John. 
I017. Margery, died unmarried. 

1819. Sarah, m. William K. Alden. They had two daughters : — 

(I. Teed. 

Tulia, m. I 

•' (z. William Hall. 

Sarah, m. Clarence Keid. 

JA.MES Bono, s. Joseph N., m. Df.hur vH Tooker, d. Joseph. 

( I. John H. Collins of Boston. 
Issue: 1S14. Deborah, m. ! .,,,.,, ^ „ 

( 2. Joseph H. Ward of Boston. 

1815. Stephen, died unmarried, ;ct. 25. 
181S. Anne, m. James Murray, s. John. 

1820. Elizabeth, m. George S. Brown, s. Stayley. 
1822. Norman J., m. Jane Moody, d. Elisha W. B. 
1824. Maria, died unmarried, a;t. 38. 

Joseph Tooker 2d, s. Joseph, m. Mary Patch, d. Nehemiah 2d. 
Issue : Jacob, died at Rio Janeiro, 1850, act. 27. 

Alice James, m. Michael Ivers, .s. Michael. 

Mary Forman, died unmarried, 1S67, oet. 38. 

Lois. 

Joseph P., died unmarried. 

James, m. 

Deborah B. 

Isabella, died unmarried. 

William P., m. Keliey, d. Norman J. 

Sarah Elizabeth. 

Jane Hatfield, m. Henry Allen, s. Jacob. 

Henry Forman, died young. 
Benjamin Tooker, s. Joseph, m. Lydia Wyman, d. Jesse. 
Issue : Jacob, died young. 

George W., m. Phoebe Smith, d. John. 

Thomas B., m. Eliza J. Smith, d. Benjamin. 

John Forman, m. 

Jesse, m. 

Sarah, m. Harvey Eldridge, s. Harvey. 



TOOKER. 267 

BkNJAMIN TooKF.R, lontiniiiil. 

I.ois, ni. Forster, s. James. 

Jacob. 

Joseph B. 

Sumner. 

J.iiiics lliidd. 

^ (1. (.1 ( Y Ci.EMKNTs, il. Reuben, sen. 

JOHN TooKER, s. Joseph, m. 

Issue : Joseph, m. Isabella Ilaidy, d. ('apt. John. 

Reul)en C, m. Leonora IJcardsley of I.a Heve, N.S. 

Anne A., m. Lorenzo I). R.iymond. 

Lliza M., m. W. 15. Townsend, High Sheriff. 

Margery F"., m. Charles L. Hurd of " Boston Transcript." 

John, died unmarried. 
Chari.es Tooker, s. Joseph, m. Jane ILvrFiEi.n, d. Col. Job. 
Issue : Ann Hurd, m. Alfred Grantham, s. Rev. Thomas. 

George W. I!., m. Harriet Cann, d. Lyman, sen. 

Charles J. 1! , m. Julia Ryerson, d. John K. 

Norman J. H., m. Jane Hatfield, d. Capt. John V. N. 

Frances G. C, m. William A. Chase, .s. Rev. John. 
Thomas V. H. Bin(-.ay, s. John, m. 1. Lois Tooker, d. Joseph, sen. 
Issue : Thomas, died in Australia, unmarried. 

Charles, lost at sea. 

Sarah, died in infancy. 
Mr. Bingay m. 2. Makgaret J. Moody, d. James B., sen. 
Issue : James Wentworth, m. Maria B. liingay, d. John G. 

George, m. Susan Cornelia Stryker. 

Thomas V. B., m. Georgina Tooker, d. George W. B. 

Henry. 

John. 

Jacob. 

Maria, died in childhood. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Ranald MacKinnon of Argyle. — A Native of the Island of Skye. — Related to the Chief 
of the Clan MacKinnon. — Joined the Montgomery Highlanders as Ensign in 1757. — 
Came to America in June, 1757. — Engaged in the Expedition of 1758 against Fort 
du Oiiesne. — Promoted to a Lieutenancy. — Wounded in 1 760 while engaged in an 
Expedition against the Cherokees. — Lord Chatham's Eulogy on the Highland Regiments. 
— .Sketch of Some Highknd Regiments. — The First One, the " Black Watch," or 
Forty-second Regiment, formeJ in 1740. — The .Second, the Loudon Highlanders, in 
1745. — The Third, the Montgomery Highlanders, or Seventy-seventh Regiment, in 
January, 1757. — OfTicers of the Montgomery Highlanders. — Their Career in America 
from 1758 *^^o the Clcse of the War in 1763. — .Addresses of Sir Colin Campbell and 
Sir James C/utram to the Highland Regiments in the Crimea and in India. — Sketch 
of the Clan MacKinnon, and of Some Events in .Scottish History with which they were 
concerned. — Flora MacUonald. — Her Connection with the Family. — Charles Edward 
Stuart's Flight after the Battle of CuUoden. — Narrative of his .\dventures, and of the 
Part taken by the Chief of the Clan MacKinnon and his Kinsman John MacKinnon, to 
assist the Prince in his Escape from Skye. 

WE have seen in the preceding chapter how Tusket became 
settled by men from the revolted colonies, who remained loyal 
to the British Government, and, having seen their homes broken up and 
their estates confiscated, became voluntary exiles to the wilds of Nova 
Scotia, rather than submit to the rule of the usurp i. 

Twenty years before this, Ranald MacKlvnon had explored the 
sea-coasts, islands, and inlets of Argyle ; and, having met with nuch 
to remind him of the romantic scenery of his native islands, he resolved 
there to make for himself a new home. A few years later, when the 
time came for its establishment, he was granted the singular distinction 
of giving the name to the township. 

Ranald MacKinnon belonged to a family long distinguished in the 
annals of Scotland, — a family which for centuries had held vast posses- 
sions in the Western Islands ; some of them indeed lost through succes- 
sive dynastic changes, but ending with their co.mplete confiscation, in 
consequence of the steadfast allegiance of the chief, his family, and his 
clan, to their rightful sovereigns of the House of Stuart. 



RANALD MACKINNON. 269 

Ranald MacKinnon, whose ancestry can be traced directly to 
Lachlan Dhu, chief of the clan in 1580, was a native of Skye, an 
island whose area is about one and a half times as large as Yarmouth 
County ; it being 45 miles long, with an average width of 15 miles. In 
1750, Skye had a population of 15,000; in 1850, of about 23,000: 
and, as may be stated on the authority of Dr. Norman MacLeod, the 
island has furnished to the British service, since the beginning of 
the last wars of the French Revolution, 21 lieutenant-generals and 
major-generals ; 45 heutenant-colonels ; 600 majors, captains, lieuten- 
ants, and subalterns; 10,000 foot-soldiers; 120 pipers; 4 fuvernors of 
British colonies ; i governor-general ; i adjutant-general ; i chief baron 
of England ; and one judge of the Supreme Court of Scotland. 

Ranald MacKinnon, then about twenty years of age, joined the 
" Montgomery Highlanders " as ensign at the organization of that 
regiment in 1757. His first commission bears the signature of William 
Pitt, afterward Lord Chatham, who, from his place in Parliament in 
1776, pronounced this famous eulogy on the Highland regiments : "I 
sought for merit v.'herever it could be found. It is my boast that I was 
the first minister that looked for it, and found it, in the mountains 
of the North. I called it forth, and drew into your service a hardy and 
intrepid race of men, — men who, when left by your jealousy, became 
a prey to the art'fices of your enemies, and who had gone nigh to have 
overturned the State in the war before the last. These men, in the last 
war, were brought to combat on your side. They served with fidelity 
as they fought with valor, and conquered for you in every quarter of the 
world." 

The " Montgomery Highlanders," having embarked at Greenock, 
arrived at Halifax in June, 1757. Their first service was in the expedi- 
tion against Fort Du Quesne (now Pittsburg, Penn.), then held by the 
Frencii. After the capture of that stronghold, where several of the offi- 
cers were killed, Ensign MacKinnon was promoted to a lieutenancy. 
In 1 760 a detachment of the regiment, of which his company formed 
a part, was engaged in an expedition against the Cherokees, when some 
of the officers were killed, and Lieut. MacKinnon was wounded. 
During their absence, the remainder of the regiment accompanied the 
force sent against Martinique and Havana; and, in 1762, the two com- 



2/0 MACKINNON GENEALOGY. 

panics to which Lieut. MacKinnon was attached, formed part of a 
small force which embarked al New York for Newfoundland to take 
possession of St. John's, tiien held by the French. 

At the termination of hostilities, in 1 763, Ranald MacKinnon 
decided to remain in America. From Halifax he accompanied the 
surveying parties despatched by the Government to the south-western 
coasts of the province ; and he then became acquainted with Argyle, 
where he spent the remainder of his life, excepting an occasional resi- 
dence at Halifax ; at Windsor, where lived his sister Eleanor, the wife 
of Capt. Alexander Campbell of the " Montgomery Highlanders;" and 
at Shelburne. 

In common with other officers of the Highland regiments, who 
were rewarded for their services in America by gra' 3 of lands in differ- 
ent parts of Nova Scotia, Ranald MacKinnon received extensive grants 
of lands and islands in Argyle. He was one of the first magistrates 
appointed for the district, his commission bearing date 1 766 ; and for 
forty years he held the office of collector of customs and excise. At 
the outbreak of the American Rebellion, and the organization, in 1775, 
of the Eighty-fourth, or " Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment," he 
received a captain's commission in that regiment ; and the following 
year he was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and placed in command of 
the loyal militia of the south-western portion of Nova Scotia. 

Ranald MacKinnon, married at Ilaiifax, Nov. 20, 1766, Lktitia, daughter of 
Major Piggott. They had five sons and eight daughters. He died at Shel- 
burne, April 28, 1805. 
Issue: 1767. Elizabeth Letitia, m. Eben'r Hobbs. Had one child, d. in infancy. 

1769. Anne, died unmarried, £61.78. 

1770. William, m. in Spain, and died there. 

1772. Penelope, in Simeon Frost, s. Joshua. Had one child, d. in infancy. 

1773. Mary, m. Richard Fletcher, M.D., of Sixth Regiment. 

( I. Elizabeth Frost. 
177 c. John, m. 5 
"^ ^ (2. Martha Chandler, w. 

1777. Letitia, died unmarried. 

1779. Ranald, joined army. Supposed killed in .Spain. 

^783. Eleanor, died 1797. 

1786. Charlotte, m. William Nickerson. 

1788. Martha, died 1790. 



MACKIAAOA GENEALOGY. 2/1 

Ranald MacKinnon, lontimted. 

1789. Archibald MacArthur, m. Mary Snyder of Shelburne. 

1792. Robert Colin, m. Rhoda Kenney of Harrington. 

( I. Ei.izAiiETH Frost. 
John MacKinnon, s. Ranald, m I 

(2. Martha Chandler. 

Issue : Mary Fletcher, died a;t. 15. 

Eleanor Jane, m. Jacob Hatfield, s. Jacob Lyon. 

Elizabeth, m. Eleazer Crocker. 

Anne, m. Henry Wyman, s. James. 

John, m. Abigail F. Oxton, d. William of Xewburyport, Mass. 

Richard Fletcher, m. Mary MacDonnell of Prince Edward Island. 

Henry, m. Martha A. Spates, d. William of Newburyport, Mass. 

George, ni. Anna Hammond, d. Caleb of Newburyport, Mass. 

Andrew, m. Rebecca Frost, d. Jeremiah. 

Mary, m. David Earl, s. Abram. 
Robert Colin MacKinnon, s. Ranald, m. Rhoda Kenney of Barrington. 
Issue : Eleanor, died in childhood. 

James, died in childhood. 

Elizabeth, m. Matthew Jeffery, s. Matthew 2d. 

Mary Fletcher, m. James Tait of Boston, Mass. 

Emily, m. William H. Nickerson, s. William. 

Letitia, m. John Morris of New V'ork. 

Anne Isabella, m. William Edson of Bridgewater, Mass. 

James, m. Catharine Johnson of Prince Edward Island. 

Thomas R., m. Millicent Foss of New Hampshire. 

Rhoda, m. Barnard MacNiel of Digby. 

Adah, m. Augustus Perry of Stoneh;;m, Mass. 

Jeannie, died in childhood. 

Helen, unmarried. 

Addison. 
Richard Fletcher, s. George, m. >> vsv MacKinnon, d. Ranald. 
Issue : W'illiam, died in West Indies ; unmarried. 

Mary, m. Bela Huntington, s. Miner. 

Charlotte Letitia, m. Stayley Brown, s. John. 

George Stephen, m. Rebecca Harding, d. Israel. 

Isabella Antonia, m. Robert S. Eakins. 
William Nickerson, m. Charlotte MacKinnon, d. Ranald. 
Issue : Charlotte, not married. 

Caroline, m. Kendricks of Barrington. 

Sophia, m. Samuel W. Bennison, s. John. 

William H., m. Emily MacKinnon, d. Robert Colin. 

Mary, died set. 13. 



2/2 THE BLACK WATCH. 

It may not, to the descendants of Highlanders at least, be uninter- 
esting here to read that the first Highland Regiment, consisting of a 
thousand men and called the Forty-third Regiment, was embodied in 
May, 1740. But in 1729 six Highland companies were raised, which, 
from forming distinct corps, unconnected with each other, received the 
appellation of " Independent Companies." Three of these companies 
consisted of a hundred men each, and were called lar^^e companies : 
Lord Lovat, Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochnell, and Col. Grant of 
Ballindalloch, were appointed their captains. The three smaller com- 
panies, consisting of seventy-five men each, were commanded by 
Col. Alexander Campbell of Finah, John Campbell of Karrick, and 
George Munro of Calcairn, under the title of captain-lieutenants. To 
each of the six companies were attached two lieutenants and an ensign. 

To distinguish them from the regular troops, who from having coats, 
waistcoats, and breeches of scarlet clolh, were called " Saighdearan 
Dearg," or red soldiers, the Independent Companies, who were attired 
in tartan, consisting mostly of black, green, and blue, were designated 
" Am Freice.\dan Dubh," or " Bu\ck Watci'i," from the sombre 
appearance of their dress. 

As the services of these companies were not recjuired beyond their 
own territory, and as the members were not subjected to the humiliating 
provisions of the Disarming Act, no difficulty was found in forming them ; 
and when completed they presented the singular spectacle of a number 
of young men of respectable imilies serving as privates in the ranks. 
Mc.ny of the men who composed these companies were of a higher 
station in society than that from which soldiers in general are raised. - - 
cadets of gentlemen's families, sons of gentlemen farmers, men who felt 
themselves responsible for their conduct to high-minded and honorable 
families, as well as to a country for which they cherished a devoted affec- 
tion. In addition to the advantages derived from their superior rank in 
life, they possessed in an eminent degree that of a commanding external 
deportment ; special care being iaken in selecting men of full height, 
well-proportioned, and of handsome appearance. 

These Independent Companies existed until 1739, when Government 
resolved to raise four additional companies, and to form the whole into 
a regiment of the line of a thousand men, embodied, as above stated, 



THE HIGHLAND REGIMEXTS. 273 

in 1740 as the Forty-third Regiment, although they still retained the 
country name of the " Black Watch." 

In 1 749 the number of the " Black Watch " was changed from the 
Forty-third to the Forty-second Regiment, the number it has ever since 
retained. 

In consequence of the mutual encroachments made by the French 
and English on their respective territories in North America, both nations 
prepared for war, and the British (Government resolved to send there 
two bodies of troops. 

The first division, of which the Forty-second Highlanders formed a 
part, under the command of Lieut.-Gen. James Abercrombie, set sail in 
March, 1756, and landed in New York in June following. 

The second division, under the Earl of Loudon, who was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the forces in North America, soon joined the 
forces under Gen. Abercrombie ; but, owing to various causes, they did 
not take the field until the summer of the following year. 

Having resolved on an attack on Louisburg, Lord Loudon embarked 
in June, 1757, for Halifax, with the forces under his command consistmg 
of fifty-three hundred men. At Halifax his forces were increased to ten 
thousand five hundred men by t'le addition of five regiments lately 
arrived, including Eraser's and Aiontgomery's Highlanders. 

When on the eve of his departure from Halifax, Lord I>oudon 
received information that the French fleet from Brest had arrived at 
Louisburg ; and that force being too great to be encountered, the enter- 
prise against Louisburg was abandoned. Leaving the remainder of the 
troops at Halifax, Lord Loudon returned lo New York, taking along 
with him five regiments, including the Forty-second and the Montgomery 
Highlanders. 

The Earl of Loudon having been soon after recalled, the command 
of the army devolved on Gen. Abercrombie. 

The forces in America being soon increased b} a great naval arma- 
ment and a military force of thirty-two thousand men, the command of 
the flf^et was given to Admi-al Boscawen ; and Brigadier-Generals Wolfe, 
Townsend, and Murray were added to the military staff. 

Three expeditions were planned in 1758, —one against Lou'sburg, 
another against Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and a third against Fort 
Du Quesne. 



274 THE HIGHLAND REGIMENTS. 

Gen. Abercrombie took charge of the expedition against Ticonderoga 
with a force of 15,390 men, of whom 6,337 were regulars, including the 
Forty-second Regiment, and the rest provincials, besides a train of 
artillery. 

The Royal Highlanders, the Forty-second, remained in North 
America until the close of the year 1761, when they embarked along 
with ten other regiments, among which were the Montgomery High- 
landers, for Barbadoes, there to join an armament against Martinique 
and Havana. 

LOUDON'S HIGHLANDERS. 

The bravery displayed by Lord John Murray's Highlanders (then 
the Forty-third Regiment) at Fontenoy, directed the attention of the 
Government to the importance of securing the military services of 
the clans. It was resolved to raise a second regiment in the Highlands, 
and authority to that effect was granted to the Earl of Loudon. By the 
influence of the noblemen, chiefs, and gentlemen of the country whose 
sons and connections were to be appointed officers, a. body of 1,250 
men was raised, of whom 750 assembled at Inverness, and the remainder 
at Perth. The whole were formed into a battalion of 12 comparies, the 
commissions of the officers being dated June 8, 1745. 

Before the regiment was disciplined, a rebellion broke out (Charles 
Edward Stuart's) ; and so rapid were the movements of the rebels, that 
the communication between the two divisions, at Perth and Inverness, 
was cut off. They were, therefore, obliged to act separately. The 
formation of the regiment at that time was considered a fortunate cir- 
cumstance, as many of the men would certainly have joined in the 
insurrection ; and, indeed, several of the officers and men went over to 
the rebels. Three companies fought on the English side at Gladsmuir, 
and were all taken prisoners ; and three other companies were at the 
battle of Culloden. 

MONTGOMERY'S HIGHLANDERS, OR SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

REGIMENT. 

This was the third regiment formed in the Highlands, the first one 
after the affair of 1745. The only way by which the Highlanders could 
be gained over to the house of Hanover was by adopting a liberal 



MONTGOMERWS HIGHLANDERS. 275 

policy, the leading features of which should embrace the employment 
of the chiefs, or their connections, in the military service of the Govern- 
ment. It was reserved to the sagacity of Chatham to trace to its source 
the cause of the disaffection of the Highlanders, and, by suggesting a 
remedy, to give their military virtue a safe direction. 

.\cting upon the liberal plan he had devised. Lord Chatham (then 
Mr. Pitt), in the year 1756, recommended to His Majesty, George H., 
to employ the Highlanders in his service, as the best means of attaching 
them to his person. The king approved of the plan of his minister, and 
letters of service were immediately issued for raising several Highland 
regiments. This call to arms wasr esponded to by the clans ; and 
battalions on battalions were raised in the remotest parts of the High- 
lands, among those who, a few years before, were devoted to, and had 
long followed the fate of, the race of Stuarts. Erasers, MacDonalds, 
Camerons, MacKinnons, MacPhersons, MacLeans, and others of dis- 
affected names and clans, were enrolled : their chiefs, or connections, 
obtained commissions. The lower class, always ready to follow, with 
eagerness endeavored who should be first enlisted. 

The regiment was called " Montgomery's Highlanders " from the 
name of its colonel, the Hon. Archibald Montgomery, son of the Earl 
of Eglinton, to whom, when major, letters of service were issued for 
recruiting it. Being popular among the Highlanders, Major Montgomery 
soon raised the requisite number of men, who were formed into a regi- 
ment of 13 companies, of 105 rank and file each; making in all 1,460 
effective men, including 65 sergeants, and 30 pipers and drummers. 

The colonel's commission was dated Jan. 4, 1757. The commissions 
of the officers were dated each a day later than his senior in the same 
rank. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL, Commanding. 
Hon. Archibald Montgomery, afterward Earl of Eglinton. 

MAJORS. 
James Grant. Alexander Campbell. 

CAPTAINS. 

John Sinclair. Hugh MacKenzie. Robert MacKenzie> 

John Gordon. James Robertson. Allan Cameron. 

Allan MacLean. .Alexander Macintosh. 

William MacDonald killed at Fort Du Quesr.e, 1759. 

George Munro .1 .< .1 u 1759. 

Alexander MacKenzie " "St. John's, N'.F., 1762. 



276 



MONTGOMERY'S HIGH LA NDERS. 



LIEUTENANTS. 

Nichol Sutherland. Charles Farquharson. Donald MacDonald. 

Henry Munro. Archibald Robertson. Duncan Hayne. 

James Duff. Jan'.es Grant. Joseph (Jrant. 

Alexander MacDonald. Robert Orant. Cosmo Martin. 

John MacNab. Doi.ald Camiibell. Alexander C.inipbell. 

John Cam])!Tell. James MacPhL-rson. Hugh Montgomery.' 

Alexander MacKenzie killed at Fort Du Quesne, 1759. 

William MacKenzie « .. .. .. ,7^^ 

Robert MacKenzie ...... .. 1759- 

Colin Campbell ..... .. 1759. 

Alexander MacDonald .... ...... .. I7iy- 

Hugh Gordon " " Martinique, 1762. 

James MacLcan " " Havana, 1762. 

Archibald MacVicar " " " 1762. 

ENSIGNS. 

Alexander Grant. James Grant. Lewis Houston. 

William Haggart. James Bain. Archibald Crawford. 

John MacDonald. Allan Stewart. Alexander MacKenzie. 

George Munro. John MacLachlan. 

Rinald MacKinnon. William MacLean. 

Chaplain Henry Munro. 

AJJHlant Donald .Stewart. 

Quarter-Master Alexander Montgomery. 

Surgeon Allan Stewart. 



The regiment embarked at Greenock for Halifax, and, on the com- 
mencement of hostilities in 1758, was attached to the corps under 
Brig.-Gen. Forbes in the expedition against Fort Du Quesne, one of the 
three great enterprises undertaken that year against the French posses- 
sions in North America. Although the point of attack was not so 
formidable, nor the number of the enemy so great, as at Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, yet the great extent of country which the troops had 
to traverse, covered with woods, morasses, and mountains, made the 
expedition as difficult as the other two. The army of Gen. Forbes 
consisted of 6,238 men. 

Gen. Forbes reached Raystown, about ninety miles from the fort, in 
September, having apparently staid some time in Philadelphia. Hav- 
ing sent Col. Boquet forward to Loyal Henning, forty miles nearer, 
with 2,coo men, this officer rashly despatched Major Grant ot 

' After E,irl of Eglinton. 



MONTGOMERY'S HIGHLANDERS. 277 

Montgomery's with 400 Higlilanders ami 500 Provincials to reconnoitre. 
When near the fort, Major Grant imprudently advanced with pipes 
playing and drums beating, as if entering a friendly town, 'i'he enemy 
immediately marched out, and a warm contest ensued. Major Grant 
ordered his men to throw off their coats and advance sword in hand. 
The enemy fled at the first charge, and spread themselves among the 
woods ; but, being afterward joined by a large body of Indians, they 
rallied, and surrounded the detachment on all sides. Protected by a 
thick foliage, they opened a destructive fire on the IJritish. Major 
Grant then endeavored to force his way into the wood, but was taken 
prisoner, upon seeing which, his Provincial troops dispersed. Only 150 
of the Highlanders returned to Loyal Henning. 

In this unfortunate affair 231 soldiers of the regiment were killed and 
wounded. The names of the officers killed have been already men- 
tioned ; the following were wounded : Capt. Hugh MacKenzie ; Lieuts. 
.Alexander MacDonald, jun., Archibald Robertson, and Henry Munro ; 
and Ensigns John MacDonald and Alexander Grant. The enemy did 
not venture to oppose the main body, but retired from Fort Du Quesne 
on its approach, leaving their ammunition, stores, and provisions. Col. 
Forbes took possession of the fort on Nov. 24, and, in honor of 
Mr. Pitt, gave it the name of Pittsburg. 

The regiment passed the winter in Pittsburg ; and in May following 
they joined the force under Gen. Amherst in his proceedings against 
Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and the Lakes. 

In consequence of the renewed cruelties of the Cherokees, in the 
spring of 1 760, the commander-in-chief detached Col. Monigomery, 
with 700 Highlanders of his own regiment, 400 of the Forty-second, and 
a body of Provincials, to chastise these Indians. The colonel arrived in 
the neighborhood of the Indian encampment. Little Keowee, in the 
middle of June, having on his route detached the light companies of 
the Royals and Highlanders to destroy the place. This service was 
performed with the loss of a few men killed, and two officers of the 
Royals wounded. Finding, on reaching Estatoe, that the enemy had 
fled, Col. Montgomery returned to Fort George. 

The Cherokees still proving refractory, Col. Montgomery ->&id a sec- 
ond visit to the middle settlement, where he met with some resistance. 



2/8 THE HIGHLAND HHGIMENTS. 

Ill- had 2 officers and 20 im;n killed, and 26 officers and 6S men 
wounderl. Of tliese the Montgomery I lij,'Iilander.s had 1 sergeant 
and 6 privates killed; and ("apt. Sutherland, Lieiits. Mad'herson and 
MacKinnon, and Sur^;eon Munro, 1 sergeant, 1 [)i|)er, and 24 rank and 
file, wounded. The detachment t(»ok Fort I,oiidon, a small fort on the 
( onfmes of Virginia, whi< h was defended by 2cjo men. 

In 1761 six companies of the Montgomery Highlanders were 
engaged in the expeijilion against Martinifpie, and against Havana the 
following year. They returned to New York about the end of October, 
1762. Hefore their return, the other companies that had been sent 
against the Indians in the fall of ij'^u, had embarked with a force under 
( 'ol. Amherst to retake St. Jr)hn's, Newfoun<lland, which had been occu- 
pied by the Fremh. The i'.ritish landed Sept. 12, 1762, seven miles to 
the northward of St. John's. A mortar battery having Ijecn completed 
on Sept. 17, and being then ready to open on the garrison, the F'rench 
commander surrendered by capitulation to an inferior force. (Jf the 
Montgomery Highlanders, (Japt. MacKen/ie and 4 privates were killed, 
and 2 privates woun<led. 

After the termination of hostilities, an offer was made to the officers 
an'I meri either to settle in America or return to their own country. 
Those who remained obtaine<I a grant (jf laml iri |<roportion to their 
rank. On the breaking out of the American Rebellion, a number of 
them, as well as of the ofificers and ir.en of the Seventy-eighth Regiment 
(Fraser's Highlanders), joined the Royal Standard in 1775, and formed 
a c(jrps in the Kighty-fourth, the Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment, 
under Coi.. Taklkion. 

I'he Highland Regiments have covered themselves with glory 
wherever they -have been engaged; and the Royal Hii/hlanders, the 
Forty-second Regiment, or " l'>lack Watch," is one of the most renowned 
regiments in the l>ritish service. They bear upon their standards lOgypt, 
Corunna, Fucntes d'Onor, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nile, Orthes, 'I'oulouse, 
Waterkjo, Alma, Sebastopol, and Lucknow ; and they were present 
at Fontenoy, iiconderoga, (iuadaloupe, Oown I'oint, IJrandywine, 
Salamanca, and Vittoria. 

To show the estimation in which they were held by their own com- 
manders, two instances may be adduced ; On the first anniversary of the 



//// HfGHI.AND Rl'.GlMENTS. 279 

battle of tin; Alma, St'pt. 20, 1X55, the first (listril)Uti()ii of medals was 
made to the soldiers of the Oimea, on which occasion Lieut. -(Icn. Sir 
("OLIN CamI'HKu, addressed them in these words : — 

" nioiiiJVNi) liKicAiiK, — On the first anniversary of the f^loriotis hat- 
tie of Alma, our (iracioiis Soverci;,'n has commanded the rrinicaii niedal 
to he presented to her gallant soldiers who were the first tc> meet the 
Russian soldiers, and defeat them on their own territory. To that day 
Scotchmen ran look with pride, and S< otchmen arc everywhere. I'or 
your deeds on that day you received the marked encomiums of Lord 
Raglan, the thanks of the f.)iieen, and the admiration of all. S*:otch- 
mcn are proud of you. I, too, am a St:otchman, and proud of the 
honor of commanding so distinguished a regiment, an«l still prouder, 
that through all the trying severities (jf the winter, its incessant lalK)rs 
and decimating diseases, you have still maintained the same unflinching 
courage and energy with which your discipline, obedience, and steadi- 
ness, in whatever circumstances you have been phn:ed, make you so 
unrivalled (and none more so than the oldest regiment of the brigade), 
and your commander so confident of success, however numerous and 
determined your foe. 

" When the day comes that your services are no longer re«iuired in 
the field, welcome arms will be ready to meet you with pride, and give 
you the blessings your deeds have so materially aided to bring to your 
country. And in after-years, when recalling the scenes of the Crimea to 
your ingleside, your greatest pride will be that you, too, were there, and 
proved yourself a worthy son of sires who, in by-gone rlays, on many a 
field added lustre to their country's fame." 

'I'he Seventy-eighth Highlanders, the " koss-shire JUiffs," were on 
service in India from 1842 until 1859, and on the breaking out of the 
Indian mutiny distinguished themselves at the taking of Cawnjjore and 
in the relief of Lucknow, after which their connnan<ler, Sik Jamhs 
Oltiram, issued an address, from which these extracts are taken : — 

"Your exemplary conduct. Seventy-eighth, in every respect, througii- 
out the past eventful year, I can truly say, and 1 do most emphatically 
declare, has never been surpassed by any troops, of any nation, in any 
age, whether for indomitable valor in the field, or steady discipline in 
the camp, under an amount of fighting, hardship, and privation, such as 



28o SLIOCHD FIIIONNOA'. 

British troops have seldom, if ever, heretofore been exposed to. The 
cheerfulness with which you have gone through all this has excited my 
admiration as much as the undaunted pluck with which you always close 
with an enemy, whenever you can get at him, no matter what his odds 
against you, or what the advantage of his position. . . . 

" I am sure that you. Seventy-eighth, who will have borne the brunt 
of the war so gloriously from first to last, when you return to Old 
England, will be hailed and rewarded by your grateful and admiring 
countrymen as the band of heroes, as which you so well deserve to be 
regarded." 

Sir James Outram was not given to saying any thing but the severe 
truth, yet in such terms was never other regiment addressed. 

SLIOCHD FHIONNON. 

Scotland's royal line of kings, which stands unrivalled in F^urope, 
begins with Fergus I. He settled in Scotland, so say some historians, 
332 B.C. ; and they claim a regular succession of one hundred and fifteen 
kings through a period of nineteen hundred and thirty-five years, down 
to the time of the union with England under the united crown of 
Great Britain under James I., A.D. 1603. 

Other historians, and among these Sir Walter Scott, lost in the mazes 
of the past, have been content to begin the line with that Fergus whose 
accession dates A.D. 503, and who reigned for three years. 

Some of the old Highland families, although none of them perhaps 
can show a clear line of descent from Fergus I., claim kinship with 
Scotland's early kings ; and they point for authority to the most trust- 
worthy writers of Scottish history. 

" The Scottish Gael," by James Logan, in two handsome volumes, 
published in 1831 by subscription at fourteen guineas, and patronized 
by the royal family and nobility of Great Britain, was by permission 
dedicated to the king in the following terms : — 

To His Most Excellent Majesty, 
\Vn.LIAM IV., 

King of Great Britain, Ireland, etc., etc. 

Sire, — It is with the deepest gratitude for so distinguished an honor, that I 
presume to lay these researches at your Majesty's feet. 

The work relates to a people who have greatly contributed to raise the renown 
of your Majesty's arms to the pre-eminence they have attained. The history and 



MACh'rNNON. 281 

character of that people, therefore, deserve the attention of every patriot ; and your 
subjects, sire, feel a just pride in being able to call your Majesty a patriot king. 

That your Majesty's reign may be long and happy, must be the ardent wish of 
every Briton ; and I can say for my countrymen, in particular, that none are more 
devotedly attached to your Majesty's person and family, and that no portion of 
your Majesty's subjects would more cheerfully venture their lives for the honor and 
defence of their beloved sovereign, and for the support of the Constitution under 
which they enjoy so many blessings. For myself, I rejoice in being so highly 
favored as to be graciously permitted this public opportunity of expressing the 
profound respect with which 

I am, sire. 

Your Majesty's 

most devoted and most humble 

subject and servant, 

JAMES LOGAN, 

THE CLAN MACKINNON. 

SLIOCHD FHIONNON, NO MAC 'lONNON. 

" The MacKinnons are of royal descent, being a branch of the 
great clan Alpine ; and the family historians derive them from Fingon, 
or Findon, grandson of Gregor, whose father was the celebrated 
Kenneth MacAlpine, King of Scotland. This ancestor lived about the 
year 900 ; but the name, as we understand it, is one of the most ancient 
among the Gael. 

" Finan, or Finon, occurs repeatedly in the national annals. Several 
of the name were Calder saints ; and Loceni MacFinon was King of the 
Crutheis, or Picts, anno 645. The prefix Mac renders the initial conso- 
nant quiescent : hence, MacFhionnon, Mac'innon. 

" On the death of John, Lord of the Isles, MacKinnon, being 
joined by the MacLeods and MacLeans, raised a formidable rebellion in 
favor of Ion Mor, a younger son ; but Donald, the elder, succeeded 
in expelling his rival, who was obliged to take refuge in Ireland. He 
was afterward pardoned ; but MacKinnon, as leader of the insurrection, 
was put to death A.D. 1380. 

" Lachlan MacKinnon, who lived in the middle of the seventeenth 
century, married a daughter of MacLean of Duart. 

" In 1650 the chief of the MacKinnons received letters of service 
to raise a regiment of his clan, of which he was appointed colonel ; 



282 MACKINNON. 

and, having joined the army of Charles I., they fought with distinguished 
bravery at the battle of Worcester in 165 1. (Another account adds 
that the ch^ief was created a knight-baronet upon the field of battle.) 

"In 1 715 the MacKinnons joined the Earl of Seaforth, and 
fought valiantly with the MacDonalds of Sleat at the battle of Sheriff- 
niuir, for which the chief was attainted ; but he received a pardon Jan. 
4, 1727. (There were a hundred and fifty of the clan at Sheriffniuir.) 

" Prince Charles and his anendants (after the battle of Culloden 
in 1 74v')) were entertained at MacKinnon's castle when travelling in 
disguise through Skye ; and the chief gave the use of his own boat to 
convey the fugitives off the island, conducting them himself to the 
country of MacDonald of Boradale, where he resigned his : oyal charge. 

" Lachlan Mor, who fought at the battle of Worcester, had two 
sons, — John, whose great-grandson John died in London, unmarried, 
in 1808 ; and Donald, who, being taken prisoner by Cromwell, went, on 
his release, to Antigua, where he was called Daniel by a common cor- 
ruption, and married Miss Thomas, a lady of that island, by whom he 
left a son Willum, who married a daughter of Lieut. -Gov. Yeamans, 
also of Antigua, and died at Bath, 1767, aged seventy, leaving a son 
also called William, who married a daughter of Henry Vernon Esqre. of 
Hilton Castle, Staffordshire. His eldest son, William, married Harriet, 
daughter of John Frye Esqre. of Antigua ; and he left several children, 
the eldest of whom, William Alexander MacKinnon, M.P., since the 
death of the above' John, is the chief of the name and race of 
MacKinnon, as great-great-grandson of Donald, second son of Lachian 
Mor. 

" The possessions of the MacKinnons were extensive. They had 
anciently lands in Arran ; and Griban, in Mull, was at one time theirs ; 
and, in fact, the greater part of Leth-iocrach, or the lower half of the 
island, was theirs, but it was reduced to the estate of Misnish, north- 
west of Tobermorie. They had likewise lands in the Island of Tiree ; 
but Strath, or Strathardil, in Skye, was latterly the principal residence, 
to which were attached the islands of Pabay and Scalpa. 

" The chief seats were at Earey, on the property in Mull at Kilmorie, 
— the fine situation of which is described by Pennant, the tourist, — 
and MacKinnon Castle on the south-eastern coast of Skye. - - ^ 



MACKINNON. 283 

" Their battle-cry was ' Cuimhnich bas Alpin ! ' Remember the 
death of Alpin. 

" Their burial-place was in the far-famed island of Iona, where, in 
the chancel, is seen on an altar-tomb the monumental effigy of Abbot 
MacFingon, who died in 1500. In conjunction with his father, Lachlan, 
he erected one of those elaborate sculptured crosses still remaining 
in the Reilig Ouran in that island." 

So far James Logan. 

Mr. Pennant, who made his celebrated tour to the Hebrides in 1772, 
describes this cross, and quotes the inscription upon it. 

HCEC EST CRUX 

LACIILAN MAC FINGON: 

ET EJUS FILII 

JOHANNIS ABBATIS DE HY: 

FACTA 
AXNO DOMINI MffcCCCLXXXIX. 

Mr. Pennant gives the best description of Iona and of what may be 
still seen there. He says, — 

" Saint Columba left his native country, Ireland, in 565, instigated by 
a pious zeal to convert the Picts, when King Bradeus made him a pres- 
ent of Iona, a little island near Mull three miles long by one mile 
broad. He here founded a cell of monks of which he constituted 
himself abbot. His life was truly exemplary ; and during his time he 
had the honor of burying here two kings of Scotland, — Convallus and 
Kinnatil, — and of crowning a third. Here was the site of the old 
cathedral; and near it was a vast enclosure, the great place of interment 
for the monarchs and princes who were ambitious to repose in this holy 
ground. The Chapel of St. Oran stands in this place. Lejjendary lore 
tells us that this was the first building attempted by Saint Columba. 
In Oran's Chapel are several tombs, and near it many more, some of 
which have recording inscriptions ; but of far the greater number, the 
very names have perished. The cathedral lies a little north of the 
enclosure, and is cruciform. Over the centre is a handsome tower. 



284 MACKINNON. 

The length of the cathedral was 1 1 5 feet ; the breadth of the transept 
70 feet. The altar was of white marble, veined with gray. Near the 
altar is the tomb of the Abbot MacKinnon. His figure lies recumbent, 
with this inscription round the margin : — 

Hic jac?:t 

JOHANNES MAC FINGON, ABBAS DE HY : 

QUI OBI IT 

ANNO DOMINI MILLESIMO QUINGENTESIMO : 

CUJUS ANIMCE PROPITIETUK 

DEUS ALTISSIMUS. AMEN. 

" Accoii ung io Boethius, the present church was raised out of the 
ruins of the former one by Maldninus in the seventh century ; but 
the architecture appears too magnificent for that age. Most of the walls 
are built of red granite from Nun's Isle in the Sound. 

" In the cemetery is a fine cross formed of a single piece of red 
granite 14 feet high, 26 inches broad, and 10 inches thick. The pedes- 
tal is three feet high. The monastery lies behind the cathedral, and 
north of the monastery are the remains of the bishop's house. North of 
the convent is a fenced square, containing a cairn said to be a burial- 
place ; and in all probability it is a vestige of Druidism which most 
likely prevailed here at the arrival of Saint Columba. 

" Forty-eight Scottish kings were buried at lona, beginning with 
Fergus II. and ending with Macbeth. Their tombs were built in the 
form of a little chapel, on one of which was inscribed ' Tumulus Regum 
Scotice ;'' on the next, ^Tumulus Regum Hibei-nice,' and it contained 
four Irish kings \ on the third, ' Jpumulus Regum Norwegice,' containing 
eight sovereign princes, or more properly viceroys when the islands were 
subject to Norway. 

"Arran was the property of tlie crown. Robert Bruce retired 
here during his distresses, and met with protection from his faithful 
vassals, numbers of whom followed his fortunes ; and after the battle of 
Bannockburn he rewarded several, such as the MacCooks, MacKinnons^ 



MACKINNON. 285 

MacBrides, MacLouises, or Fiillertons, with different charters of land 
in their native country. 

'•■ What was called ' I-ong Island ' included Lewis, South Uist, North 
Uist, Benbecula, and Barra, the five Habuda of Solinus, a Latin writer 
contemporary with Agricola." 

Like other tourists among the Western islands, Mr. Pennant does not 
fail to record what he styles the hospitality of the people. He says, 
" We put into Loch Jura on the coast of Inverness, landed, and paid 
our respects to Mr. MacLeod of Annisdale. I shall never forget the 
hospitality of the house. Before I could utter a denial, three glasses of 
rum, cordialized with jelly of bilberries, were poured into me by the 
irresistible hand of good Madam MacLeod." ' 

Mr. Pennant had quoted previously a saying of St. Columba, — 
" Sfaram bi bo, bi\ih bean ; sfaram bi bean, bVdh maliacha." " Where 
there is a cow, there must be a woman ; where there a woman, there 
must be mischief." 

There is to-day another claimant to the chieftainship of the clan 
MacKinnon besides the heirs-male of \Villiam Alexander MacKinnon, 
M.P., born in 1 789, whose history is given by James Logan, and who 
left a son, William Alexander, born in 18 13. who also was a member of 
the British Parliament. 

John S. Keltic, author of a " History of the Scottish Clans." pub- 
lished in tS/5, traces the ancestry of William Alexander MacKinnon. 
M.P., to Daniel of Antigua, whom he acknowledges as the successor to 
Lachlan Mor, although he says that Lauchlan MacKinnon of Letterfearn 
also claimed to be the heir-male of the family. 

Mr. Keltic says that William, son of Daniel of Antigua, was an eminent 
member of the Legislature of that island, and died at Bath in 1767, 
leaving a son William who died in 1809 and left four sons, the youngest 
of whom was Major-(ien. Henry MacKinnon, a distinguished officer, 
bom in 1773, who was with the army in Egypt in 1801, joined the 
army in Portugal in 1809, took a prominent part in the engagements at 
Talavera, Busaco, and Fuentes D'Onor, and, while leading a storming 
party at Ciudad Rodrigo in 181 2, was killed in the moment of victory ' 
by the explosion of a magazine. He was lieutenant of the '• Coldstream 

' Appendix Q. 



286 MA CKIN\ 'ON. 

Guards " in i 793, captain in 1 799, and lieutenant-colonel at Aboukir 
in 1 801. 

(ien. Henry MacKinnon's eldest brother William left two sons, — 
William Alexander MacKinnon, M.P., bo'-n in 1789; and Daniel 
MacKinnon, colonel of the " Coldstream Guards," born 1 791, died 1836. 
He served first with the Guards in Denmark, and afterwards upon the 
staff in the Peninsula with distinction. He was with Wellington at 
Waterloo. Having taken part in the engagements of the i6th and 17th 
of June, 1815, on the i8th, although already wounded, he held the 
famous farm of Hougemont with his own regiment of Coldstreams and 
one other, against the repeated attt,cks of the French. 

Col. Daniel MacKinnon published a history of the " Coldstream 
Guards," the regiment which he first joined as ensign in 1806; and 
William Alexander MacKinnon, M.P., F.R.S., was the author of the 
" History of Civilization and PubHc Opinion," a work in two volumes, 
published in 1849, which received high commendation from the press. 

Mr. Keltic's account is that John MacKinnon, the great-great-grand- 
son of Lachlan Mor, died in India, unmarried, in 1808, by which event 
the succession to the chieftainship fell, in 1809, to his cousin "William 
Alexander MacKinnon, M.P., the Chief Magistrate and Deputy Lieu- 
tenant for the Counties of Middlesex, Hampshire, and Essex. He 
married Emma, daughter of Joseph Palmer, Esqre., of Rush House, 
County Dublin, and had issue three sons and three daughters. The 
eldest son, William Alexander, also M.P., born in 181 3, married a 
daughter of F. Willes, Esqre." 

The other claimant disputes the identity of Daniel MacKinnon of 
Antigua with Donald, second son of the Chief Lacalan Mor, who, it is 
said, disappeared from home in consequence of a quarrel with his father 
on the hunting-field, and who, as alleged by the adherents of the 
changed succession, was not afterward heard of. 

Lauchlan Charles MacKinnon of Melbourne, Australia, born in 
1848, and who married Emily Grace Bundock MacKinnon, the niece 
and adopted daughter of his cousin Lauchlan MacKinnon of Elford- 
leigh, Devonshire, England, and of Duisdale House, Skye, is supported in 
his claim to the title of chief of the clan by the following '•' Genealogical 
Account of the Fai.ii'y of MacKinnon, compiled by Sir Alexander 



MACKINNON. 287 

MacKenzie Downie and Alister Downie MacKinnon, published at 
London in 1883. 

"The clan of Macfindon or Macfingon, now MacKinnon, is of the 
Alpinian stock, and has always been considered one of the most ancient 
in the Highlands of Scotland. 

" Alpin, King of Scotland, who was killed in battle by the Picts, 
A.D. 834, had four sons ; viz., Kenneth, Donald, Gregor, and Achaius. 
The two first reigned successively between 834 and 859. The third son, 
Gregor, was father of Dongallus, ancestor of the MacGregors and 
MacKinnons, and of Girbredus, ancestor of the Macquarries. The 
Grants also are of Alpinian stock. The founder of their family, Gregory 
le Grand, was second son of Sir Malcolm MacGregor of Glenorchy. 

" Dongallus, eldest son of Prince MacGregor MacAlpin, married 
Spontana, sister of one of the Irish kings : he died about the year 900, 
leaving by his said consort two sons, — Constantine, of whom the 
MacGregors, and Findanus, of whom the MacKinnons, are descended. 
The MacKinnons thus became a separate clan about the year 900. 
Their most extensive possessions were in Mull, and other Argyleshire 
islands, where, as well as in Kintyre and Arran, the name is one of the 
most numerous to this day. They were powerful in those countries before 
the rise of the Somerled dynasty in 1 120 : latterly, they were in favor with 
Somerled's successors (the lords of the Isles), and acted as governors 
of their castles, and masters of their households. 

" The following is an account of the chiefs of the MacKinnons, of 
whom there is any record, with notices of the descent of other families 
in the clan from that of Strathardill, or Kilmorie (by which designation 
the family of the chiefs will be distinguished from the others), concluding 
with an account of Gambell, or Corry." 

1. Findanus, second son of Prince MacGregor MacAlpin. There 
must have been several generations between him and — 

2. MacKinnon, who first acquired the estate of Strath in Skye. 

3. MacKinnon of Strath, or Strathardill, between whom and the first 
possessors of the estate several generations must have intervened, was 
master of the household of John, Lord of the Isles, between 1 300 and 

1350- 

4. Lachlan na Foganach, 1385. - --■'-' 



288 MACKINNON. 

5. Lachijvn na Thiomlaii), or the Karterer, 1409. So called from 
having exchanged some valuable lands in Mull for the Island of Scalpa 
with MacLean of Duart. 

6. NiEL Bhui. Yellow-haired Neil. 

7. Lachi-an Bhan. Fair-haired Lachlan, 1493. 

8. NiEL Bhan. Fair-haired Neil, 15 15. 

9. EwEN Rhuadh na Cath. Fighting, red-haired Ewen, 1545. A 
celebrated warrior, who fought several battles with the Mac Leans in 
defence of his lands in Mull. 

10. Lachlan Dhu. Black-haired Lachlan, 1570 to 1580. He had 
four sons, — Lachlan, his successor; Tearnach Skeanach, Charles of 
Skye ; John, head of the MacKinnons of Kyle ; and Ewen, who left no 
descendants. 

1 1 . Lachlan Og, whose only son and successor was — 

12. Sir LachijVN MacKinnon of Strathardill, often mentioned in 
records of council. He possessed the estates 1 600-1 630, and was 
succeeded by his only son, — 

13. John, who married a daughter of MacLean of Coll. He had 
one son, — 

14. Lachlan Mhore, Big Lachlan. He held the estates between 
1640 and 1 71 1, and married first a daughter of MacLean of Duart, by 
whom he had a son John, who died before himself, but left a son John, 
who succeeded to the chieftainship. He had another son, named 
Donald, who left Skye in consequence of a quarrel with his father on 
the hunting-field, and no trace of him afterward was ever obtained. It 
was believed by some that he was identical with a Donald, or Daniel, 
MacKinnon of Antigua, who occupied a distinguished position there in 
the early part of the eighteenth century. Through him his descendant, 
William x'Mexander MacKinnon, M.P., claims the chieftainship. Lachlan 
Mhore married, secondly, a niece of the Laird of MacLeod, by whom 
he had a son, John MacKinnon of Mishnish, whose posterity is now 
extinct. 

15. John MacKinnon, or MacKinnon Dhu, grandson of Lachlan 
Mhore, .succeeded in 1 7 11 . He married a daughter of Archbishop 
Sharp, by whom he had a son John, hereafter mentioned. He was 
attainted for being engaged in the Stuart rebellion of 1715, having been 



MACKINNON. 289 

with his clan along with the MacDonalds of Sleat at the battle of 
Sheriffmuir. Though still under attainder, he was engaged in the rebel- 
lion of 1745 (he was at CuUoden with two hundred of his clan), and 
was instrumental in enabling Prince Charles Edward to effect his escape 
from tlie west coast to France. His estates were confiscated, and pur- 
chased by the Laird of (Irant, an ancient ally of the family, who, in 
1728, conveyed them in trust, — i, to JoHX MacKinnon the younger, 
son of the attainted chief, and his heirs-male ; 2, to any sons the chief 
might have by a second marriage ; 3, to John MacKinnon of Mfshnish 
and his heirs-male. John MacKinnon the younger died in 1737 with- 
out male issue, when John MacKinnon of Mishnish took possession of 
the lands. But the old chief married again in 1743, was out in the 
rebellion in 1745, was arrested in 1746, and taken a prisoner to London. 
After his return home, he had two sons, — Charles, who succeeded 
to the title and estates ; and Lachlan, who died in Jamaica, unmarried. 
The old chief died in 1755, and was succeeded by — 

16. Charles MacKlnnon, who sold the estates of Mishnish and 
Strathardill. He married Alexandra, a daughter of MacLeod of Mac- 
Leod, and had an only son John, who succeeded. 

17. John MacKinnon, the last of the family of Kilmorie, died in 
Leith, unmarried, in 1808. He was the last in the line of succession 
from Lachlan, eldest son of Lachlan iMiu (10). 

Tne tradition is that twenty-nine chiefs in all had intervened between 
Findon, son of Prince MacGregor MacAli)in, and the last-named John ; 
but no record of twelve of them exists. The line cT succession being 
now changed to the heirs- male of Tearlach Skeanach (Charles of 
Skye), the second son of Lachlan Dhu, who left numerous descendants 
in the male line, 

18. Lachi^n MacKinnon, of Corry and Letterfearn, became chief. 
He was the son of Charles MacKinnon by his wife Flora, daughter of 
Mrs. Ann MacAlister. In 1 794 he married Ann MacRae, and had sons 
Lachlan, Charles, Farquhar, Alexander Kenneth, Kenneth, and eight 
daughters. He died in 1828, and was succeeded by his eldest son, — 

19. Lachl.\n MacKinnon of Corry and Letterfearn, who married 
Catharine MacDougall, and had issue five daughters. He died in 1836, 
and was succeeded by his brother, — 



290 FLORA MACDOXALD. 

20. Charles MacKinnon. He married Henrietta Stadd, and had 
issue eight daughters. He died in 1873. His brother Farquhar died 
in 1825 without male heirs. ^Alexander Kenneth also died in 1871. 
He married, in 182/j, Flora Downie, and by her had one son, Alister, 
who died in i860, and one daughter, .Annabella, who married Admiral 
Rutherford. 

Alexander Kenneth MacKinnon married secondly, in 1841, Barbara, 
daughter of Capt. Daniel Reid of the loyal navy, and had four daugh- 
ters, — Flora Downie, Katharine, Annie Flora, and Charlotte ; and four 
sons, — Lauchuan Charles, born in 1848, Daniel, Charles, and Thomas 
MacKenzie. The eldest surviving son of Alexander Kenneth succeeded 
to the chieftainship. 

2\. Lauchlan Charles MacKlnnon of Melbourne, Australia. He 
married, first, Bessie, widow of Mr. Auketell Jones. She died in 1874. 
Mr. MacKinnon married next Emily Grace Bundock MacKinnon, the 
niece and adopted daughter of his cousin, Lauchlan MacKinnon of 
Ehordleigh, Devonshire, and has issue: i. Lauchlan, born in Australia, 
1877; 2. Barbara Emily, born in London, 1878; 3. Annie, born in 
Australia, 1882. 

One of the traditions that linger around the old MacKinnon home- 
stead at Argyle is of the relationship of Ranald MacKinnon to the cele- 
brated Flora MacDonald, — "a name," wrote Dr. Johnson, when, in 
1772, he made her personal acquaintance, "that will be remembered in 
history, and, if courage and fidelity be virtues, mentioned with honor.'' 
Whether there was a blood relationship, cannot here be determined, but 
researches disclose these facts : — 

Flora MacDonald was the daughter of Ranald MacDonald of Milton, 
in the Island of South Uist, born in 1722. She had one brother, Angus. 
Her father died when she was about two years old ; and eight years 
afterward her mother married Hugh MacDonald of Sleat, in Skye. 

In 1750, Flora married Allan MacDonald, son of Alexander Mac- 
Donald of Kingsburg, Skye. Her husband had a sister Ann, who mar- 
ried Ranald MacAlister. Flora was bridesmaid, and said afterward that 
upon that occasion she and Allan became attached. " Although not 
absolutely engaged by word of mouth, yet we felt we thoroughly 
understood each other." 



FLORA MACDOXALD 29 1 

Ann MacAlister had a daughter Fi.nR.\ ; and, oeing herself left a 
widow, she married Lachlan MacKinnon of Corry, in Skye, the fifth in 
descent from Tearmch Skfanach, whose eldest son by a jirevious mar- 
riage, Charles MacKinnon, afterward married Flora MacAlistf.r ; and 
the only son of Charles and Flora was Lachlan MacKinnon of Corry 
and Letterfearn (18 above), the first chief in the new line. 

Flora MacDonald inspired Flora Maclvor in " VVaverley ; " and Flora's 
"Battle Song" represents the welcome which met Prince Charles 
Edward Stuart when, on July 25, 1745, encouraged by promises of 
support from the King of France, and • -ompanied by a few faithful 
followers, he landed at Boradale, on the south-west corner of Inverness, 
to make another effort to recover the throne for his father, James III., 
and the House of Stuart. 

THE BATTLE SONG. 

There is mist on the mountain, and night on the vale ; 
But more dark is the sleep of the sons of the Gael. 
A stranger commanded — it sunk on the land : 
It has frozen each heart, and benumbed every hand. 

The dirk and the target lie sordid with dust; 
The bloodless claymore is but reddened whh rust; 
On the hill or the glen, if a gun should appear, 
It is only to war with the heathcock or deer. 

The deeds of our sires if our bards should rehearse, 
Let a flash or a blow be the meed of their verse ! 
Be mu»s every string, and be hushed every tone, 
That shall bid us remember the fame that is flown ! 

But the da::c hours of night and of slumbers are past; 
The morn on our mountains is dawning at last ; 
Glenaladale's peaks are illumed with the rays, 
And the streams of Glenfinnan leap bright in the blaze. 

O high-minded Moray! — the exiled! — the dear! 

In the blush of the dawning the standard uprear ! 

Wide, wide in the winds of the North let it fly, 
Like the sun's latest flash when the tempest is nigh ! 



292 THE BATTLE CONG. 

X Ye sons of the strong, when that dawning shall break, 

Need the harp of the aged remind you to wake? 
That dawn never beamed on your forefather's eye, 
But it roused each high chieftain to vanquish or die. 

Oh ! sprung from the kings who in Islay kept state, 
Proud chiefs of Clan-Ranald, Glengarry, and Sleat, 
Combine like three streams from one niountain of snow, 
And, resistless in union, rush down on the foe ! 

True son of Sir Ewan, undaunted Lochiel, 
Place thy targe on thy shoulder, and burnish thy steel ! 
Rough Keppoch, give breath to thy bugle's bold swell, 
Till far Corryarroch resound to the knell ! 

Stern son •' Lord Kenneth, high Chief of Kintail, 
Let the stas, -.i thy standard bound wild in the gale ! 
May the race of Clan-Gillean, the fearless and free, 
Remember Glenlivat, Harlaw, -.nd Dundee ! 

Lit the clan of ^i;ray Fingon, whose offspring has given 
Suck heroes to earth and such martyrs to heaven. 
Unite with the race of renowned Rorri More, 
To launch the long galley, and stretch to the oar! 

How MacShimei will joy when their chief shall display 
The yew-crested bonnet o'er tresses of gray ! 
How the race of wronged Alpine and murdered Glencoe 
Shall shout for revenge when they pour on the foe ! 

Ye sons of brown Dermid, who slew the wild boar, 
Resume the pure faith of the great Callum More ! 
MacNiel of the Islands, and Moy of the Lake, 
For honor, for freedom, for vengeance awake ! 

Awake on your hills, on your islands awake, 

Brave sons of the mountain, the frith, and the lake ! 

'Tis the bugle — but not for the chase is the call! 

'Tis the pibroch's shrill summons — but not for the hall ! 



CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 293 

'Tis the summons of heroes for conquest or death, 
When the banners are blazing on tiou :!^? a and heath: 
They call to the dirk, the claymore, ar. . the targe, 
To the march and the muster, the line and the charge ! 

Be the brand of each chieftain like Fin's in his ir 
May the blood through his veins flow like currents of fire I 
Burst the base foreign yoke as your sires did of yore. 
Or die like your sires, and endure it no more ! 

After a series of successes, and the defeat and rout of the royal 
troops by Charles Edward and his three or four thousand brave High- 
landers, who at one time marched within a hundred miles of London, 
spreading consternation throughout England, on the i6th of April, 1746, 
they were defeated at Culloden by an overwhelming force of Argyle- 
shire Highlanders, Lowland Militia, and English troops. For the next 
five months, his troops having dispersed, Charles was a fugitive, pursued 
through the Highlands and islands with a price of thirty thousand pounds 
set upon his head ; and although his secret places of concealment were 
intrusted to more than fifty persons, some of them of lowly station, who 
knew that by betraying him they might thenceforth live in affluence, 
Charles was at last taken on board of a French ship, and safely landed 
on the coast of Brittany. 

It so happened, while Charles was on the Long Island, — that having 
been at first considered a safer retreat than any to be found on the main 
land, and offering better opportunities for an escape to France, — that 
Flora MacDonald was there also, having gone over from Skye to visit 
her brother Angus, who occupied her old home at Milton, South Uist. 
The islands were at that time filled with bodies of the royal troops ni 
pursuit of the fugitive, and ships of war hovered everywhere about the 
coasts to prevent his escape by sea. It was then that Flora, having, at 
her own earnest request, been favored with an interview with the prince 
at his place of concealment in an old building belonging to her brother 
a mile or two distant among the hills, conceived the design of assisting 
in his escape ; and in its execution she was aided by the counsel and 
support of Mrs. MacDonald of Ormaclade. Says Sir Walter Scott in 
" Waverley," " It is but too well known how many gentlemen of rank, 



294 CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 

education, and fortune, took a concern in the ill-fated and desperate 
nndertaking of 1745. The ladies, also, of Scotland, very generally 
espoused the cause of the gallant and hamibome young prince, who 
threw himself upon the mercy of his countrymen, rather like the hero of 
romance than a calculating pohtrcian." 

Capt. Hugh Mac Donald, Flora's stepfather, was on Long Island in 
command of a body of the royal troops ; and, by a successful stratagem, 
a passport was procured from him to enable Flora and a female servant 
to return home to Skye. Her friend, Mrs. MacDonald, furnished a six- 
oared boat ; and Flora, accompanied by her own and her brother's faithful 
friend, Niel MacEachern, who had been their companion from childhood, 
and with the prince disguised as a female servant in a garb supplied by 
Mrs. MacDonald, left Beubecula on June ^6 at eight o'clock at night ; 
and, crossing over in a rainstorm and gale of wind, they arrived on the 
coast of Skye the next morning, landing upon the property of Sir Alex- 
ander MacDonald, the chief man in that part of the island, who was 
favorable to the house of Hanover, but who, as Flora had discovered, 
was away from home. 

Flora, hovv \er, knew that the prince had a friend in Lady Margaret, 
and so set off to see her, leaving the prince in the boat. Upon consulta- 
tion with Lady Margaret and MacDonald of Kingsburg, Flora's future 
father-in-law, who chanced to be on a visit to Lady Margaret, and who 
was favorable to the prince, it was decided that the prince should be 
taken to MacLeod of Raasay, and in the mean time, until MacLeod 
could be communicated with, that Kingsburg should give him 
shelter. 

So Flora conducted Kingsburg to the prince. " I am MacDonald 
of Kingsburg, come to serve your Highness." — "Ah ! that's well," said 
the prince. "And now," rejoined Kingsburg, "while you are eating 
what I've brought in this basket, — there's some capital whiskey too, — I 
will tell your Highness the plan proposed by Lady Margaret, after which 
the sooner we set forward, the better." 

The prince and MacDonald then went to Kingsburg House, where 
Flora and MacEachern soon joined them, the boat having been sent 
back to Long Island. The next afternoon the prince. Flora, Kingsburg, 
and MacEachern proceeded across the island to Portree, where they 



CHARLES. EDWARD STUART. 295 

found Malcolm MacLeod with his boat in waiting. Flora resigned her 
charge to Malcolm, and they crossed over to the Island of Raasay. 

" At parting," Flora says in the Autobiography to her Granddaughter 
Maggie, " the prince turned aside for a moment to hide the tears which 
gathered in his clear blue eyes, and then (dear Maggie, I am bound to 
confess the truth) he did give me a kiss on the cheek, which royal salute 
I shall ever consider an honor never to be erased from my memory. 
He also took a friendly farewell of worthy MacEachem, little dreaming 
that the honest man would afterward accompany him to France." 

Not long afterward. Flora was arrested on a charge of having aided 
the escape of the prince, and was taken on board of a man-of-war. She 
was courteously received by Gen. Campbell in the state cabin, and was 
afterward permitted, under escort, to viiit her mother, and take back 
with her a faithful servant, Katie MacDowel, as a companion in her im- 
prisonment. In November they were transferred to another ship, and 
sent to London ; and on board this ship Flora was surprised to meet 
Malcolm MacLeod, who had been arrested on a similar charge. 

In London, Flora was treated more like a heroine than a prisoner. 
She was permitted to receive many friendly attentions from the Jacobite 
ladies; and when released, in July, 1747, she was loaded down with 
valuable presents, and provided with a carriage and horses to take her 
back to Scotland. Malcolm, who was also released in the general 
amnesty of 1747, was her companion on the journey home. 

A rare book is — 

" A Genuine and True Journal of the most miraculous escape of the 
Young Chevalier, from the Battle of CuUoden to his landing in France. 
Taken from the Mouths and Journals of the very Persons who assisted 
him therein. Partly wrote in London and partly in Scotland. To which 
is added. A Short Account of what befel the Prince in France, and of 
the manner of taking him Prisoner and of sending him to Avignon. 
Together with a Brief Relation of what became of some of those who 
composed his Army. 

By An Englishman, London, 1749." 

The following is the Englishman's narration of the prince's adven- 
tures from the time Flora left him with Malcolm MacLeod until he 
reached the coast of France. 



296 CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 

" Early in the morning of July i, the prince, with Capt. Malcolm 
and his party, arrived safe in Raasay, six miles distant. On July 3, the 
prince proposed going to Troternish, in Skye ; and, Malcolm with him 
in the boat, they reached there the same night, Malcolm remaining 
alone with the prince, the rest of the party returning to Raasay. 

" On the morning of July 4, the prince and Mu'- c!m started into the 
country ; the captain passing for the master, and the prince for the man, 
whenever they saw any person, or came near any village. They marched 
through the worst ways in Europe, going over hills, wild moors, and 
glens, without halting, till they arrived at Ellagol, near to Kilmorie, in 
Strath ; and next to a place, in some maps called Ord, in the Laird of 
MacKinnon's country, and not far from where that laird lived, having 
walked twenty- Tour miles at least. 

"As they were approaching Strath, MacKinnon's country, the cap- 
tain suggested to the prince that now he was coming to a country where 
he would be known, and therefore might be discovered in every corner of 
it, as MacKinnon's men had been out in his service, and that therefore 
he must be more disguised. To do which the prince put on a napkin, 
and his bonnet over it, putting his wig in his pocket. ' But nothing,' 
said Malcolm, ' could disguise his majestic mien and carriage.' 

" They no sooner were in Strath than they met two of MacKinnon's 
men who had been out with them in the expedition. They stared at 
the prince, and soon knew him ; and, with lifted-up hands, they burst 
into tears upon seeing him in such distress. The captain desired they 
would take care what they did, and compose themselves ; for otherwise 
they would discover who the prince was by their concern. Which they 
complied with as well as they could. And then Malcolm, swearing them 
to secrecy, dismissed them ; and they proved faithful. 

" Being come near the place they proposed going to, Malcolm told 
the prince that he had a sister married to one John MacKinnon, a cap- 
tain in the prince's army. And then he advised the prince to sit down 
at a little distance from the house, whilst he (the captain) went into the 
house, and shoulu . iquire of his sister, or her husband, whether any of 
their enemies were in that neighborhood in quest of hini ; and likewise 
to know whether he, Malcolm, could be safe there with her, telling the 
prince he was still to pass as his servant, Lewis Caw. 



CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 297 

" Malcolm went and found his sister at home, but her husband was 
out. And after the usual compliments at meeting, he told her that he 
was come to stay some little time there, provided there was no party of 
the military people about them, and that he could be safe. She gave 
him a suitable answer; and tl 11 he told her he had no person along 
with him except one Lewis Caw, son of Mr. Caw, surgeon in Crief, who 
had been out in the late affair, and consequently in the same situation 
with himself. She very readily agreed to take him and Lewis Caw into 
the house. 

"After some refreshments which were set before them, both the 
prince and the captain went to sleep. During which time the captain's 
sister went to the top of the hill to keep watch, lest they should be 
surprised. ... 

"The captain, hearing his brother-in-law was coming, went out to 
meet him. After usual ceremonies, Malcolm asked him if he saw those 
ships-of-war (pointing to them) that were hovering about the coast. 
'Yes,' said Mr. MacKinnon. 'What,' said Malcolm, 'if the prince be 
on board one of them ? ' — ' God forbid ! ' replied MacKinnon. ' What,' 
said Malcolm, ' if he were here? John, do you think he would be safe 
here ? ' — 'I wish we had him here,' replied John ; ' for he would be safe 
enough, and nothing would hurt him here.' — ' Well, then,' said Malcolm, 
' he is now in your house. But when you go in, you must not take any 
notice of him, lest the servants may observe you ; for he passes as one 
Lewis Caw, my servant.' John promised very fair. But he no sooner 
saw the prince in that condition than he burst into a flood of tears, 
which Malcolm observing, obliged John to retire. 

" When the prince and Malcolm were alone, they began to consult 
how the prince was to get to the Continent of Scotland ; and both agreed 
not to let the Laird of MacKinnon know of their being there, on account 
of his being so old. They then called John MacKinnon, and desired 
him go and procure a boat, as i^ for Malcolm only, and made John 
promise not to communicate any thing of what he had heard or seen to 
the laird, if he and John should chance to meet. 

" John, having his instructions, set forward ; but soon meeting with 
his old chieftain, he could not refrain letting him into the secret. The 
good old man, hearing John's relation, ordered him to give himself no 



298 CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 

trouble about the boat, for that he, the laird, would provide a good one, 
and would soon be with the prince. 

"John returned, and told the prince what had happened, and that 
the laird would soon be with him. Malcolm then said to the prince, 
* As the case now stands, it will be best to leave all to the management 
of the old gentleman, who will be firm to his tn '.' 

" The prince, notwithstanding this, was uneasy at tlie thought of 
parting with his faithful Malcolm. But Malcolm represented to the 
prince that as he, the captain, had been some time absent, the military 
people might pursue him on suspicion; aid, if so, he might be the 
cause of the prince being taken also. • But if I return, and should be 
taken prisoner,' said Malcolm, 'which may very likely be the case, it 
will yet enable me to prevent so quick a pursuit after you ; because, as 
I am alone, I can tell my own tale without being confronted, and can 
send them upon a wrong scent. For myself,' continued Malcolm, ' I 
care not ; but for you I am much afraid. And, as I can do you more 
service by leaving than by staying with you, I desire you'll follow the 
Laird of MacKinnon's directions.' 

" The prince at last consented ; and by this time the old gentleman 
got to them, and told them he had got the boat ready, upon which they 
set out for it directly ; being accompanied thither by John MacKinnon 
also, who even went with his laird to the continent of Scotland, and saw 
the prince safe landed there. 

" At parting, the prince presented Malcolm with a silver stock- 
buckle, embraced and saluted him twice, and, thanking him for 
what he had done, put ten guineas into his hand, which the captain 
refused j but the prince forced him to take them. Here, also, the 
prince, having got a better pipe, had no further occasion for the 
short one, which was black with use, and was called the Cutty. 
This Malcolm took, and some time after gave it to a friend of his in 
England. 

" Having taken leave of Malcolm, the prince, the old laird of 
MacKinnon, John MacKinnon, and the )oatmen, all went on board on 
the evening of Friday, the fourth day of July. 

" Capt. Malcolm returned home again, but was not many days there 
before he was taken prisoner. He was detained on board a ship ; and 



CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 299 

in November, i 746, he was conveyed to London, and there kept until 
July, 1747, and was then discharged without being asked ony questions. 
He had cleared himself of taking arms in behalf of the prince by 
surrendering with his men according to the Duke of Cumberland's 
proclamation. He and Miss Mac Donald returned to Scotland together. 
All this account 7uas given by Capt. Malcolm MacLeod himself, and 
7c>as wrote down as he dictated. . . . 

" I observed that the prince left the island for the continent of 
Scotland on the 4th of July, under the care of the old Laird of Mac- 
Kinnon. The night proved tempestuous, and the coast was very 
dangerous. They also met a boat in which were some armed militia, 
with whom they spoke ; and, as the militia did not much exceed their 
own number, the prince and party resolved to make all the head they 
could, and to fight in case they had been attacked. But, in spite of all 
these dangers, they landed safe at Moidart, being about thirty miles 
from the place they set out from, and went again to Angus MacDonald's 
house at Boradale, where the prince changed his dress, and sent forj 
Mac Donald of Glenaladale, of Clanranald family. 

" After having landed the prince, the Laird of MacKinnon took his 
leave, and set forward on his return home, but was taken prisoner on 
his passage back (so close was the prince pursued), and was conveyed 
into the Thames by sea, and tiiere, partly on board ship, and partly in 
Tilbury Fort, was kept a close prisoner. 

"The prince remamed in the country, removing from place to place, 
until about Sept. 15, when with Lochiel, among the hills between the 
Braes of Badenoch and .Alhol, two of his friends came to tell him that 
two French ships had arrived at Moidart. Upon this the prince set out 
the night following, and at the same time sent to inform others who 
were secreted in different places. Some arrived at the place appointed 
in time ; but several, by some accident or other, had not that good 
fortune. The prince, after seeing his friends on board both ships, 
embarked, on Sept. 20, on board the Bellona of St. Malo ; and on 
che 29th of same month, after a pleasant voyage, though narrowly 
escaping Admiral Lestock's squadron, they reached the coast of 
Bretagne." 

Mr. Keltic's account is a little more explicit in what took place after 



30O FLORA MACDOMALD. 

the passage in the boat from Skye. He says the prince and party 
landed at Little Mallech in the nit^ht of July 4, on the south side of 
Loch Nevish, between Morar and Moiilart, and secreted themsci _s for 
a few dfiys on the banks of the loch, while John MacKinnon went in 
search of parties to take charge of. the prince until a ship arriveil from 
France. The old laird was unwilling to leave the prince ; but, on account 
of his age, the prince recjuested him to return home. He took his 
leave on July 7, was arrested before he reached home, and taken to 
London. On the loth of July, John MacKinnon left the prince with 
" honest old yEneas MacDonald of Boradale ; " and soon after his 
return to Skye, he, too, was arrested, taken to London, and kept there 
until July, 1747. 

Flora MacDon'ald married Allan MacDonald in November, 1750; 
and in 1 766 they had seven children, — Charles, Ann, Alexander, 
Ranald, James, John, and Fanny. Li 1774, Flora, with her husband 
and children, except the two youngest, John and Fanny, who 
were left with friends at home, emigrated to North Carolina, where 
many of their friends and neighbors had previously gone, and where 
Mr. MacDonald purchased an estate upon the borders of Richmond 
County. 

In the American rebellion of 1776, the Highlanders were loyal to 
the British Government. They organized a -egiment called the North- 
Carolina Highlanders, under Gen. DonaiQ MacDonald, with Allan as 
one of the captains. Major Samuel Andrews of Tusket, as will be 
remembered, was commissioned as lieutenant in the North-Carolina 
Highlanders ; and Capt. Jesse Gray, afterward of Argyle, and the 
ancestor of the Grays of Kemptville, was attached to the same 
regiment. 

At the close of the war, disappointed with their life in America, the 
family returned to Skye ; Flora's daughter Ann having, meanwhile, 
married Major MacLeod, afterward a distinguished general; and her 
sons Charles, Ranald, Alexander, and James having joined the public 
service, — Charles, the " Queen's Rangers " at New York, and James, 
the " Highland Emigrant Regiment," under Col. Tarleton, which had 
the unhappy experience at Port Mouton. Alexander joined the navy, 
and was lost at sea ; and John was a distinguished engineer in the 



FLORA MACDONALD. 301 

East-India Company's service. Ranald went intc the navy ; and 
Fanny married Donald MacDonald, son of Flora's half-sister, 
Annabella. Flora MacDonald died in Skye, on March 5, 1790, and 
was buried at Kilmuir in Troternish. Her Imsband survived her two 
years. 

Her youngest son, Lieut.-Col. John MacDonald, had originally 
sent to Skye a tombstone to his mother's memory, upon which 
were inscribed the appropriate words of Dr. Johnson ; but it was 
utterly ■ destroyed by tourists taking away pieces of the marble as 
relics. In i860, a great-grandson of Flora, Major John MacDonald, 
had another tombstone set up to mark her last resting-place, with this 
inscription : — 

" In the history of Scotland and England is recorded the name of 
her by whose memory this tablet is rendered sacred ; and mankind will 
consider that in Flora MacDonald was united the calm, heroic fortitude 
of a man with the unselfish devotion of a woman. Under Providence 
she saved Prince Charles Edward Stuart from death on a scaffold, thus 
preventing the house of Hanover incurring the blame of an impolitic 
judicial murder." 

Niel MacDonald MacEachern, who accompanied Flora in the boat, 
soon afterward rejoined Prince Charles, and went with him in the ship 
to France. At his royal master's request, Niel was appointed lieutenant 
in Ogilvie's Regiment of the Scotch Brigade in the service of France. 
He married a French lady ; and his son became one of Napoleon's 
greatest generals. Marshal MacDonald. 

Prince Charle.s Edward Stuart died in January, 1 788, in his sixty- 
eighth year, and was entombed in the Cathedral of St. Peter's at Rome. 
By the death of Charles, Prince Henry Stuart, Cardinal York, became 
entitled to his brother's rights in the sovereignty of Great Britain. 
George III. allowed him four thousand pounds per annum, — a pension 
he enjoyed until his death in 1807, in his eighty-third year. He was the 
last of his race ; and he bequeathed, as Henry Stuart, to George IV., 
then Prince of Wales, the crown jewels of his grandfather, James II., 
among which was the Order of the Garter as worn by Charles I. The 
cardinal's death made George III. King of Great Britain by inheritance 
from the house of Stuart. 



302 THE LAST OF THE STUARTS. 

Over the remains of James III., Charlrs III., and Henry IX., kings 
of Gr/at Britain, a monument has been erected in St. Peter's at Rome, 
at the expense of the house of Hanover. It bears this inscription : — 

JACOBO III. 

JACOBI II, MAGNCE BRIT: REGIS FILIO ; 

KAROLO EDWARnO, 

ET HENRICO, DECANO PATRUM CARDINALIUM, 

JACOBI in, FILIIS; 

REGICE STIRPIS STUARDICE POSTREMIS. 

ANNO MDCCCXIX. 

DEATI MORTUI 
QUI IN DOMINO MORIUNTUR. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

First Nova-^cotia Parliament in 1758. — How constituted. — Queens County established in 
1762, includin? Liverpool, Harrington, and Yarmouth. — Yarmouth's Representatives down 
to 1784, when Shclburne County was established. — The Long Parliament. — .Septennial 
Bill passed in 1792. — Yarmouth's Representatives down to 1836, when Yarmouth County 
was set off from Shelburne. — Quadrennial Bill passed in 1838. — Duration of Parliaments 
and Representatives from Yarmouth County from 18^,6 to 1886. — Executive Councillors 
from Yarmouth. — Legislative Councillors. — Sheriffs and Deputies. — Custodes and 
Justices of the Peace 1761-1S86. — Clerks of the Peace and Treasurers. — Municipal 
Council 1S56-1858. — Municipal Council Yarmouth and Argyle 1880 to 1886. — Probate 
Judges. — Registrars of Deeds. — Postmasters. — Crown Land Surveyors. — Collectors 
of Customs and Tide- Waiters. — Lloyd's and Consular Agents, etc. 

THE first Nova-Scotia Parliament was elected in 1758, consisting of 
twenty-two members, — sixteen from the Province at large, four 
from Halifax, and two from Lunenburg. It held two sessions, and was 
dissolved. The second Parliament was elected in November, 1759; 
but the basis of representation was changed. Halifax, Lunenburg, 
Annapolis, Kings, and Cumberland Counties returned eacn two mem- 
bers ; Halifax Township returned four ; and the townships of Lunenburg, 
.\nnapolis, Horton, and Cumberland, two members each, making .. total 
of twenty-two. Malachy Salter was in this Parliament, returnee, .'or 
Hahfax. He was a justice of the peace and collector of e^'ise. This 
Parliament also held two sessions, and was dissolved by the death, in 
October, 1760, of George II. 

1761, July — Third Parliament met. Malachy Salter was re-elected 
from Halifax ; and Liverpool sent two members, — Benjamin Gerrish and 
Nathan Tupper ; the representation of the other districts remaining as 
before. 

1762, July. — Council recommended that Liverpool Banington, and 
Yarmouth be constituted the County of Queens, and be entitlec to elect 
two members to Parliament. 



304 F/KST XOl'A-SCOr/A PARLIAMENTS. 

17^5' January. — The third Parliament, having held five sessions, 
was dissolved. The representation had again been changed ; and it had 
been " lurther enacted that all townships, on proof that they consist of 
fifty families each, shall have a writ for the return of one member to 
represent them in the (leneral Assembly." But royal instructions were 
soon received directing the governor not to act on this clause without 
His Majesty's consent. The qualification for a candidate or an elector 
at that time was that he should be twenty-one years of age, not a Papist, 
and be a freeholder of the district ^vhere an election was to be held. 

1765, May. — The fourth Parliament met, consisting of twenty-seven 
members. Halifax County sent four members ; and Kings, Queens, 
Lunenburg, Cumberland, and Annapolis two each ; Halifix Township 
sent two members ; and Truro, Onslow, Cornwallis, Horton, Falmouth, 
Newport, Liverpool, Lunenburg, Annapolis, Granville, and Cumberland 
Townships each sent one member. William Smith and Simeon Perkins 
were returned for Queens County. Malachy Salter was not elected. 

1766, June. — Second session, fourth Parliament. This Act was 
passed : " Whereas for want of roads and the distance between Liverpool, 
Harrington, Yarmouth, etc., it is hereby enacted that Courts of the Genl. 
Sessions of the Peace shall and may be held within the Township of 
Yarmouth on the first Tuesday in April, and in the Township of Harring- 
ton on the first Tuesday of November in every year ; and any three or 
more of the Justices of the Peace of Queens County shall and may 
hold the same Courts which shall have all the powers already granted 
unto Courts of G. S. of the Peace." 

1766, Oct. 24. — Parliament met. Malachy Salter took his seat for 
Yarmouth. A native of New England, and extensively engaged in the 
fisheries, Mr. Salter had often visited Nova-Scotia harbors before the 
settlement of Halifax in 1749. He was the great-grandfather of 
Beamish Murdoch, author of the " History of Nova Scotia." 

" The History of Medford, Mass.," published by the Rand Avery 
Company in 1886, contains z^fac-simile of the handwriting of Malachy 
Salter in a receipt to the following purport : — 

Medford, October 3d, 1777. Reed, of Mrs. Abigail Brooks Nine pounds 
Twelve Shillings lawful money in Gold Coin which I promise to deliver to Mr. 
Edward Brooks at Halifax in Nova Scotia (Danger of the seas excepted). Witness 
my hand : 

Malachy ?^ alter. 
£^ 12. o. 



MhMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. 305 

1767, July I. — House met. Francis White returned for iiarring- 
tcn. This Act was passed : " Whereas sundry evil-minded persons 
have presumed not only to take possession of ungranted lands in this 
Province, but also, without leave from Government, to encourage igno- 
rant persons to settle on said lands without obtaining any grant thereof, 
which practices are highly offensive to the honor and dignity of the 
Crown : He it therefore enacted that anj nerscn that shall presume to 
occupy such lands in any manner whatever "vifhout leave in writing first 
obtained from the Governor, Lieut.-Governor, or Commander-in-Chief, 
shall upon conviction be adjudged to forfeit and pay ^50." 

1770. — The fourth Parliament, having held eight sessions, was dis- 
solved early in this year. Maiachy Salter attended the session of 1 768, 
but not afterward in this House. 

1770, June 2. — First session, fifth Parliament. Neither Barring- 
ton nor Yarmouth was represented. William Smith and Simeon 
Perkins were re-elected for Queens County, 

1771, June 6. — Parliament met. Richard Gibbons took his seat 
for Harrington. The Township of Argyle was established, and this Act 
was passed : '* Whereas it is necessary that provision should be made for 
defraying the expenses of the Representatives in the General Assembly ; 
Be it enacted, therefore, that to such Representatives as shall apply for 
the same, shall be paid five shillings per day for each day during their 
attendance, and for the time necessarily expended in journeying to and 
from thence. The Counties sha'l pay from their own treasuries the 
County Members, and the towns the Township Members." The sessions 
at this period averaged about thirty days. 

1772, June 9. — House met. Maiachy Salter, having been again 
elected, attended this session for the last time as member for Yarmouth. 

1774, Oct. 6. — John Fillis returned for Barrington. The seat of 
John Crawley, member for Yarmouth, declared vacant. It does not 
appear that Mr. Crawley attended either session. •», .. .^^.* *^ r ... v '; 

1775, June 10. — House met. James Monk, solicitor-general, took 
his seat for Yarmouth. An address to the King from the Houst; .,1 
Assembly, passed June 24, 1775, suggests, "That the fittest tax to be 
raised in the Colony would be a duty of so much per cent upon all 
commodities imported into the Province, not being the produce of the 



306 MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. 

British Dominions in Europe and America, and that the rate be fixed 
every ten years : That the Customs Officers be paid a sufficient salary and 
forbidden absolutely from taking any fee in any case whatever : That no 
native of the Province be appointed as Governor or Lieut.-Governor : 
That the Members of the Legislative Council be appointed for life : That 
the election of Representatives be triennial and by ballot ; that the day 
be fixed by law, and that all Officers of the Government be prohibited 
from interfering in elections under severe and heavy penalties : That the 
Judges be appointed from England and hold office during good behav- 
ior : That a Recorder of Deeds be appointed for every Counry and not 
a Deputy to a Principal residing elsewhere : That the most respectable 
members of the community be appointed to the Commission of the 
Peace." 

These, when viewed in connection with what was then happening in 
the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, appear reasonable and sensible pro- 
ceedings. The address goes on : — 

" Most benign King, Your Majesty was graciously pleased to grant 
tracts of land in this Province upon various conditions of settlement and 
the payment of quit rents ; many of the conditions of settlement were 
impracticable, and others so expensive that the Grantees were not fully 
able to effect them. We humbly pray to be exonerated from these 
severe conditions, and that you will graciously limit the power of the 
Court of Escheat to defaults in the payment of quit rents only. This 
House is sorry to observe that most cruel use has been made of the 
power of escheating land, even to depriving two old Officers of the gra- 
tuity given them by Your Majesty for nearly foicy years of Military ser- 
vice, and mat to gratify two domestics of th?,c Governor who ordered the 
escheatment." * 

1776, June. — Ninth session, fifth Parliament. James Monk's seat 
for Yarmouth was declared vacant. He had removed to Quebec, and 
afterward became chief justice of Lower Canada, and was knighted. 
Sir James Monk died in England In 1826, aged eighty-two. His father, 
James Monk, related to the Duke of Albemarle, was one of the first 
settlers of Halifax, and, in 1752, was judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas. Yarmouth did not fill the vacant seat until 1 780, when Richard 
Cunningham was elected. 



MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. 307 

1783, Oct. 6. — House met: sixteenth session, fifth Parliament. 
Richard Cunningham was elected clerk of the House at a salary of a 
hundred pounds, vice Isaac Deschamps elevated to the council. The 
seat for Yarmouth was thereby declared vacant. 

1784, Nov. I. — House met : seventeenth and last session. This 
was called the " Long Parliament," it having existed for fourteen years. 
Yarmouth Township was not represented at this session. Shelbume 
County was set off from Queens, with the right to elect two members 
for the county, and one each for Shelbume, Barrington, and Yarmouth 
Townships. 

1785, November. — General election. Alexander Leckie and 
Charles MacNiel were returned for the county, Isaac Wilkins for the 
Township of Shelbume, and Samuel Sheldon Poole for Yarmouth 
Township. 

1792. — The Septennial Bill was passed, limiting the term of Par- 
liament to seven years, to correspond with that of the British Parliament. 

1793. — General election. S. S. Poole returned for Yarmouth 
Township, Stephen Skinner and James Humphreys for Shelbume County, 
and Colin Campbell for the township. 

1799. — General election. George Gracie and James Cox returned 
for Shelbume County, Colin Campbell for Shelbume Township, and 
Nathan Utley for Yarmouth Township. 

1804. — S. S. Poole elected vice Nathan Utley, deceased. 

1806. — General election. Jacob Van Buskirk and James Lent, sen., 
returned for Shelbume County, Colin Campbell for Shelbume Township, 
and S. S. Poole for Yarmouth Township. 

181 1. — General election. The old members were returned for the 
county and township of Shelbume, and Samuel Marshall for Yarmouth 
Township. 

1814. — S. S. Poole elected vice Samuel Marshall, deceased. 

1818. — General election. John Bingay and Abram Lent returned 
for Shelbume County, and S. S. Poole for Y'arraouth Township. 

1819. — On Feb. 16, Mr. Shaw, member for Granville, introduced 
a bill " to suppress the multiplicity of dogs." ^y 

1820. — King George III. died in January, and Parliament was 
dissolved. At the general election, John Bingay and John MacKinnon 



308 MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. 

were returned for Shelburne County, Jared J. Chipman for the township, 
and S. S. Poole for Yarmouth Township. 

1825, March 5. — Thomas Crowell took his seat for Shelburne 
Township vice Jared J. Chipman, appointed first judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas for the eastern division of the Province. 

1826. — General election. John MacKinnon and James B. Moody 
were returned for Shelburne County, Nathaniel \V. White for the town- 
ship, John Homer for Barrington, and S. S. Poole for Yarmouth. 

1828. — John Formax elected vice James B. Moody, deceased. 

1830, Feb. 17. — Mr. Forman presented a petition to the Legisla- 
ture for a grant to aid in erecting a breakwater at Kelley's Cove ; also 
a petition from the trustees of Yarmouth Academy for a grant to that 
institution. 

1830. — George IV. died in June, and Parliament was dissolved. 
At the general election in November, John Forman and Herbert 
HuNTiNGTOx were returned for Shelburne County, S. S. Poole for 
Yarmouth Township. * 

1832. — Abram Lent was elected vice John Forman, deceased. 

1835. — Reuben Clements elected vice Samuel S. Poole, de- 
ceased. 

1836. — Yarmouth County was set off from Shelburne with the right 
to return one county and two township members. At the general 
election in November, Herbert Huntington was returned for the 
county, and Reuben Clements for the Township of Yarmouth ; Simon 
D'Entremont for the Township of Argyle. 

1838. — The Quadrennial Bill was passed. 

1840. — General election. The old members were returned for the 
County and Township of Yarmouth, and John Ryder for Argyle. 

1843. — Generrd election. The former members were returned. 

1847. — General election. Herbert Huntington was returned for 
the county, and Thomas Killam for Yarmouth Township ; John Ryder 
for Argyle. v •. ' *-;.'---^/ ..• ^ .-jr. ,,*-,,.,... .t. ..,v;^i> .-t,v=../ ; . -'ji. 

1851. — General election. Mr. Huntington, through failing health, 
retired from public life. Thomas Killam succeeded as county member ; 
Jesse Shaw was returned for the Township of Yaniiouth, and John 
Ryder for Argyle. . . 



ME.\TBER5 OF PARLIAMENT. 309 

1855. — General election. Thomas Killam returned for the county ; 
Nathan Moses for the Township of Yarmouth, and John Ryder for 
Argyle. 

1859. — General election. Thomas Killam returned for the county; 
W. H. TowNSEND for the Township of Yarmouth, and John V. N. 
Hatfield for Argyle. 

1863. — General election. Thomas Killam returned for the county ; 
George S. Brown for the Township of Yarmouth, and Isaac S. Hatfield 
for Argyle. 

1866. — W. H. Townsend elected vice George S. Brown, resigned. 

1867, July I. — The British North-America Act established the 
Dominion of Canada in opposition to the e> pressed wishes of a very 
large majority of the electors of Nova Scotia. The term of the 
Canadian Parliament was fixed at five years ; that of the Nova-Scotia 
House of Assembly remained as before. Township representation was 
abolished ; and Yarmouth County was entitled to return one member to 
the House of Commons, and two to the Provincial Assembly. 

The general election for both Parliaments was held in September, 
1867. Thomas Killam was returned to the House of Commons, W. H. 
Townsend and John K. Ryerson to the Local House. Every member 
of the old Parliament who had voted for confederation, and offered for 
re-election to either House, was rejected, with two exceptions, — Charles 
Tupper, who was returned for Cumberland by an insignificant majority, 
and Hiram Blanchard for Inverness. 

1869. — Frank Killam elected vice Thomas Killam, deceased. 

1871. — Nova Scotia general election. W. H. Townsend and 
Albert Gavton returned. 

1872. — John K. Ryerson elected vice W. H. Townsend, resigned. 

1872. — Dominion general election. Frank Killam returned. 

1874. — The revelations of the "Pacific Railway Scandal" led to 
the defeat of the Tory Government and a new election in February. 
Frank Killam was re-elected. 

1874, December. — Nova Scotia general election. Albert Gayton 
and John Lovitt returned. ;; - * r -.;; , , >' ,, 

1878. — General election for both Parliaments. Frank Killam re- 
turned to the House of Commons ; Albert Gayton and Joseph R. 
Kinney to the House of Assembly. 



3IO MEMBERS OF PAliLIAMENT. 

1882, June. — General election for both Parliaments. Joseph 
R. Kinney returned for the House of Commons ; Albert Gayton and 
Thomas E. Corning for the House of Assembly. 

1886, June 15. — Nova Scotia general election upon the declared 
issue of a Repeal of the Uniofi. Notwithstanding a three-cornered 
contest in Yarmouth County, the candidates for repeal were elected by 
large majorities. Out of ?,445 votes, the largest number ever cast in 
a county election, William Law received 1,745, and Albert Gayton 
1,643 ; the opposing candidate 779. 

The result for the Province may be stated as follows: Of the 18 
counties, 16 return two members; Halifax and Pictou three members 
each, making a total of 38. Twelve counties, including Halifax, returned 
the 25 Liberal candidates. In five other counties the Liberals carried 
one of the seats, the Liberal candidate leading the poll, except in 
Pictou, where the leading Tory was followed by a Liberal, with a Tory 
coming in at the rear. In Victoria, one of these five counties. Dr. 
Bethune, classed as "Independent Liberal," led the poll, followed by 
a plain Liberal. The Tories elected their two candidates in the single 
county of Cape Breton, where the protective duty on coal held sway. 
Out of the 38 members, therefore, 29 were elected as Liberal, or repeal 
candidates, 8 as Tories, and i. Dr. Bethune, as an "Independent 
Liberal." 

LEGISLATIVE COUNCILLORS. 

1838, James Bond. 1842, Stayley Brown. 1877, Loran Ellis 
Baker. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCILLORS. 

Herbert Huntington was a member of the executive council, hold- 
ing the office of financial secretary, from 1848 until a few months before 
his death in 1851; Stayley Brown of the executive council, and 
receiver-general, from 1857 to i860; and again, with the office of pro- 
vincial treasurer, from 1875 until his death in 1877; Albert Gayton 
was of the executive council, and commissioner of publ c works and 
mines, from December, 1877, to October, 1878, and from July, 1882, 
to July, 1884. Mr. Gayton was chairman of the Board of Public 
Charities from July to October, 1878, and from July, 1882, to July, 
1884. On Mr. Gayton's acceptance of public office in 1877 and 1882, 
he was returned for Yarmouth County by acclamation. , 



SHERIFFS AND CUSTODES. 



;ir 







SHERIFFS. 




i7f>3. 


Thomas Crowell. 


1850. 


Joseph Shaw. 


i8i3. 


George Hunter. 


1866. 


William B. Townsend, 


1823. 


John Binary. 


1871. 


William K. Dudman. 


184S. 


Robe:: S. Eakins, 


sen. 1884. 


Thomas B. Flint. 


1849. 


Joseph B. Bond. 


1887. 
DEPUTY SHERIFFS 


George H. Guest. 


1767. 


Elishama Eldridge. 1807. 


Samuel Tedford. 


1790. 


Eleazer Hibbard. 


1810. 


David Van Norden. 


179:!. 


Joseph N. Bond. 


1811. 


George Paw. 


1797- 


Thomas Dane. 


1814. 


George Hunter. 


1801. 


James Hatfield. 


1818. 


George Bingay. 


1S04. 


Jacob Hatfield. 


CUSTODES. 






John Crawley. 


1873- 


Nathan Moses. 




Samuel S. Poole. 


1876. 


Nathan Hilton. 




Judge Ritchie. 






1841. 


H. G. 1 Irish. 




FOR ARGYLE. 


1856. 


E. W, B. Moody. 


1856. 


Abram Lent. 


1863. 


W. H. Moody. 


1872. 


Israel Harding. 



JUSTICES OF THE PEACE. 

There have been no less than 221 justices of the peace commissioned 
for Yarmouth and Argyle since the first settlement of the county. 
During the first twenty years there were 10 apppointed, — William 
Pring, Richard Lodge, Ebenezer Moulton, Stephen Moulton, John 
Crawley, Ranald MacKinnon, Ephraim Cook, Phineas Durkee,^John 
MacKinnon (Chebogue), and John Frost. During the next twenty 
years just 10 more were appointed, — Samuel S. Poole, Benjamin 
Barnard, Joshua Frost, Samuel Marshall, Job Hatfield, Robert Huston, 
James Kelley, Benoni D'Entremont, Nathaniel Richards, and Nathan 
Utley. 

A further analysis shows that from 1801 to 1838 inclusive, 21 were 
appointed; from 1838 to and including 1858, the new appointments 
increased to 29; from 1859 to 1878 inclusive, they reached the formid- 
able number of 127; while, since 1878, there have been but 24 new 
magistrates appointed. ^ - : _.v•-...-:~^.=^-- 

The following is the complete roll, alphabetically arranged for con- 



f- 



313 



JUSriLES OF lUE I'EACh. 



venient reference. It will he observed that the I)'IOntretnont» hold the 
post of honor. Ilcrnri \,. D'Kntrernont enjoys the singtilar distinction 
of having l»een commissioned in his twenty-second year : — 



iRl'-f, Abbott, RcuJ)cn. * 1S59. 

i«Hr,. Allen, Adclhcrt, i86y. 

1S74. Atniraiilt, ja((|uc». •''5'> 

1K74. Ariiirault, I/oii V. 1H59. 

1870. AndcrHon, John C. iH^y. 
1X85. Annin, llenjamin. iSf/j. 
1872. Ar.hil.alfl, v.. K, iH^/.. 
1S59. l!al)in, Cyritlc. 1871. 

1872. I'.al.in, IJrbain. 1875. 
1881. I{;ibin, J,.r-|ii(M A. 1878. 
1835. liakcr, AuioH. 1878. 
1786. liarnard, Mcnjamin. 1870. 
1885. I'.cnt, JamCH C. 1792. 
i8r9. r.ingay, I'.cnjamin. 1838, 
1821. Ilingay, John. 1848, 

1871. l!la(;kaflar, John C, 1850 
1877. lilaiivcit, J. Stern*. 1856. 
1804. Ilond, JoHcph N. 1858. 
iS^r. l!'/iid, JanicH. 1859. 
1846. Ito'irrjiic, Jean, 2d. i87t. 

1861. IJrand, John Ingram. 1872 
1842. I'.rown, Siaylcy. '^73- 
1859, Mr'iwn, Robert. 1884. 
186 r. I'>rf)wn, f Jcor^.e S. 1873. 
18O9 I'.rown, rharlct E, 1870. 
1S71. lirown, William V. 1879. 

1858. iiurrill, William, sen. 1767. 
1876, Ilurrill, William, jun. 1858. 
1883. liiirrill, Joseph. 1859. 

1873. Cahan, Charles, jun. 1869. 

1859. Cann, Marvcy. 1846. 
1873. Cann, Richard C. 1869. 
1864. Carland, John. i8ro. 
1848. Chipman, Thomas I). 1810. 
1859. Churchill, Nathaniel, sen. i860, 
1873. Churchill, Nathaniel, jun. 1869. 
1835. Clements, Reuben. >83i. 

1862. Clements, Nehcmiah K. 1767. 
1862. Cleveland. Benjamin. '790. 
1767. Cook, ICphraim. 1859. 
1842. Cook, f^alcb. 1869. 
1879. Cook, Francis G. 1859, 
1879. Cook, William H. 1876. 
1859, Corning, Nelson, .sen. 1866. 
1762, Crawley, John, lit. 1874, 



Crawley, John, 2tl. 
( rawley, John, 3d. 
f!ro»by, Nathan. 
Oonby, I'.cnjamin P. 
' rosby, <icorge. 
< 'rrjsby, .Samuel. 
C'rosby, Richard T. 
Crosby, Thomas H. 
('r«»sby, iJavid. 
(!rosby, Jamcn. 
Crosby, Harris II. 
Dennis, Freeman. 
I»'F'jitrrtfiont, Hcrioni. 
I)'Kntrrmonl, Simon. 
D'Kntrcmont, I..ouis. 
D'Kntremonf, Joseph Cyrille. 
iJ'Kntrcmont, I'icrrc S. 
I)'Knlremont, Guillaiimc. 
I)'Knlrcmont, I.oiiis H. 
n'riiitrcniont, (jcrvais. 
Ii'l'.nlremont, I.oiiis A. 
n'I'.nlrcmonf, Charles. 
I)'l''.iitrnni(ml, Henri L. 
Doty, George R. 
iJoucetle, Jac(|Me8. 
Douccttc, Cesar. 
Dnrkec, I'hineas. 
Dnrkce, Afna.sa. 
Diirkce, Joseph. 
Durkec, James. 
Kakins, Uolwirt .S. 
Ellis, Joseph Aldcn. 
Farish, Henry G. 
Fletcher, Richard. 
Flint, Samuel. 
Flint, Jacob A. 
Forbes, Anthony V. S, , 
Frost, John. 
Frost, Joshua, 
Garrlner, Enos, 
Gardner, .Simeon. 
(5avel, John. 
Gavel, William H. 
Gayton, Albert. 
Goodwin, John. 



yirsTiCEs OF the rhiAChi. 



V^ 



1SH3, ffoiulcy, /,eJ>ina. 

1854. (;ncMt, ki>l)crt. 

i.S6.». If.ilfy. William. 

1S6/. M.ifriiltun, S.imiicl. 

1H72. Hamilton, jamc<t 11. 

1H7.}. I t.imill'iii, l.trmiicl. 

1.S4 j. llarditiK, Israel. 

I7';j llalfipld, Jot). 

iHi;5 JratfirM, Ixaac S. 

iKf,i. M:it(ifl(l, Ja('il.,_3fl, 

iH^iT,, n.itfirl.l, John A. 

W*). Halfirld. William J. 

1S72. Hatfield, J. AdoIphUH. 

iH;^. Halfjclfl, l'''>rrn,in. 

IH7O, Hatfield, John V. N. 

1877. Hatfield, Samuel J. 

1843. Hilton, Nathan, vn. 

1854. Hiltim, Nathan, jun. 

1865. Hiltim, Frederick. 

18O5. Hiliim, l'hili|., 

1874. Hilton, Anion, 
185.;. HoKn, N. W. W. 
1794. Miinton.koKcrt. 
1842. Jnffrry, Malllicw, icn. 

1869, Jcffery, Matthew, jnn. 
l85<;. Jcnkint, William H. 
187-}. Jenkins, flcor^je H. 
17941 Kcllcy, JamcN. 

l8ir>. Kelley, J.icol). 

1838. Killam, 'rhoma<i, ncn. 

1871. Killam, l-rank. 
1873. Killam, Tliomaf*, jun. 

1875. Kinney, Joseph K. 

1870. I,add. Ilyron V. 
1820 I,atiderH, Anthony. 
l8^x;. LaiKJcrs, Jacoh. 
1848, I.arkin, Walter, 

1872. Larkin, Stillmati. 

1873. ''»w, William. 
J89J. IvC Hianc, Jean li. 
1885, \jc lilan(, I,oui» i'. 
1803. I.,cnt, James. 
18(9. I<cnt, Aliram. 
1854 I.cnt, James M, 
1880. Lent, Abram Smith, 
1884. I,cnt, Adolphus S. 
1870. I^cwis, Nathan. 
1870. Lewis, Thomas M. 
1875. l/cwis, Nathan )). 
1761. Lodge, Ktchard. 
1848. Lonergan, Kdmiind M. 



1865. I,<)nrrgan, KolMit K. 
1859. Lfivitt, J'lhi W. 

1861. I,'»vilt, Andrew. 

1873, L'.vitI, William I). 
1878. Lovitt, Janir<» J. 
1883. Lovitt, John. 
1861. Ma< Iver, John. 

1766. MacKinnon, Ranald. 

1767. M.K Kinnon, John (f ."hcliof.Mic). 
J819. MacKinnon, John, (Argylc). 

1866. MacLarcn, James H. 

1874. MacLaiiKhlin, I). J. 
1794. Marshall, Samuel. 
1844. Moody, Klinha W. I!. 

1858. Moody, William H., ten. 
18^)9, Moofly, John W. 

1873. Moofly, Willi.im H , jnn. 
(859. Mo»c>4, I'.enj.imiii IJ. 
1863. Moscx, Nathan. 

1761. Moulton, Kl>cne/,cr. 

t76i. Moulton, Stephen H. 

1870. Miirjihy, Jeremiah, 

1874, Murphy, John, 
1842. Murray, John. 

1 806. Patten, Stephen, sen. 

1873. Terry, Kdward S. 
1785. I'oolc, .Samuel S. 

1874. I'ortcr, Ira. 

1875. Porter, Ainsley. 
187^, Porter, W. Staylcy. 
1872. Potliier, Hilaire. 
1872. Potliier, An.'ielmc (). 
1878. Polhier, David L. 
1761. PririK, Willi.im. 
|8V>. Kandall, David. 

1859. kayniond, Josiah. 
1859. Kaynard, John. 
1794. Hichard.t, Nathaniel. 
1882. Kicker, Jackson. 

1876. Ring, Kzekiel K. 
1859. Robbins, Ansel, ncn. 

1871. Kobbins, Ansel, jun, 
1S71. Rr.bbins, Chandler. 
1849, Rogers, Mcnjamin, 2d. 
1858. Rogers, William. 
1881. Rogers, Harnard E. 

1872. Rose, Robert K. 
i87f;. Rowley, J. W. I r. 
18 55. Ryder, John. 

1867. Ryersim, John K. 

1870. Ryerson, Samuel M. ■^'- 



314 



CLERKS AND TREASURERS. 



1838. 


Saunders, John. 


1883. 


1879. 


Scott, James F. 


1883. 


1886. 


Scovil, Dennis. 


1864. 


1854. 


Shaw, Jesse. 


1879. 


1859. 


Sims, Jeremiah. 


1867. 


1873- 


Sims, Milford. 


1854. 


1859. 


Slocomb, Obed W. 


1873- 


1877. 


Smith, George R. 


1796. 


1872. 


Spinney, Caleb. 


1820. 


1864. 


Steele, Charles. 


1824. 


1870. 


Sterritt, James A. 


1849. 


1885. 


Stoneman, Augustus F. 


1861. 


1856. 


Surette, Michel. 


1879. 


1859. 


Surette, Pierre, sth. 


1838. 


1872. 


Surette, Denis. 





Surette, Placide. 
Surette, Zai-haric. 
Tedford, Charles. 
Thurston, Abram. 
Tooker, John. 
To-.vnsend. William H. 
Travis, Nathaniel. 
Utiey, Nathan. 
Van Norden, Gabriel B. 
Van Norden, David. 
Weston, Leonard. 
Williams, George E. 
Williams, Edward S. 
Willett, Thomas. 



CLERKS OF THE PEACE. 

YARMOUTH. 



1789. Elishama Eldridge. 

1790. Andrew Butler. 
181 7. John Murray. 
1821. Thomas Dane, sen. 



1828. John Forman. 
1831. John Tooker. 
1S74. Thomas B. Crosby. 



176S. Daniel Crocker. 
1791. Benjamin Barnard. 

Miner Huntington. 

Reuben Clements. 



TREASURERS. 
YARMOUTH. 



Amasa Durkee, 3d. 
William Churchill. 
Thomas E. Corning. 



Phineas Durkee. 
Daniel Crocker. 
Lewis Blanchard. 



TOWN CLERKS. 
YARMOUTH. 



Miner Huntington. 
Herbert Huntington. 
Zaccheus Churchill. 



1856. 

1S57. 



1791. 
1856. 



CLERKS OF THE PEACE. 
ARGYLE. 



James M. Lent. 
William S. Robbins. 



Benoni D'Entremont. 
Jacob Hatfield, 4th. 



i860. 


James M. Lent. 


1872. 


Enos Gardner. 


TREASURERS. 




ARGYLE. . - 


'■■-■■■■; >: '■;=:-■: . '.":-.•:-::; 


:.— IS6O. 


William Hatfield. 


1881. 


Peter Lent Hatfield, 



MUNICIPAL COUNCILS. 



3"5 



MUNICIPAL INCORPORATION. 

During the legislative session of 1855, an Act was passed for the 
municipal incorporation of counties, empowering any county or muni- 
cipal district to adopt the system by a majority vote of the electors. The 
Act was brought into operation in Yarmouth Township in 1856, and 
after a three-years' trial the system was abandoned by a majority vote of 
the electors. Yarmouth Township was the only district in the Province 
that ventured upon the experiment of municipal incorporation under the 
Act of 1855. That event occasioned a complete severance of the muni- 
cipal affairs of Yarmouth and Argyle, which accounts for the appointment, 
in 1856, of a custos, a tieasurer, and a clerk of the peace, for the Town- 
ship of Argyle. 

The warden was elected by a general vote of the township ; the 
councillors by electoral districts. The clerk was appointed by the 
council. 



1856. 

Samuel Brown, Warden. 
John W. Moody. 
William Robertson. 
Ansel Robbins, sen. 
Elijah Cleveland. 
Jesse Shaw. 
Joseph Crosby. 
Nathan Hilton. 
Joseph Durkee. 



MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. 

1857. 

\V. H. Townsend, Warden. 
John W. Moody. 
John K. Ryerson. 
Elijah Cleveland. 
Leonard Weston. 
George Killam. 
Jesse Shaw. 
Josiah Raymond. 
Joseph Durkee. 



1858. 

William Burrill, Warden. 
George Killam. 
William Rogers. 
John K. Ryerson. 
Elijah Cleveland. 
Leonard Weston. 
Jesse Shaw. 
Josiah Raymond. 
Joseph Durkee. 



Municipal Clerk (1856-1858), John Tooker. 



In 1879 an Act of the Legislature brought into operation a ^general 
system of county incorporation, under which Yarmouth Township was 
entitled to elect annually seven councillors, and Argyle six, the councillors 
to choose a warden from among themselves. In 1880 an amendment to 
the Act extended the term of the council to two years, and increased the 
number of councillors for Yarmouth to thirteen, that for Argyle remaining 
as before. 



3i6 



REGISTRARS A\D /'OSTMASTERS. 



MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF YARMOUTH. 



1880. 
W. U. Moody, IVarJen. 
James J. Lovitt. 
Al)ram M. Hatfield. 
Robert K. Rose. 
James E. Allen. 
Edwin .S. Crosby. 
John A. Hatfield. 



1881-1882. 

James J. Lovitt, IVa den 
Freeman Dennis. 
George G. Sanderson. 
N. B. Lewis. 
A. M. Hatfield. 
Ansel Robbins. 
James Burrill. 
William Corning. 



Robert K. Rose. 
James E. Allen. 
Alfred I'erry. 
Edwin .S. Crosby. 
Joiin A. Hatfield. 

1883-1884. 



Edwin Crosby. 
John A. Hatfield. 

1885-1886. 

James liurrili, Warden, 
George \V. Johnson. 
A. W. Eakins. 



G. G. Sanderson, Warden. Joseph R. Wyman. 



Arthur W. Eakins. 

Joseph R. Wyman. 

N. B. Lewis. 

A. M. Hatfield. 

Francis G. Cook. 

James Burrill. 

William Corning. 

Robert K. Rose. 

James E. Allen. 

Alfred Pci . 
Clerk (1880-1886), Thomas B. Crosby. 
Treasurer (1880-1886), Thomas E. Corning. 



N. B. Lewis. 
A. M. Hatfield. 
F. G. Cook. 
William Corning. 
R. K. Rose. 
James E. Allen. 
Alfred Perry. 
Edwin Crosby. 
John A. Hatfield. 



MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF ARGYLE. 



1880. 
O. W. Slocomb, Warden. 
J. Adolphus Hatfield. 
Mande Le Blanc. 
Gervais D'Entremont. 
Anselme O. Pothier. 
Lemuel Hamilton. 

1881-1882. 



Jean B. Pothier. 
Mathurin D'Entremont. 
Jeremre H. Pothier. 
Lemuel Hamilton. 

1883-1884. 

O. W. Slocomb, Warden. 
J. AdolpI s Hatfield. 
Lezon V. Pothier. 
Mathurin D'Entremont. 



O. W. Slocomb, Warden 
J. Adolphus Hatfield. 

Clerk (1880-1S86), Enos Gardner. 

Treasurer (1S80-1886), Peter Lent Hatfield. 



Jeremie H. Pothier. 
Lemuel Hamilton. 

1885-1886. 

O. W. Slocomb, Warden. 
J. Adolphus Hatfield. 
Lezon V. Pothier. 
Mathurin D'Entremont. 
Jeremie H. Pothier. 
Lemuel Hamilton. 



Samuel S. Poole. 
Benjamin Barnard, sen. 



JUDGES OF PROBATE. 

John Forman. 
W. H. Keating. 



Thomas V. B. Bingay. 
James Murray. 



' Ephraim Cook. 
*774' John Crawley. 



REGISTRARS OF DEEDS. 

1784. Benj. Barnard, sen. 
1827. H. G. Farish. 



1856. John Murray. 
1878. Adelaide Murray. 



" \ ■-:■ '; POSTMASTERS. 

1806. H. G. Farish. 1857. Abel C. Robbins. 1863. Alexander Lawson. 

1856. Richard Huntington, i860. Richard Huntington. 1864. Alexander J. Hood. 



CONSULS AND COLLECTORS. 



317 



CROWN-LAND SURVEYORS. 



Miner HuntinRton. 
Joshua Frost. 
Hcrl)ert Huntington. 



James H. Moody. 



Jean Houniue. 
Zaccheus Churchill. 



LLOYD'S AGENTS. 
1829. E. VV. B. Moody. 



John Killam. 
Peter Lent Hatfield. 



1863. John W. Moody. 



SPANISH CONSULS. 
1S69. George S. Hrown. 1878. John W. Moody. 



1866. John W. Moody.' 



SWEDISH CONSUL. 



W. H. Keating. 
H. A. (Jrantham. 
L. S. Halkam. 



UNITED-STATES CONSULS. 



James M. Merrill. 
James M. Davis. 



Jos. R. Kinney. 
W. H. Robertson. 



Charles Tooker. 
Charles NV. Clements 



SURVEYOR AMERICAN SHIPMASTERS' ASSOCIATION. 

James Nelson Gardner. 

HARBOR MASTERS. 

YARMOUTH. 

George E. Cann. Ebenezer Scott. 



COLLECTORS OF CUSTOMS. 



1763. John Crawley. 

1766. Ranald MacKinnon. 

1806. Joseph N. Hond. 

182S. A. V. S. Forbes. 

183S. William Robertson, 

1S43. Arthur White. 

1845. Robert S. Eakins. 

1S46. Thomas E. Moberly. 

1875. Henry A. Hood. 

1883. William H. Moody. 



FOR ARGYLE PORTS. 



iSo(5. 
1845. 



1854. 
1864. 



John MacKinnon. 
H. H. Faulin. 
Abram Lent. 
James ^L Lent. 

Adolphus S. Lent. 
Simon D'Entremont. 
Pierre S. D'Entre- 
mont. 



TUSKET WEDGE. 

David L. Pothier. 

BEAVER RIVER. 

Reuben Perry. 



■ John W. Moody holds also these appointments since respective dates: — 
1863. Agent Liverpool Underwriters' Association. 
1868. Correspondent New- York Board of Underwriters. 

1868. Correspondent Boston Board of Underwiiters. ___^-. ■ ~''" " 

1886. Correspondent National Board of Underwriters, New York. ' ' 

His jurisdiction as Lloyd's agent covers the western coast of Nova Scotia from Cape Sable and the 

Seal Islands to the head of the Bay of Fundy, including the Basin of Mines; as correspondent for the 

American Boards, the coast from Annapolis to^Liverpool, both inclusive. 



3'8 



CUSiOMS OFFICERS. 



Edgar'Grantham. 
Frank Forbes. 
John H. Lane. 
A. J. Babington. 
James S Morris. 
Lyman Durkee. 
Charles Huntington. 



TtOE-WAITBRS, ETC. 

Norman .S. Porter. 
Robert J. liingay. 
William MacGill. 
Thomas S. Bown. 
W. W. Campbell. 
Marsden Coaldwell. 
Ansel Robbins. 



TUSKET WKDGE. 

Joseph Le Blanc. 
Louis Le Blanc. 



PUBNICO. 



John B. J. D'Entremont. 



COLLECTORS OF INLAI^D REVENUE. 
Thomas V. B. Bingay. IL D. Munro. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Township Records 1763-1789, —Sessional Proceedings 1789-1840. — Churches of the 
County. — Clergymen 1 761-1886. — Masonic Institutions. — Officers Hiram Lodge 1848- 
1886. — Scotia Lodge 1863-1886. — Royal Arch Chapter 1865-1S85. — British and Foreign 
Bible Society. — Ladies' Branch. — Book Society 1S22. — Yarmouth Academy. — i>ehool 
Teachers 1800-1S64. — Newspapers 1831-1S83. — Yarmouth Seminary. --Common 
Schools. — Agricultural Societies. — Mountain Cemetery. — Abbotsford and other Funds 

— Inland Navigation Company. — Marine Insurance Companies 1809-1886. — Share- 
holders, Directors, and Profit and Loss Account. — Yarmouth Banks. —California and 
Australia Expeditions. — Commercial Wharf Company, and Moody, Brown, & Co. — 
Steam Communication. — Herald, Saxe-Gotha, and North America. — Eastern State. — 
Dominion. — Emperor. — Alpha. — Gaslight, Steam-tug, and Marine Railway Companies. 

— Western Couaties Railway Company. — Water Company. — Building Society. — 
Mutual Relief oociety. — Woollen Mill Company. — Telephone Companies. — Duck and 
Yarn Company. — Co-operative Deposit and Loan Society, — Conclusion. 

''r^HE purpose of the last chapter of this " Sequel " is to exhibit, so 
*~ far as may be within the space still at our disposctl, the progress of 
Yarmouth from 1761 down to the present year; the various religious, 
philanthropic, educational, commercial, co-operative, or other organiza- 
tions through which the affairs of the community have been conducted, 
with the names of the leading men or directors of the different associa- 
tions. 

Pursuant to the proclamation of January, 1759, for the establishment 
of townships consisting of about one hundred thousand acres, it was 
resolved in September of that year that the territory on both sides of 
Cape Fourchu should be constituted the Township of Yarmouth, and it 
was ordered that the local government should be like that of the neigh- 
boring colonies. The inhabitants were to gather in town-meetings, 
choose their own officials, and give instructions as to the duties required 
of them ; the government reserving the right to appoint the chief local 
officers, sheriffs, magistrates, etc., as well as to exercise a supervision of 
the public land: , to insure an equitable division among those deemed to 
be entitled to them. 



320 TOWNSHIP RECORDS. 

1762. — The first local public record relating to Yarmouth, is dated 
Sept. 9, 1762, and recites that William Pring, Ebenezer Moulton, and 
John Crawley, Esquires, were appointed, by the governor-in-council, a 
committee for the settlement of Yarmouth Township in Queens County. 
The committee prescribed these regulations : — 

1. Families, seven in number, shall have a lot of 100 acres, 80 rods 
wide on the river, with 50 acres adjoining in the rear. 

2. Families, six in number, shall have 100 acres, 80 rods on the 
river. 

3. Single men shall have 50 acres, 50 rods wide on the river. 

4. Tinkham's Island. Having decided to reserve the points and 
islands generally, " to accommodate navigation and the fishery," 10 
acres of this island at each end were reserved, and the remainder allotted 
to Edward Tinkham. 

5. Howard's Island. Ten acres being reserved on the river, the 
remainder, with the lot where his house stood, was assigned to one 
Howard. 

6. Nickerson's Island. Ten acres being reserved, the rest of the 
island was assigned to Nathan Nickerson if he chose to take it as a part 
of his share of the township lands. 

7. Pring's Island was given to William Pring and John Crawley for 
assistance rendered to some families in a time of distress. 

8 Other islands not to be occupied without consent of the com- 
mittee. 

9, Fifty acres to be reserved at Cape Fourchu for a town site. 

10. Bunker's Island, Fish Point, and Chebogue Town Point, to be 
laid out in acre lots. Each man to have an acre where his house stood, 
or where he had made improvements. 

1763. — John Crawley and Samuel Otis, a committee, laid out to 
Robert Haskell the island in Yarmouth Harbor now called Doctor's 
Island. 

1764. — Jonathan Woodbury, Phineas Durk*^ , and Patrick Gowen, 
with James Philpot as surveyor, laid off to William Haskell i\ acre of land 
on Bunker's Island, " the point of land which he now possesses," adjoin- 
ing Benjamin Brown's lot, and which, in 1767, they sold to Paul Bunker 
for $25 and $20, respectively. 



TOWNSHIP RECORDS. 321 

1765. — In the course of this year, committees, variously composed 
of from three to twelve of the persons named, Phineas Durkee, Eleazer 
Butler, Daniel Crocker, James Robbins, Josiah Beals, Seth Barnes, 
Ephraim Cook, John Crawley, Elishama Eldridge, Moses Scott, John 
MacKinnon, James Mattenly, John Walker, Andrew Lovitt, Samuel Dove, 
Ebenezer Moulton, Joseph Stewart, Jonathan Utley, Jonathan Baker, 
Roger Merrithew, Nathaniel Ehvell, Eleazer Hibbard, and David Pearl, 
with Patrick Gowen as surveyor, laid off lands in the following order : — 

1 . To Jonathan and Ebenezer Corning the lands on the western side 
of Yarmouth Harbor known as " Coming's Head " and " Elder Head," 
containing together about 58 acres. 

2. To James Mattenly 52 acres on the eastern side of Yarmouth 
Harbor, which, in i 767, he sold to Nehemiah Porter for ;^35. 

3. To Richard Rose 100 acres, on the north-west side of the "Salt 
Pond." 

4. To John Sollows, 100 acres on the western side of the harbor, 80 
rods wide on the marsh and salt pond, and extending westerly 200 rods. 

5. To John Perry and Dominicus Sewell, about three acres each on 
Gilfillan's Island. In 1767 Perry sold his lot to James Gilfillan for $16. 

1766, January. — To Eleazer Hibbard 50 acres on the south-east 
cove of the harbor, 40 rods wide. 

1766, February. — To Andrew Lovitt a house-lot on the western 
side of the harbor, which, in 1 768, he sold to William Coffran for- $8. 

1766, December. — To George Bridgeo, 100 acres on the western 
side of Chebogue River, with a reservation for a road through it of four 
rods in width. 

1767. — To Samuel Ellenwood a house-lot, one acre, on the western 
side of the harbor. 

To Ebenezer Clark, 50 acres, adjoining Ellenwood's, a part of which 
he sold the same year to Joseph Saunders for $40. 

To Jeremiah Allen, 150 acres at "Sunday Point Cove," so called. 

To Nathaniel Elwell the "Thrum Cap," so called. 

To Eleazer Hibbard, one acre on Bunker's Island, which he sold to 
Paul Bunker for $20, to whom also in the same year Joseph Stewart for 
%}p, and Judah Agard for $18, sold their lots on that island. 

It will be observed that the names of many men who arrived during 



I 



322 TOWiXSHIP RECORDS. 

1 761 and 1762 do not appear in these allotments, because they had 
already selected their homesteads without the interference of any com- 
mittee. But in 1767 the township was granted en bloc to the persons 
whose names are given, and in the proportions set forth in Chapter XII. 
1767, Dec. 31. — A "Proprietor's Meeting" was held this day. 
Phineas Durkee, who had hitherto performed the duties of town clerk, 
retired, and the meeting proceeded, — 

1. To choose Daniel Crocker to succeed him. 

2. Voted $24 to John MacKinnon and Benjamin Ellenwood "for 
their services to Halifax in obtaining the grant of the township." 

3. Appointed Jaremiah Allen, Eleazer Butler, and George Ring, 
assessors. 

6. Appointed James Robbins and John Sollows, collectors. 

8. Named a committee to report the lands already laid out. 

9. Voted that the proprietors of one share, or half a share, should 
have 100 acres laid off to them in the first division, and the title con- 
firmed to those to whom lands had been already assigned. 

10. Ordered a general survey and division of the Salt Marsh 
lands. 

11. Appointed Capt. Nathan Nickerson, Eleazer Butler, and John 
Sollows, as surveyors for that purpose. 

12-14. Named nine assistants to the surveyors. 

15. Appointed Esquire Cook to survey the marsh adjoining his 
land. 

16-19. Appointed Capt. Jeremiah Allen, James Brown, Esquire 
Crawley, James Robbins, and Joseph Saunders, a committee to examine 
the boundaries of the first division, to lay out " four lots for the use of 
the town," and to report at the end of six months, granting to the resi- 
dent proprietors that time to select their 100 acres per share in the first 
division. 

22. Named March i for the surveyors of the marsh to make their 
report. • 

23. Accepted the return of a road laid out to Cape Fourchu. 

24. Voted seven dollars to pay charges laying out said road. 

25. \pj.ointed P. Gowen, S. Barnes, and Jonathan Crosby, to la\ 
out a road on the north side of Chebogue River. _ 



TOWNSHIP RECORDS. 323 

26. Appointed Nathan Nlckerson, George Ring, and James Robbins, 
to lay out a road on east side of Chebogue River. 

27. Appointed Patrick Gowen, Robert Haskell, and Peleg Holmes, a 
committee to layout cross-roads from Chebogue River to Cape Fourchu. 

28. Voted ^^146 i5jr. to be raised "for defraying the charges of 
the proprietary." 

29. Appointed Daniel Crocker treasurer. 

30. Voted $120 to Capt. Haskell "for his services to Halifax for the 
charter, though it could not then be obtained." 

31. Voted five dollars to Esquire Cook, and two dollars each to 
Esquires Crawley and Durkee, for books and services. And the meet- 
ing dissolved. 

1768. — Ebenezer Moulton, jun., sold to Paul Bunker for twenty 
dollars an acre of land on Bunker's Island. 

1768. — Argyle Street; Wyman's Road; the road from "Chipman's 
Corner " to Milton, and thence southerly to and through Jeremiah 
Allen's land at Kelley's Cove ; a road on Phineas Durkee's south line to 
the creek, and thence over GilfiUan's Island to the beach and Bunker's 
Island; the road from "Vickery's Comer," 100 feet wide, southerly " to 
the line between John Crawley and Benjamin Robbins," Chebogue 
Point; and a road, 100 feet wide, "to the Chebogue meeting-house, 
thence south 60 degrees east, 46 rods to the river, and thence to Town 
Point," — were all laid out in this year. It appears, in the return of 
the "Cove Road," that, in 1768, Benjamin Darling owned a house, 
formerly Judah Agard's, not far from " Broad Brook." 

1768, March 31. — At a proprietors' meeting, the surveyors reported 
the Salt Marsh to consist of 3,184 acres. It was thereupon voted to 
allot 15 acres to each share; and John Crawley, Jonathan Crosby, and 
Cornelius Rogers, were appointed a committee to set off each man's pro- 
portion, regard being had to the quality of the land, " their judgment to 
be decisive." 

1768, June 27. — At a town-meeting held at the meeting-house, 
John Crawley, moderator, it was voted " that Seventeen pounds, eleven 
shillings and ten pence be hired of Capt. Seth Barnes, in order to settle 
with John MacKinnon, Esquire, for the Grant, and that Jeremiah Allen 
and Daniel Crocker give security for the money." 



324 TOWNSHIP RECORDS. 

June 27. — John MacKinnon, by warranted and defended deed, con- 
veyed to John Richardson, for the sum of ^500, one right or share of 
lands in Yarmouth Township, said share being the property of James 

MacKinnon. 

Acknowledged before 

Phinea§ Durkee, y. P. 
Witnesses : Seth Barnes, Jeremiah Allen. 

1769. — At a proprietors' meeting, the vote for the division of the 
Salt Marsh was reconsidered, and it was voted that the proprietors of 
land on the western side of Chebogue River should have ten acres of 
marsh adjoining their upland ; that the remainder of the marsh on that 
side of the river should be divided among the inhabitants on the eastern 
side of Cape Fourchu River ; and that the inhabitants at Chebogue 
should have the " first pick " of the marsh on the east side of the river, 
to make up their full complement. Appointed Esquire Cook, Joseph 
Saunders, and David Hersey, to settle this division of the Salt Marsh. 

1769. — Appointed Benjamin Ellenwood, Jonathan Corning, Elishama 
Eldridge, and John Sollows, to lay out a road from the " Fish Point" to 
Chegoggin. The returns for this road were accepted in 1772 byPhineas 
Durkee, Ephraim Cook, and John MacKinnon, justices of the peace. 

1771. — Andrew Lovitt, Eleazer Butler, and Richard Rose, laid out 
" Lovitt's Road " from " Pitch Hill " to the " Salt-Pond Falls." 

1771. — Ebenezer Moulton, sen., for seventy-nine " Spanish mill dol- 
lars," conveyed to Hezekiah Bunker 4I acres of land on Bunker's Island. 

1772. — A road was laid out from the Chebogue Road, at John 
Clement's south-west corner, to the Cove Road, " from Jeremiah Allen's 
to Timothy Robinson's," the returub for which were accepted, in 1 774, by 
John Crawley, Ephraim Cook, and Phineas Durkee, justices of the peace. 

1773. — Voted ;^6o to pay cost of surveys and division of the marsh, 
and appointed John Crawley, Eleazer Butler, Cornelius Rogers, Joseph 
Robinson, and John Walker, a committee to complete the division. 

1774. — An office for the registry of deeds was establfshed in Yar- 
mouth, and John Crawley was ap|iointed registrar. Excepting the 
" Proprietor's Book," Liverpool had been before the only place of 
registry in the county. 



TOWNSHIP RECORDS. 325 

1778. — Laid out three roads over Bunker's Island, and a public 
landing at the north-east point, containing 12 rods of land ; and laid out 
to Hezekiah Bunker i^ acre of land " on the island where he now 
lives," in lieu of his land taken for highways. 

1781. — Joshua Burgess, "to take off all entanglements that might 
arise to embarrass the title " to the meeting-house lot at Chebogue, for 
the sum of five shillings released his claim to 50 acres of land previously 
laid out to him, and now found to belong to the meeting-house lot 
granted by the government in 1780. 

1784. — Appointed John Crawley, Esq., an agent to represent to the 
government the proceedings in the allotment of the lands. 

1785. — At a proprietors' meeting, S. S. Poole moderator, it was voted 
to draw by lot the lands in the second division. Appointed Deacon 
Hunt, Major Timpany, Esquire Smith of Barrington, Maurice Hobbs of 
Argyle, and Miner Huntington, a committee to assist in the division of 
the lands. Voted " that the first division should be finished, and those 
who have not at this time their first-division lands laid out shall pay the 
charges themselves." Voted, to lay out 200-acre lots in the second divis- 
ion "in the best bodies of land;" "to divide the other good lands to 
the northward of the stream on which Hersey's saw-mill stands to every 
share as it will hold out ; to divide the lands lying on the eastern side of 
the northern branch of the Tusket River, to every sharesman a share." 

1804. — Appointed Miner Huntington treasurer, and voted that he 
have the custody of the plan and grant of the township. 

1805. — Appointed Samuel Marshall, Miner Huntington, John Killam, 
S. S. Poole, William Robertson, and Richard Rose, a committee "to 
memorialize the Government concerning lands in dispute," and ap- 
pointed Miner Huntington and Moses Scott to carry the memorial to 
Halifax. 

1806. — The Governor advised the parties to consult together, and 
report to him " the most salutary way for reconciling all differences, and 
for quieting and confirming the title and possession to the lands." 

1806, October. — " A joint Committee of the Proprietors of Yar- 
mouth and the New Grantees within the limits of said Township," met 
and proposed a petition to his Excellency the Governor, " for an escheat 
of all that tract of land lying on the east side of Salmon River, begin- 



326 GENERAL SESSIONS. 

ning at the line of Wilmot's or Burnett's Grant, and excending northerly 
to the northern line of Yarmouth Grant where it crosses the Salmon 
River ; thence running North East to the eastern branch of Tusket River ; 
down the said River in all its windings to the junction of the two 
branches ; thence up the North \yest branch to the North eastern line 
before mentioned ; thence down on the Western side of said River to 
Burnett's line, and thence to the place of beginning ; " excepting those 
lands actually occupied or improved. 

(Signed) Saml. S, Poole, Samuel Marshall, Miner Huntington, 
Job Smith, James Lent, Saml. Andrews, Jacob 
Tooker, Elkanah Clements. 

Thomas Dane, Proprietor's Clerk. 

1806, Oct. 20. — At a proprietors' meeting, held at the Cape 
Fourchu meeting-house, Moses Scott, moderator, " read the proposals 
and agreement of the Committee ; moved and voted that the Proprie- 
tors of the Township of Yarmouth do by no means agree to the pro- 
posals of the Committee." 

(Signed) Thomas Dane, Proprietor' s Clerk. 

1813. — Complaints having proceeded from certain parties, respect- 
ing the division of the marsh-lands, Thomas Dane, proprietors' clerk, 
called a meeting " to take place at Mrs. Richan's Tavern, on Oct. 9, 
to redress all grievances," etc. ; and it is to be presumed that all differ- 
ences relating to the township lands were then and there reconciled, as 
the " Proprietors' Book " is thenceforth silent upon that and all other 
subjects. 

GENERAL SESSIONS OF THE PEACE. 

1789. — The County of Shelburne was set off from Queens in 
1 784 ; and about that time, probably, Yarmouth and Arg>le Townships 
were constituted a sessional district. So far as appears from the records, 
the first meeting of the sessions of the peace was held at the Chebogue 
meeting-house in October, 1789. The time had evidently arrived for 
such a tribunal ; for the grand jury had to deal with a little personal dif- 
culty between Paul Gowen and William Curtis, neighbors at Chebogue. 



GENERAL SESSIONS 2,27 

The grand jurors were Philip Goudey, Samuel Trask, Huckings Crosby, 
Comfort Haley, Hezekiah Bunker, James Robbins, Ephraim VVyman, 
John Trask, Peter Meuse, Samuel Baker, William Clements, Amasa 
Durkee. 

The grand jurors drawn for 1790 were George Ring, James Hatfield, 
James Kelley, Moses Scott, Ezra (Isidore) Belliveau, James Cain, 
Lemuel Hobbs, Amos Hilton, Zephaniah Kingsley, Edward Tinkham, 
Jacob Tooker, Thomas Flint, Abraham Lent, Nathan Weston, Alexander 
Bain, Jabez Robinson, Lemuel Bartlett. 

A petition was presented for the survey of a road from the head of 
Chebogue to Tusket, Eel Brook, Argyle, and Pubnico. 

(Signed) Elishama Eldridge, Cierk of the Peace. 

1790. — Petition presented for a road from the south-west corner of 
Alexander Bain's land, " past the ' Fish Pond ' and ' Narrows,' as far 
as it shall be thought best, thence north-easterly until it runs into tl;e 
' Shelburne Road.' " The records contain no copy of a survey of 
a " Shelburne Road " at this date. It is probable, therefore, that an 
order had issued from Shelburne, and a survey been made from 
Shelburne to Tusket,»and thence through Salmon River and Brooklyn 
districts to a point near the " Second Pond," about midway between 
Milton and Hebron. 

1791. — Appointed full lists of town officers for Yarmouth and 
Argyle, and made fishery regulations for Yarmouth Harbor, Tusket and 
Salmon Rivers. Lewis Blanchard, James Cain, and Thomas Dane, 
assessors for Yarmouth ; James Frost, Abram Lent, and Ezra Belliveau, 
assessors for Argyle ; Benjamin Barnard and Benoni D'Entremont, 
treasurers ; Andrew Butler, clerk of the peace. He held this office 
until 1817. - 

It is evident, that, upon the organization of the Court of Sessions, the 
Acadians of Yarmouth and Argyle at least were admitted to the full 
privileges of citizenship, for among the appointees by the magistrates to 
the various municipal offices from 1789 to 1792 appear these names: 
Jacques, Ange, and Simon Amirault ; Jean Bourque ; Isidore Belliveau ; 
Abraham Corporon ; Benoni, Charles, Cyrille, Jacques, and Paul 
D'Entremont ; Magloire Doucette ; Paul Duon ; Amand and Joseph 



328 GENERAL SESSIONS. 

Le Blanc; Jean, Louis, and Pierre Meuse ; Dominique I'othier; and 
Paul and Pierre Surette. 

1792. — A petition was presented for a road through Plymouth to the 
end of Tusket-Wedge Point, and another from the " Shelburne Road " 
through land of Abie! Robbins to -the landing at head of " Second Pond." 
Voted four pounds as yearly salary of the clerk of the peace. Recom- 
mended that a road be laid out from Chebogue to the Tusket River. 

1794. — April term : held at the schoolhouse, Cape Fourchu. Jus- 
tices present : John Crawley, Samuel Sheldon Poole, Denjamin Barnard, 
Benoni D'Entremont, Nathaniel Richards, Ephraim Cook, and Ranald 
MacKinnon, Esqs. Granted seven licenses to sell spirituous liquors at 
ten dollars a year. 

1796. — Justices present: John Crawley, Samuel Marshall, James 
Kelley, Ranald MacKinnon, Nathaniel Richards, Benoni D'Entremont, 
and Joshua Frost. 

A citizen being charged with " assault and battery," the presentment 
was, " It is the opinion of the Grand Jury it is an assault but no battery," 
James Cain, foreman. At the instance of Lawyer Prout, the clerk was 
directed to prepare a new indictment for assault only. The accused 
plead " not guilty ; " but the petit jury by their foreman, Samuel Andrews, 
delivered the verdict, " The opinion of this Jury i"; that the prisoner is 
guilty," whereupon he was fined one shilling. 

1798. — A proposal from the Yarmouth justices to those of Argyle 
that the sessions be held alternately at Tusket and Yarmouth was not 
favorably entertained. The/ continued to be held at Tusket in spring 
and fall. 

1800. — Justices present: Jaines Kelley, Ranald MacKinnon, and 
Joshua Frost. " At four o'clock the Grand Jury came into Court 
and presented, that as the Clerk of the Peace did not bring th: hook 
(called the Grand Jury Book) to Court, he having forgot it, he should be 
fined twenty shillings, which fine the Court were pleased not to admit." 

(Signed) Andrew Butler, Clerk of the Peace. 

1802. — Ordered by the court that a jail be built at Tusket. After 
agreeing upon specifications, James Kelley and Capt. Tunis Blauvelt 
were appointed commission :;rs to superintend the building 



GENERAL SESSIONS. 329 

1803. — An individual "late of Halifax, not having the fear of God 
before his eyes, but moved by the instigation of the Devil," was found 
guilty of larceny of " Goods and Chattels to the amount of nine pence ; " 
and it was ordered by the court " that he immediately receive 39 
lashes which was performed by the Constable at John Richan's flag- 
staff, and it was further ordered that tlie said immediately 

(juit the Town of ^'armouth which lie obeyed." 

1803, July 12. — At a special session, held at John Richan's tavern 
at Yarmouth, a surveyor of highways was summoned to appear, and 
" account for public money placed in his hands and show cause why he 
should not be fined for not making return according to law." The 
surveyor duly appeared before Justices John Crawley, Benjamin Barnard, 
Samuel Marshall, and James Kelley, " and produced from his pocket 
a paper which he read in Sessions, the purport of which was, that he 
had consulted two gentlemen learned in the law on the subject, and 
that they had advised him to pay no attention to the business ; further, 
that he would spend his last guinea and the last drop of his blood in 
defence of the cause ; after which he abruptly left tne Court and said 
we might do as we pleased." The name of the delinquent, Lewis 
Blanchard, does not appear ii: future lists of township officers. 

1804, — "On application of Joseph N. Bond, Escjre., Commissioner 
for the Bridge built over Tusket River, the Magistrates and Grand Jury 
do declare and are of opinion that the moneys voted and granted by the 
Legislature of this Province have been justly and faithfully expended 
and that the said Bridge has been completed in the most faithful and 
workmanlike manner." 

John Crawley, Ranald MacKinnon, 1 

Saml. 6. Poole, Joshua Frost, \ Justices of the Peace. 

Nathanl. Richards, James Kelley, J 

Amasa Durkee, Foreman of Grand Juiy. 

1805, October. — The sessions met for the first time at the new 
Court House, Tusket. 

1806, September. — Special sessions at Richan's Tavern, Yar- 
mouth. Justices present, Benjamin Barnard, Joseph N. Bond, and 
Samuel Marshall. A man charged with stealing an axe, alleged that the 



330 GEXERAL SESSIOXS. 

prosecutrix " owed him for a week's labor, and that he would not return 
the axe till he was paid." The jury found the prisoner "guilty of 
stealing an axe of the value of 4/1 1." Whereupon the court having 
duly considered " the felonious intent of the prisoner together with his 
former suspicious character," sentenced him to thirty-nine lashes. And 
it appearing that the prosecutrix was indebted to the prisoner in the 
sum of 21/-, from which deducting 10/-, "the value of the axe as she 
says," it was ordered that the balance 1 1/- be paid to the constable for 
his services. 

Voted that the salary of the clerk of the peace be J^^d a year. 

1808, March 14. — Special session held at the house of Gabriel 
Van Norden in Yarmouth (Chebogue). Present, Justices Samuel S. 
Poole, Joshua Frost, Nathaniel Richards, and James Lent. The Gov- 
ernment having directed that a census be taken, William Robertson and 
Samuel S. Poole for Yarmouth Township, Joshua Frost and Nathaniel 
Richards for Argyle, were appointed to take account of stock. They 
were directed at the same time to take the opinion of the settlers in the 
different parts of the townships, as to the proper places where the stock 
could be conveyed in the event of an invasion. The commissioners 
reported on April 5, and it was ordered that the places of security 
for the cattle in case of invasion should be, for Tusket, the Great 
Fresh Meadow on eastern branch of Tusket River ; for Abuptic, the 
eastern branch of Tusket River ; for Pubnico, the Great Lake, so 
called. The commissioners were granted certificates for ten days' 
services each. 

It is not a little curious to note the similarity of these proceedings 
with those taken a few years before in England. In the annals of the 
reign of George III., it is recorded, "The alarm respecting an invasion 
which prevailed towards the close of the year (1796) was denoted by a 
circular letter from the Secretary of State to the Lieutenants of the Coun- 
ties on the English sea-coast, recommending an account to be taken of 
the live and dead stock in the Parishes within i z miles of the sea, and 
desiring juch Lieutenants to communicate with the Commander-in- 
Chiefs of the Districts respecting the measures to be employed for the 
removal of the stock, if necessary." 



GENERAL SESSIONS. 33* 

i8io. — Assessors appointed for Yarmouth, H. G. Parish, Thomas 
Dane, and Jacob Kelley. Licenses were granted to sixteen persons in 
V'armouth and twelve in Argyle, to keep " houses of entertainment " and 
retail spirituous liquors. A mulatto girl being charged with stealing a 
piece of ribbon, value ninepence, she pleaded *' not guilty," and said 
she would " be tried by God and her country." The verdict, delivered 
by Rufus Hibbard, foreman, was, " It is the opinion of the Jury that 
Harriet is guilty of the charge alleged against her ; " whereupon the 
court, Samuel S. Poole, Joseph N. Bond, Benoni D'Entremont, and 
H. G. Parish, Esquires, sentenced Harriet " to receive 1 2 lashes on the 
bare back and the Sheriff was ordered to perform the same as soon as 
possible." 

-811 — The court appointed H. G. Parish, Miner Huntington, and 
Jacob Tedford, school trustees for Yarmouth. An Act of the Legislature 
of this year offered ^25 per annum in support of a school in districts 
where the inhabitants would pay ^^50. 

181 2. — A prominent citizen of Yarmouth who plead guilty to 
assaulting Lawyer Ikichanan, was fined by the court 2/4. Another 
equally prominent citizen of Argyle plead guilty to assaulting the same 
lawyer, and was fined 1/3 ; and the lawyer having brought a second 
charge of assault against the same person, the case went to the jury, who 
upon hearing the evidence, and " after a short deliberation," returned a 
verdict of " not guilty." 

1814. — The court ordered that "after two posts," no newspapers be 
delivered from the post-office on Sundays. 

1817, ApriL — At Tusket. Justices present, James Lent, Benoni 
D'Entremont, Joseph N. Bond, and H. G. Parish. The grand jury 
recommended licenses to be granted to twenty-nine persons in Yar- 
mouth, and twelve in Argyle. The court granted the whole number and 
six additional for Yarmouth. 

1817, October. — At Yarmouth. Present, Samuel S. Poole, James 
Lent, Joseph N. Bond, H. G. Parish, and Benjamin Barnard. A 
man charged with a breach of the peace, " presented to the Court a 
writing containing the following words. ' My wife does not understand 
writing. He made her sign, or make her mark or cross, to make discord 



332 GEXERAL SESSIONS. 

like a Petty fogger. When a Magistrate acts from sinister views, he ought 
to be dispossessed of his Commission. He does not act from the tenor 
of his oath to be the means of making discord between man and wife.' 
And having otherwise behaved in a contemptuous manner to the Court, 

it was ordered, that the said — be committed forthwith to the 

district jail, there to remain five days, or until he finds surety for his 
good behavior." 

1818. — The grand jury recommended that Yarmouth and Argyle be 
assessed for ^200 for a Court House in Yarmouth ; and it was ordered 
that Miner Huntington and James B. Dane of Yarmouth, and David Van 
Norden and Abram Marsh Hatfield of Argyle, make an estimate of the 
value of the Court House and jail at Tusket, and report at the next 
sessions. 

1819, March. — Sessions at Tusket. Justices present, James Lent, 
Benoni D'Entremont, and Joseph N. Bond. Ordered, that Joseph N. 
Bond and Henry G. Parish be commissioners for purchasing land and 
erecting a Court House and jail at Yarmouth ; and "' in compliance with 
the wishes of a most respectable Grand Jury," Miner Huntington and 
John Killam were appointed to consult with and assist the commissioners. 
Joseph N. Bond having resigned, Benjamin Barnard was appointed in 
his stead. It v/as recommended that the new Court House be built as 
near as possible to the corner of Argyle and Main Streets ; the particular 
situation to be decided at a special sessions to be called for that purpose, 
and to be composed of the magistrates of the district. 

1819, June 26. — At a special sessions held at the house of Benjamin 
Barnard, Esquire, — present, Samuel S. Poole, James Lent, Benjamin 
Barnard, Joseph N. Bond, and H. G. Farish, — it was voted "that the 
new Court House be built somewhere between Mr. Thomas Russell's 
house (Butler's Hill) and Mr. James Bond's corner, opposite Major 
Huston's, on said road either on the south or north side." 

Yarmouth, July 10, 1819. 

Gentlemen : We, the Magistrates of the District of Yarmouth and 
Argyle, are of opinion, that the most proper site for placing the Court 
House and Jail, now about to be erected for the said Pistric'., is as near 
the western end of Jebogue Road, opposite Major Huston'-;-, as may be. 



GEXERAL SESSIONS. 333 

We therefore order and direct that you desist from proceeding in the 
building of said Court House on or near the premises of Nehemiah 
Porter where the timber for said building is now lodged. 

(Signed) Saml. S. Poou:. 

Joseph N. Bond. 
James Lent. 
Jacob Kelley. 

To Messrs. Miner Huntington and John Killam, 

Assistants to the Commissioners. 

1819, October. — General Sessions held at the house of Lydia 
Richan, Yarmouth, Present, b. muel S. Poole, P>enjamin Barnard, 
James Lent, Joseph N. Bond, H. G. Parish, and Jacob Kelley, Esquires. 

Ordered, that Miner Huntington and John Killam be joint commis- 
sioners with Henry G. Parish, Esq., to complete the Court House and 
jail now erected at Yarmouth, and that the account of the commission- 
ers now on file be approved. Thos. Dane, Clerk, pro tern. 

1820. — The fall term of the General Sessions was held in the new 
Court House at Yarmouth, "near the premises of Xehemiah Porter;" 
and thenceforward the court met alternately at Yarmouth and Tusket, 
until, in 1855, the Township of Yarmouth accepted the system of muni- 
cipal incorporation, when the affairs of the two townships became dis- 
sociated. In 1859 Yarmouth returned to the old government by 
Sessions of the Peace, but the two townships continued a separate 
management of their local affairs ; the resident justices of one township 
not participating in the business of the other, although their jurisdiction 
extended ever the whole county. 

1822. — Regulations for thistles in .-^rgyle Township. Ordered, — 
" That for every thistle that shall be allowed to ripen the seed, the 
Owner of the land whereon such thistle shall grow shall pay a fine of 
six pence for one thistle ; for two thistles a shilling ; and six pence for 
each additional thistle, until the sum amounts to twenty shillings and no 
more ; including the middle of the highway or road fronting said land." 
1827. — The Township of Yarmouth was divided into eighteen school 
districts. * "■ " ■ -.'•; 



334 CHURCHES AND CLERGYMEN. 

1828, April 29. — "His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor has 
been pleased to appoint the following gentlemen to be School Commis- 
sioners for Yarmouth and Argyle : Revd T. A. Grantham, S. S. Poole, 
H. G. Parish, John MacKinnon, and James Lent, Esquires. 

* To be Commissioners of. the Fisheries, for Argyle, John MacKin- 
non, Abram Lent, and Aaron Spinney ; for Yarmouth, H. G. Farish, 
John Bingay, and Robt. Kelley." 

1830. — "James Bond and other inhabitants of Yarmouth, having 
proved to the satisfaction of the Court, that the inhabitants of Yarmouth 
have expended the sum of ^67. 10. o in purchasing a site for a building 
for the instruction and education of youth in the said Township, and 
that they have expended the sum of j[^2(i%. 15. i in erecting the build- 
ing aforesaid, It is therefore ordered b^- the Court that a Certificate 
thereof be granted to enable the inhabitants of said Township to receive 
the Provincial Grant of ;^i5o." 

1834. — An Act of the Legislature in this year established sessions 
of the Supreme Court at Yarmouth. The same year Yarmouth was 
made a Warehousing Port by an order of the Imperial Council, passed 
in August, 1833. 

1840. — The Town of Yarmouth was assessed for ^387 \os. to 
pay for two fire-engines imported from Boston. Cape Fourchu Light- 
house was completed, and Yarmouth made a Port of Registry. Seal- 
Island's Light had been a guide only since 1831. 

CHURCHES AND CLERGYMEN. 

The decennial census of 1881 gives Yarmouth County a population 
of 21,284, spread over an area of about 300 square miles, at least one- 
third of the county being still unoccupied. In 1879, Yarmouth had 
upon her books of registry, 297 vessels, 153,515 tons, almost entirely 
owned within the county ; and the world is challenged to a comparison. 
Ahead in the tons of shipping per capita, she professes to lead also in 
the number of churches and buildings for religious worship, as will be 
shown by the subjoined list, giving a total of 77. The reader must be 
content here with the simple enumeration, and may be referred to 
Mr. Campbell's History for a detailed account of the rise and progress 
of tlie various denominations : — 



CHURCHES. 



335 



Chebogue. 



Yarmouth (3). 
Chebogue. 
Arcadia. 
Overton (hall). 
Chegoggin. 
Pembroke (hall). 
Hebron. 
Hartford (hall). 
Maitland. 
Beaver River. 



Pubnico. 



CONGREGATIONAL (2). 

Yarmouth. 

BAPTIST (24). 

Lake George. 

Ohio (2). 

Deerfield. 

Carleton. 

Forest Glen (hall). 

Gavelton. 

Tusket. 

Salmon River (2). 

Argyle. 

Pubnico. 

UNION BAPTIST (3). 

Little River (2). 



Ste. Anne's, Eel Brook. 

St. Peter's, Pubnico. 

Immaculate Conception, East Pubnico 

St. Michael's, Tusket Wedge. 



ROMAN CATHOLIC (8). 

St. Gabriel's. Little River. 
St. Ambrose, Yarmouth. 
St. Peter's, Surette's Island. 
Ste. Agnes', Quinan. 



Yarmouth. 



EPISCOPAL (2). 



Tusket. 



METHODIST (14). 



Yarmouth (3). 
Arcadia. 
Brooklyn. 
Fish Point. 
Pembroke (hall). 
Hebron. 



Darling's Lake. 

Brenton. 

Rockingham. 

Raynardton (hall). 

Tusket. 

Plymouth. 



FREE BAPTIST (21). 



Argyle (2). 

Pubnico. 

Arcadia. 

Sandford. 

Beaver River. 

Kem])tville. 

Chegoggin. 

Plymouth. 

Salmon River. 

Brooklyn. 



Tusket. 
Yarmouth. 
Chebogue Point. 
Richmond. 
Deerfield. 
Garleton. 
Cedar Lake. 
Rockingham (hall). 
Short Beach (hall). 
Hawthorn (hall). 



Yarmouth. 



PRESBYTERIAN (3). 
Chebogue. 



Carleton. 



336 



CLERGYMEiX. 



In the following lists of clergymen, the dates affixed denote generally the 
beginning of the pastorate, which, in most cases, continued until the date 
next succeeding, except in early times, when that rule does not apply : — 



CONGREGATIONAL. 





CHEBOGUE. 


1S72. 


I76I. 


Rev. Samuel Wood. 


iS73- 
1873- 
1873- 
1877. 

1884. 


1767-71. 


Rev. Neheniiah Porter. 


1769. 


Rev. John Frost. 


1772-92. 
1780. 


Rev. Jonathan Scott. 
Rev. Aaron Bancroft. 


1796. 


Rev. Daniel Breck. 




1808. 


Rev. John Hilyard. 




1816-33. 


Rev. Abel Cutler. 


• 


IS46-5I. 


Rev. Frederick J. Tomkins. 




I85I. 


Rev. W. H. Heudebourck. 


1S48. 


1853-60. 


Rev. Jacob Whitman. 


1S51. 


i860. 


Rev. George Ritchie. 


1854. 


1863. 


Rev. John Gray- 


1S60. 


1866. 


Rev. Archibald Burpee. 


1S63. 


1870. 


Rev. James Douglas. 


1870. 


1870. 


Rev. MacGill. 


1S71. 


1871. 


Rev. Duncan MacGregor. 


1 883. 




BAPTIST. 




YARMOUTH. 




I76I. 


Rev. Ebenezer Moullon. 


1S71. 


1797-1854. Rev. Harris Harding. 


•873- 


1811-14. 


Rev. Alexander C wford. 


1S76. 


iS3'-S3- 


Rev. William Burton. 


187S. 


1852-55- 


Rev. John Davis. 


18S0. 


1855-67. 


Rev. Henry Angel. 


1885. 


1865-67. 


Rev. A. H. Munro. 




186S-81. 


Rev. George E. Day. 




1881-84. 
1886. 


Rev. Calvin Goodspeed. 
Rev. H. F. Adams. 


1837-52 
1838-44 




Temple Chttrch. 


184S-52 
1853- 


1871-73- 


Rev. W. H. Porter. 


1S58. 


1S73-7S. 


Rev. W. H. Warren. 


1S61. 


1878. 


Rev. T. H. Porter. 


1862. 


1879. 


Rev. John Clarke. 


1867. 


1882. 


Rev. J. L. M. Young. 


186?. 


1884. 


Rev. J. B. Woodland. 


1874 

It" .7 5. 



Rev. D. MacCallum. 
Rev. James Hay. 
Rev. J. E. Kean. 
Rev. M. C. Williams. 
Rev. James Shipperly. 
Rev. W. H. Watson. 

Y.\RMOUTH. 

Yarmouth Tabernacle. 
Organized 1848. 

Rev. Frederick J. Tomkins. 
Rev. W. H. Heudebourck. 
Rev. Robert Wilson. 
Rev. George Ritchie. 
Rev. Archibald Burpee. 
Rev. A. J. MacLeod. 
Rev. Alexander MacGregor. 
Rev. William Macintosh. 



Mil Ion Church. 

Rev. Isaiah Wallace. 
Rev. P. Gallagher. 
Rev. E. M. Kierstiad. 
Rev. J. B. MacQuillan. 
Rev. J. A. Gordon. 
Rev. J. A. Ford. 

HEBRON. 
Organized 1837. 

Rev. Harris Harding. 
Rev. A. V. Dimock. 
Rev. James Reid. 
Rev. W. G. Goucher. 
Rev. E. X. Harris. 
Rev. William Burton. 
Rev. Robert D. Porter. 
Rev. R. R. Philp. 
Rev. John Rowe. 
Rev. R. D. Burgess. 
Rev. Atwood Cahocn. 



CLERGYMEN. 



337 



BEAVER RIVER. 
Organized 18^6. 

1846. Rev. Levi Marshall. 

1848. Rev. James Reid. 

Rev. Henry Saunders. 

1853. Rev. T. C. Delong. 

1858. Rev. Aaron Cogswell. 

187 1. Rev. Joseph H. Saunders. 

1875. Rev. J. D. Skinner. 

1877. Rev. G. B. Titus. 

1882. Rev. J. I. DeWolfe. 

OHIO. 
Organized 1833. 

5812. Rev. James Reid. 

1857. Rev. Jo>.eph H. Saunders. 

187 1. Rev. J. A. Stubbert. 

1877. Rev. John W. Weeks. 

1878. Rev. John Rowe. 

1883. Rev. A. E. Ingram. 

1884. Rev. Joshua T. Eaton. 

CHEGOGGIN. 
Organized 1853. 

Rev. \V. G. Goucher. 
Rev. E. N. Harris. 
Rev. J. H. Saunders. 
Rev. O. E. Cox. 
Rev. W. L. Parker. 
Rev. P. R. Murray. 
Rev. J. W. Weeks. 

DEERKIELD. 

1843. Rev. Samuel M. Randall. 

1849. Rev. Henry Saunders. 



1S52-S2 Rev. James A. Stubbert. 
1883. Rev. D. W. Crandall. 

1885. Rev. John Hughes. 



ARGVLE AND TUSKET. 



1806. 


Rev. Enoch Towner. 


1806-34. 


Rev. Harris Harding, and 




others. 


1834-50- 


Rev. James Lent. 


1850-51. 


Rev . C. Rideout. 


•853- 


Rev '. aes Spencer. 


1855. 


Rev. thony Martell. 


1857. 


Rev. nes B. Tabor. 


1858. 


Rev. J ..-ieph H. Saunders. 


I85S-66. 


Rev. Anthony Martell. 


IS69. 


Rev. P. R. Forster. 


1875- 


Rev. Augustus .Shields. 


1876. 


Rev, P. R. Forster. 


1879- 


Rev. William Richan. 


I880-S2. 


Rev. P. S. MacGregor. 


ISS4. 


Rev. D. W. Crandall. 


1885. 


Rev. George H. Goudey. 


IS85. 


Rev. James W. Lingley. 


1885. 


Rev. James A. Stubbert. 



ARGVLE. 
Organized 1830. 

1S30. Rev. Enoch Towner. 

1S42. Rev. James Lent. 

1867. Rev. W. L. Parker. 

1869. Rev. P. R. Fotster. 

1873. Rev. L. B. Gates. 

1875. Rev. W. B. Bradshaw. 

icS79. Rev. E. P. Coidwell. 

18S5. Rev. J. L Skinner. 



ROMAN CATHOLIC. 





Ste. Anne's. 


185S. 


Fr. Quinan. 






1871. 


Fr. 151anchet. 




EEL BROOK, 1 784. 


1S71. 


Fr. Butler. 


1797- 


Abbe Sigogne. 


1873 


Fr. Donaghue. 


1820. 


Fr. Doucette. 


1873- 


Fr. Underwood 


1828. 


Fr. Morin. 


1875. 


Fr. Mihan. 


1834. 


Fr. Petithomme. 


1875. 


Fr. Manning. 


1838. 


Fr. Anssart. 


1876. 


Fr. Mihan. 


1839. 


Fr. Goudot. 


18S1. 


Fr. D'Hommee 


1853- 


Fr. Roles. 


1881. 


Fr. Bernard. 


1856. 


Fr. Gay. 


.882. 


Fr. Manning. 


1857. 


Fr. Berthe. 


1886. 


Fr. Hamilton. 



338 



CLERGYMEN. 





St. Peters. 


1848. 




Fr. Nugent. 




PUHNICO. 


'853- 
1S56. 




Fr. Roles. 
Fr. CJay. 


^1^1- 


AbW Sifjogne. 


1S57. 




Fr. Herlhe. 


1820. 


Fr. Dourctte. 


1858. 




Fr. Ouinan. 


I82.S. 


Fr. Moriii. 


1859. 




Fr. (;.iy. 


1834. 


F"r. Petithoniine. 


1867. 




Fr. MacLeod. 


1839. 


Fr. Goudot. 


1868. 




Fr. O'Hrien. 


•S53- 


Fr. Warlop. 


1870. 




Fr. Kearns. 


185S. 


Fr. lilanchet. 


1876. 




Fr. Manning. 


i8rjo. 


Fr. MacLeod. 


1881. 




Fr. I'.rowiic. 


1867. 


Vx. Bresnan. 


1882. 




Fr. MacCarthy. 


1 868-88. 


Fr. Macl^od. 
St. Michaers. 

TUSKET WED(JE. 


.883- 


88. 


Fr. Parker. 
St. Ambrose, Yarmouth, 
served jointly with 
St. Michael's, until 


«7')7- 


Abbe .Sigogne. 


I 


S77. 


Fr. Kearns. 


1839. 


Fr. Goudot. 


I 


87S- 


-Si. Fr. P)rowne. 


1845. 


Fr. Carmody. 


I 


882-S8. Fr. MacCarthy. 






EPISCOPAL. 







YARMOUTH, 1807. 

1793. ^t\. David (^rmond. 

i8or. Rev. John Blatkburne. 

1S06-15. Rev. Raima Cossit. 

1817. Rev. James Milner. 

18 19. Rev. Rajier Milner. 

1S19. Rev. Thomas A. fJrantham. 

1834. Rev. Alfred Gilpin. 

1842. Rev. Richard Avery. 

1846. Rev. H. L. Owen. 

1846-83. Rev. J. T. T. Moody. 

1884-88. Rev. II. L. A. Almon. 

Curates : — 

1865-76. Rev. J. Roy Cam])bell. 



1876-79 Rev. T. Vi. Mac Lean. 

1879-84. Rev. Richmond Shreve. 

TUSKET, 1S45. 

1S45. Rev. Richard Avery. 

1846. Rev. H. L. Owen. 

1846. Rev. J. T. T. Moody. 

1851. Rev. II. M. .Spike. 

1853. Rev. William .Stewart. 

1855. Rev. Philip Tocque. 

1862. Rev. J. T. Moody. 

1864. Rev. J. P. Sargent. 

1868. Rev. F. M. Young. 

1874. Rev. John Padfield. 

1876-S4. Rev. Henry Sterns. 



METHODIST. 



YARMOUTH. 



1816. Rev. Richard Alder. 

1817. Rev. William Ashe. 

1818. Rev. Richard Crane. 
1S19. Rev. Thomas Payne. 

1820. Rev. John Snowball. 

1 82 1. Rev. George Millar. 
s822. Rev. William Ashley. 

1826. Rev. William Smith. 

1827. Rev. William Temple. 
1828 Rev. Thomas H. Davies. 



1829. 

'S3 
1834 

•835 

1836 

18 ?8 

1839 

1841 

1844 

1846, 

1849, 

1850 



Rev. W. E. Shenstone. 
Rev. William MacDonald. 
Rev. William Webb. 
Rev. Alfred Cole. 
Rev. John MacMurray. 
Rev. James Knowlan. 
Rev. Charles De Wolfe. 
Rev. Charles Churchill. 
Rev. Rowland H. Morton. 
Rev. Henry Pope. 
Rev. Richard Weddall. 
Rev. Richard Williams. 



CLERGYMEN. 



339 



IS5I. 


Rev. William Wilson. 




1855. 


Rev. Michael Pickles. 


1865. 


1857. 


Rev. Michael Pickles. 


1867. 


1857. 


Rev. T. H. Smith. 


1868. 


1858. 


■Rev. James Kngland. 


1871. 


1858. 


Rev. T. B. .Smith. 


1873. 


1859. 


Rev. George Johnson. 


1876. 


1859. 


Rev. Thomas .S. Richey. 


1879. 


i860. 


Rev. Ingram Sutcliffc. 


1882. 


i860. 


Rev. John 15. Likely. 


1885. 


1862. 


Rev. Ingram Suttliffe. 


1862. 


Rev. C. P. Pitblarlo. 




1863. 


Rev. John Prince. 


1 87 5' 


1863. 


Rev. W. C. Prown. 


1877. 


1864. 


Rev. John Prince. 


1878. 


1864. 


Rev. James R. Hart. 


1879. 

F^'Sl. 

iiJ.S4. 




YARMOUTH, .SOUTH. 


1865. 


Rev. John Prince. 


1886. 


1866. 


Rev. J. G. Hennigar. 




1869. 


Rev. Job Shenton. 




1872. 


Rev. J. I,. Sponagle. 


1870. 


1874. 


Rev. Leonard Gaefz. 


1873- 


1875. 


Rev. J. M. Pike. 


1875. 


1878. 


Rev. J. J. Teasdale. 


1876. 


1881. 


Rev. W. H. HeartE. 


1S78. 


1884. 


Rev. James Strothard. 


18S0. 
1883. 
1886. 



YARMOUTH, NORTH. 

Rev. W. M. Perkins. 
Rev. Henry Daniel. 
Rev. Joseph Hart. 
Rev. John Lathern. 
Rev. Jabez A. Rogers. 
Rev. John Read. 
Rev. John Lathern. 
Rev. Jabez A. Rogers. 
Rev. Joseph Gaetz. 

HEBRON AND BRENTCMJ. 

Rev. W. H. Evans. 
Rev. Fred. H. Wright. 
Rev. John L. Dawson. 
Rev. George F. Johnson. 
Rev. J. M. Mellish. 
Rev. W. A. Outerbridge. 
Rev. C. H. Iluestis. 

ARCADIA AND TUSKET, 

Rev. Thomas Rogers. 
Rev. John M. Pike. 
Rev. Godfrey Shore. 
Rev. Robert Tweedy. 
Rev. James Taylor. 
Rev. Hyron <". Hordcn. 
Rev. P. H. Robinson. 
Rev. John Craig, 



PRESBYTERIAN. 

YARMOUTH, CHEBOGUE, AND CARLETON. 

1836-44. Rev. John Ross. 

1849-77. Rev. George Christie. 

1878-82. Rev. William Robertson. 

1882-88. Rev. Anderson Rogers. 

Assistants to Mr. Christie : — 
Rev. John D, Murray. 



1872. 
1879. 
1885. 



Rev. Ebenezer MacNab. 
Rev. William Stewart. 
Rev. John Forrest. 

CHEBOGUE AND CARLETON. 

Rev J. C. Meek. 
Rev. J. K. Pcairsto. 
Rev. J. R. Fitzpatrick. 



FREE BAPTISTS. 





ARGYLE AND TUSKET. 


1869-71. 
1872. 


1817. 


Rev. Jacob Norton. 


1873-76. 


1831-45. 


Rev. Charles Knowles. 


1876-79. 




Rev. H. A. Stokes. 


1879-85. 


1845-61. 


Rev. Charles J. Oram. 


1885. 


1861-69. 


Rev. Charles Knowles. 






' Appendix 


:R. 



Rev. Edward .Sullivan. 
Rev. William Downey. 
Rev. W. M. Knollin. 
Rev. William Downey. 
Rev. William Miller. 
Rev. J. W. Freeman. 



340 



FREEMASONRY. 







ARCADIA. 




BEAVER RIVER. 


•832-57- 


Rev. 


Charles Knowles. 


1840. 


Rev. K. R. Davis. 


1858-64. 


Rev. 


A. Swim. 


1842. 


Rev. Thomas Brady. 


1858-64. 


Rev. 


\V. C. Weston. 


1844. 


Rev. John Jenkins. 


1864. 


Rev. 


Charles Knowles. 


1850. 


Rev. Charles Knowles 


1864. 


Rev 


Walter C. Weston. 


1856. 

1862. 


Rev. C. J. Oram. 
Rev. Edward Sullivan 






YARMOUTH. 


1870. 


Rev. W. M. Knollin. 


1874-77. 


Rev. 


David Oram. 


1872. 


Rev. Samuel N. Royal 


1877-79. 


Rev. 


W. M. Knollin. 


1S76. 


Rev. James F. Smith. 


1883. 


Rev. 


Edwin Crowell. 


1S82. 
1884. 


Rev. .\aron Kenney. 
Rev. J. F. Curry. 




KEMPTVILLE. 


1886. 


Rev. J. I. Porter. 


•833- 


Rev 


Charles Knowles. 






1866. 


Rev 


S. K. West. 




BROOKLYN. 

Rev. David Oram. 



MASONIC INSTITUTIONS. 

Freemasons are wont to say, " From the commencement of the 
world we may trace the foundation of Masonry. Ever since symmetry 
began, and Harmony displayed her charms, our order has had a being. 
During many ages, and in many different countries, it has flourished. 
No art, no science, preceded it." 

John Locke, writing to the Earl of Pembroke under date of May 6, 
1696, sent him a copy of an old manuscript in the Bodleian Library. 
He said, " The manuscript of which this is a copy, appears to be about 
one hundred and sixty years old ; for th'; original is said to be in the 
handwriting of King Henry VL" It is said that King Henry joined the 
order, and the manuscript purports to be a preliminary examination by 
Henry of a member of the fraternity. 

Question. Whatt mote ytt be? 

Answer. Ytt beeth the skylle of Nature, the understondynge of the 
myghte thet ys hereynne, and its sondrye werkynges ; sonderlyche, the 
skylle of reckenynges, of waightes and metynges, and the true manere of 
fa9onnynge alle thynges for mennes use ; headlye, dwellinges, and buyld- 
ynges of alle kindes, and alle odher thynges thet make gudde to menne. 

Quest. Where dydd ytt begynne? 

Arts. Ytt dydd begynne with the fyrste menne yn the este,' which 
were before the fyrste menne of the weste, and comyinge westlye ytt 
hathe broughte herwyth alle comfortes to the wylde and comfortlesse. 



HIRAM LODGE. 34 1 

Quest. Dothe alle Magonnes kunne more then odher menne ? 

Arts. Not see ; thay onlyche haueth not recht and occasyonne 
more then odher menne to kunne, butt manye doethe fale yn capacitie, 
and manye more doethe want industrye thet yr pernecessarye for the 
gaynynge alle kunnage. 

Quest. Are Ma(;onnes gudder menne then odhers ? 

Ans. Some Magonnes are not soe vertuouse as some odher menne ; 
butt yn the moste parte, thay be more gudde then thay woulde be yf 
thay war not Ma^onnes. 

Quest. Dothe Ma^onnes love eidher odher myghtylye as beath 
sayde ? 

• Ans. Yea verylyche, and ytt may not odherwise be ; for gudde 
menne and true, kennynge eidher odher to be soche, doethe alwaye love 
the more as thay be more gudde. 

HIRAM LODGE. 

By virtue of a dispensation granted by the Right Worshipful, the 
Provincial Grand Master, Alexander Keith, dated Sept. 19, 1848, author- 
izing " Our well-beloved brother George Killam to assemble a sufficient 
number of Freemasons at Yarmouth in the Province of Nova Scotia, 
and there so congregated to form and open a Lodge to be named the 
Hiram Lodge, wherein our said well-beloved and Worshipful Brother 
George Killam is to preside as first Master, Brother Robert Black to be 
his first Senior Warden, and Brother Georg Stairs Brown to be his first 
Junior Warden," on Oct. 2, 1848, the Lodge was organized, the follow- 
ing brethren being present : George Killam, Robert Black, George Stairs 
Brown, Samuel Graham, Oliver Haley, Henry Heckman, and David 
Clark. Brother Samuel Rust was appointed secretary. A code of by- 
laws was adopted, naming the first Monday in each month for the regu- 
lar meetings, and the first Monday in December for the annual election 
of officers, to be installed on or before St. John's Day following. On 
Jan. I, 1849, William H. Townsend, George S. Brown, and Jean Bap- 
tiste Josu6 Pothier, were initiated, followed on Feb. 12 by Thomas Van 
Buskirk Bingay, John Wentworth Moody, and Amasa Durkee. 

On St. John's Day, June 24, 1852, under the registry of the (kand 
Lodge of England No. 868, Hiram Lodge was in due form consecrated 



342 HIRAM LODGE. 

by P. G. Master, the Hon. Alexander Keith, assisted by Charles W. 
Dickson, S. G. Warden, and Henry C. D. Twining, P. G. Secretary. 
The charter bears il.ite Sept. 4, 1851. 

Hiram Lodge was incorporated on March 31, 1863 ; and it now 
stands No. 1 2 in the registry of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. 



HIRAM LODGE. 



345 



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W.H. Towns.. id. 
W. H. Townsend. 
W. II. Townsend. 
W. H. Townsend. 
W. H. Townsend. 
George S. Brown. 
George S. Brown. 
George S. Brown. 
George S. Brown. 
George S. Brown. 
George S. Brown. 
George S. Brown. 
George S. Brown. 
Washburn Coy. 
Enos (iardner. 
James J. Lovitt. 
T. V. B. Bingay. 
T. V. B. Bingay. 
T. V. B. Bingay. 
W. B. Townsend. 
A.J. Hood. 
W. B. Townsend. 


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G. Stairs Brown. 
G. Stairs Brown. 
George S. Brown. 
George H. Redding. 
Charles White. 
Heman Crowell. 
L. E. Baker. 
George Ryerson. 
John Baxter. 
William S. Whitten. 
Heman Crowell. 
Thomas Barbour. 
Enos Gardner. 
James G. Allen. 
Alexander J. Hood. 
L. D. Raymond. 
William A, Cann. 
George G. Gray. 
Charles L. Brown. 
David Wetniore. 
Charles L. Brown. 
Alfred S. Hood. 


.2 
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Robert Black. 
Robert Black. 
T. V. B. Bingay. 
George Killam. 
T. V. B. Bingay. 
J. W. Moody. 
W. H. Townsend. 
John Young. 
George H. Redding. 
J. W^ Moody. 
George Ryerson. 
Amasa Durkee. 
Charles White. 
William Weddleton. 
George W. Johnson. 
Zachariah A. Raymond. 
William B. Townsend. 
James J. Lovitt. 
William Law. 
J. A. McLellan. 
Joseph A. Reid. 
George G. Sanderson. 
Clarence Christie. 


1 

1 


George Killam. 
George Killam. 
George Killam. 
T. V. B. Bingay. 
George S. Brown. 
George Killam. 
J. W. Moody. 
Charles White. 
Heman Crowell. 
W. H. Townsend. 
George Killam. 
George H. Redding. 
John Baxter. 
T. V. B. Bingay. 
Charles White. 
George W. Johnson. 
Z. A. Raymond. 
William B. Townsend. 
William B. Townsend. 
Alexander J. Hood. 
J. A. McLellan. 
J. A. McLellan. 
G. G. Sanderson. 




OOOCCCOOOOOOOOCCOOOOCOOOOOMOCOOOOOOOOCCOCOOOO 





344 



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348 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

1816. — In January, 1816, the Yarmouth and Argyle branch of this 
Society was organized at the house of Bartlett Gardner, Chebogue, and 
the following officers were appointed : James Lent, president ; Rev. 
Harris Harding, Rev. Enoch Towner, Richard Fletcher, and Jacob 
Tedford, vice-presidents ; Waitstill Lewis, treasurer ; Thomas Dane and 
Zachariah Chipman, secretaries. 

The office-bearers in later years were as follows : — 



1834. 
1844. 
1854. 
1858. 
1862. 



President. 



Rev. Harris Harding. 
Rev. Harris Harding. 
Benjamin Rogers. 
G. J. Karish. 
C'r. J. Parish. 



Treasurer. 



Waitstill Lewis. 
Edward Huestis. 
Robert Guest. 
Robert Guest. 
Robert Guest. 



Secretary. 



William MacCuUoch. 
Rev. A. V. Dimock. 
J. T. Hutchinson. 
W. K. Dudman. 
C. C. Stewart. 



In 1843, to promote the interests of the Society in Argyle, a special 
committee was appointed : Matthew Jeffery, secretary and treasurer ; 
Israel Harding, James Spinney, Daniel Spinney, Colin MacKinnon, and 
James Nickerson. 

In 1828 the ladies of Yarmouth and Argyle established an independ- 
ent branch, whose usefulness still continues. Mrs. Richard Fletcher was 
the first president, succeea^d by Mrs. Robert Kelley, Mrs. G. J. Farish, 
and Mrs. Thomas O. Geddes. Wuat the ladies were doing fifty years 
ago may be gathered from extracts of correspondence to be found in 
the appendix, and this from the Society's report, published at London 
in 1829. 

"From New Brunswick, Rev. John West (deputed by the committee 
to visit the auxiliaries in British North America) passed into Nova Scotia, 
and a meeting was convened at Yarmouth, where the Auxiliary was 
revived, and a Ladies' Association established. Mrs. Fletcher, president 
of the Yarmouth Ladies' Association, has remitted jQ^i/6/2, and, ex- 
pressing her gratitude for a quantity of English Bibles placed at her 
disposal, says, ' They are in the hands of destitute and indigent persons, 



MILTON LIBRARY. 



349 



whose wants and utter inability to make payment we have carefully ascer- 
tained ; and I can assure you they are considered an inestimable treasure 
by the poor but pious persons to whose lot they fell.' " ' 

THE YARMOUTH BOOK SOCIETY. 

1822. — The Yarmouth Book Society was established on Jan. i, 

1822: John Moody, president; James B.Moody, treasurer; Stayley 

Brown, secretary ; Herbert Huntington, librarian. Henry G. Parish 

succeeded to the presidency in 1829, and James B. Dane in 1848. In 

1870 the Society was newly organized under the name of "Milton 

Library." The original shareholders were John Moody, H. G. Parish, 

James Starr, Jacob Tooker, Herbert Huntington, James Bond, John 

Brown, James B. Moody, Stayley Brown, Mary Pletcher, Abner W. 

Huntington, Samuel Corning, Zebina Shaw, Simeon De Wolfe, Francis 

Armstrong, James B. Dane, Samuel Rust, Israel Harding, George Bingay, 

John Lawson, Charles J. Bond, T. A. Grantham, Joseph Shaw, Zachariah 

Chipman. 

YARMOUTH ACADEMY. 

1830. — By deed dated Jan. 26, 1830, Thomas and Elizabeth 
Goudey, for the sum of p/^67/10/0, conveyed to James Bond, Robert 
Kelley, Zachariah Chipman, Anthony V. S. Porbes. and Waitstill Lewis, 
the lot of land near " Moody's Corner," sixty feet by two hundred and 
five feet, in trust for themselves and the other proprietors ; viz., — 



John Kinney. 
Stayley Brown. 
John Murray. 
Joseph Stoneman. 
William Huestis. 
Silas Clements. 
Benjamin Lewis. 
Charles Lewis. 
Robert Huston. 
John Furman. 
John Brown. 
John Durkee. 
Israel Lovitt. 



William Lewis. 
Gabriel Van Norden. 
Jonathan Moulton. 
Ebepezer Clark. 
Johii Killam. 
Thomas Killam. 
Benjamin Killam. 
Thomas Willett. 
Samuel Rust. 
Reuben Clements. 
Comfort Haley. 
Josejjh Robbins. 



Thomas I). Chipman. 
E. W. B. Moody. 
James B. Dane. 
Joseph N. Bond. 
Joseph B. Bond. 
Edward Huestis. 
David Landers. 
Jeremiah Haley. 
Samuel S. Poole. 
George S. Fletcher. 
James Baker. 
Joseph Raymond. 



The said premises to be occupied as a site whereon to erect an academy 
for the education of youth. As previously stated, the Yarmouth 
.\cademy was built in 1830. James B. Dane was the architect ; and the 

' Appendix S. 



350 YARMOUTH ACADEMY. 

building was occupied for educational purposes until the introduction 
of the present school law, when, by an Act of the Legislature, dated 
March 31, 1864, John Murray, Reuben Clements, and James B. Moody, 
were appointed commissioners to sell the property at the request " of all 
the parties beneficially interested in said land and building." John W. 
? 'oody was the purchaser ; and the building, removed to the line of Main 
Street, is now headquarters for the imj)ortant offices Mr. Moody holds. 

The trustees of the Yarmouth Academy were five in number, three 
chosen by the members of the society ; the others, being also members 
of the society, were appointed by the lieutenant-governor. In 1841 
the trustees were E. \V. B. Moody, Reuben C'lements, Charles Lewis, 
John Murray, and Staylcy Brown. In that year the provincial grant in 
aid of the institution was a hundred and thirty-five pounds. 

One of the early teachers at the Yarmouth Academy, appointed 
August, 1833, was William MacCuUoch, now a Presl)yterian clergyman 
of Truro. In 1845, Michael MacCulloch was principal. These gentle- 
men were the sons of Dr. Thomas MacCulloch, the distinguished 
founder of the Pictou Academy, long the leading educational institution 
of Nova Scotia. 

The following have been the princii)al school-teachers of Yarmouth 
County down to the introduction of the present school system, although 
some names may be inadvertently omitted. The teachers at the Yar- 
mouth Academy are placed in a column by themselves : — 

VARMOUni ACADEMY. 

1832. Charles Wiggins. 

1833. William MacCulloch. 
1836. William M. Godfrey. 

George Y. Wordsworth. 

Waitstill Patch. 
1839. Rev. John Ross. 
1S40. James J. Smith. 
1841. Rufus Tliden King. 
1841. Mrs. R T. King. 
1845. Michael Mac( loch. 

John Maclver. 

Rev. George Christie. 

Douglas Christie. 

John Thorburn. 

Alexander S. Murray. 

William Bullock. 

J. Alvin Flint. 

John Hood. 



SCIfOOL- TEA CHERS. 



351 



1785 


Samuel S. I'oole. 


1785- 


Miner Huntington, 




Andrew Butler. 




John Prout. 




Robert R. Black. 




Rev. Harris Harding. 


iSoo. 


Henry Adams. 


1806. 


Henry O'Niel. 


1810. 


Alexander Crawford. 


1812. 


John MacKinnon. 


1812. 


Matthew Fisher. 


1815. 


Rev. R. Milner. 


18.5. 


William Hannah. 


i8i6. 


Nathan Lewis 


1817. 


John Wetmore. 


1817. 


John S. Miller. 


1818. 


Jos. B. Whipple. 


1819. 


Rev. T. A. Grantham. 


1818. 


Thomas D. Stokoe. 


1820. 


George Miller. 


i8?.o. 


James Addison. 


1823. 


John Moody. 




Samuel Rust. 




Herbert Huntington. 




Hugh Maclver, sen. 


1825. 


Joseph Ellis. 


1826. 


Joseph .Mden Kllis. 


1831. 


John }:^nnison. 




Francis Boyd. 




Colin MacKinnon. 


^832. 


Robert Phipps. 


1832. 


Bennett. 




Freeman Crosby. 




William C. W^illiams. 




John Williams. 


1834. 


Thomas S. Delaney. 


1837- 


William Hall. 




Hugh Maclver, jun. 




Pierre Amirault. 




Hippolyte Babin. 




Charles Theriault. 




Denis MacGrath. 




Michel Surette. 




Croker P. Grace. 




Louis A. Surette. 




William Moore. 




Henry Kenealy. 




John Maclver. 




James t leland. 



James C. Millar. 
Joseph R. Raymond. 
William Muncey. 
Charles H. Tucker. 
W. P. McFetridge. 
John Ingram Bra. id. 
Horace B. Porter. 
Henry A. Hood. 
J. Alvin Flint. 
James Urquhart. 
Jean B. LeBlanc. 
John C. Anderson. 
Raphael Bourgeois. 
Abram S. Lent. 
Samuel MacCully. 
Joseph H. Saunders. 
Samuel W. Bennison. 
Robert P>. lirown. 
John Hood. 
Thomas W. Hilton. 
Laban S. Balkam. 

FEMALE TEACHERS. 

1805. Miss Anne MacKinnon. 

1810. Mrs. .Montgomery. 

1830. Mrs. Mary Huntington. 

1828. Mrs. Jos. Alden Ellis. 

1832. Miss Maria E. Phip])s. 

1820. Misses Addison. 

1834. Mrs. Lowther. 

Mrs. Rufus Kinney. 

1834. Mrs. MacDonald. 
1830. Mrs. Sarah Bruce. 
1830. Miss Deborah Crosby. 

1835. Mrs. Laura Gowen. 

1836. .Mrs. Ann Cuddy. 

1836. Miss Deborah Thompson. 
1836. Miss M. Hanson. 
1838. Miss (J. .Sorensen. 
1838. Mrs. Donelly. 

Miss Kate Maclver. 

Miss Elizabeth Maclver. 

Miss Tupper. 

Miss Smith. 

Mrs. Jane M. Bingay. 

Miss Louisa Forbes. 

Mrs. Lois Goudey. 

Miss Ellen Robbins. 



352 NEWSPAPERS. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

Yarmouth's first local newspaper was " The Telegraph," issued by 
Jackson and L'Estrange in the autumn of 1831. It existed ten months, 
and was succeeded by " The Yarmouth Herald," established in August, 
1833, by Alexander Lawson, who has since continued sole editor and 
proprietor, except that for the interval between 1845 and 1850 "The 
Herald " was under the editorial management of Angus M. Gidney, 
afterward of " The Bridgetown Free Press." 

In September, 1839, Richard Huntington, grandson of Miner Hunt- 
ington, and a graduate of " The Yarmouth Herald " establishment, 
issued, as a semi-weekly, "The Conservative." But with the subsidence 
of the Canadian rebellion, which had a few Yarmouth sympathizers, 
Yarmouth was no longer a field for " The Conservative," and it was 
withdrawn after six months. 

In 1843, John G. Bingay established "The Yarmouth Courier," 
which, owmg to the failing health of the proprietor, was discontinued in 
1848, having meanwhile, through a somewhat stormy period, attended 
the birth of " Responsible Government " in Nova Scotia. 

In 1848 appeared " The Temperance Gazette," published by Handley 
Chipman Flint, one of the most amiable of mankind, anf' .: (LTcat- 
grandson of Thomas Flint, who, in 1771, came to Yarm i^ -jm 
Salem, Massachusetts. 

In September, 1855, Richard Huntington, with the assistance of 
Charies E. Hurd, afterward of " The Boston Transcript," established, 
as a semi-weekly, "The Yarmouth Tribune," which, after some years, 
was changed to a weekly issue. Mr. Huntington continued sole editor 
and proprietor until his death on May 13, 1883 ; and two days afterward 
"The Tribune " bade its many friends farewell. 

In February, 1883, appeared the latest aspirant for public favor, — 
" The Yarmouth Times and Western Counties Journal," published semi- 
weekly. Since then, the editorial columns of the Yarmouth newspapers 
have taken on a more metropolitan tone. 



YARMOUTH SEMINARY. 353 

THE YARMOUTH SEMINARY. 

This edifice, designed by Charles W. Panter of Brookline, Mass., and 
erected under his superintendence, was begun in 1863, and finished in 
1864, at a cost of about $20,000, the gift of citizens chiefly residents of 
the Central School District, where the building stands. It is a two-story 
wooden structure with a Mansard roof, and a basement nine feet high, 
fitted up for a play-room in stormy weather. The main building is 68 
by 73 feet, with a projection in the rear 15 by 32 feet. The first and 
second stories are divided by broad corridors into eight schoolrooms, 26 
by 30 feet, and 13 feet high, containing accommodation for 448 pupils 
with a separate desk for each. Under the roof is a hall for public exhi- 
bitions, 61 by 66 feet, and 15 feet high, capable of seating 800 people ; 
and at the end of the corridor in the second story are two large recita- 
tion-rooms. 

At a meeting of the founders of the Yarmouth Seminary, held on Oct. 
24, 1863, a constitution was adopted. Its thirteenth clause provided for 
a school committee of twelve, three to be ex-officio members thereof; viz., 
the members for the County and Township of Yarmouth in the Provincial 
Parliament, and the custos, or chief judicial officer, of Yarmouth Town. 

The following constituted the first boards of management : — 



GOVERNORS. 



G. J. Parish, Secretary. 
Dennis Horton. 



N. K. Clements. John Young. 

George Killam. Bowman Corning. 

Nathan Moses. John K. Ryerson. 

John K. Ryerson. George Killam. 

John W. Lovitt. N. K. Clements. 
Thomas Killam. 

^ c- T. SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 

George S. Brown. 

G. Joseph Parish. Thomas Killam, M.P.P., Chairman. 

James Murray, jun. George S. Brown, M.P.P. 

Dennis Horton. W. H. Moody, sen., Custos 

Samuel Killam. George Killam. 

Bowman Corning. N. K. Clements. 

Nathan Moses. 

Thomas M. Lewis. 

James Murray, President. Charles E. Brown. 

Thomas Killam. Loran E. Baker. 

George .S. Brown. . Benjamin Killam, jun. 

Nathan Moses. Jonathan Horton. 

John W. Lovitt. John W. Moody. 



TRUSTEES. 



354 



YARMOUTH SEMINAKV. 



As before intimated, the cost of the Yarmouth Seminary, incli:ding 
the value of the grounds, exceeded $20,000, though the actual figures 
have never been published. 

Mr. Panter's contract price,- $14,000, was increased by extra work 
done by him, and by the cost of grading, ornamenting, and fencing the 
grounds, to upwards of $16,000; and when to this is added the value of 
the land itself, which has an area of 544 by 214^ feet, or about 2§ acres, 
and which, principally, was the gift of Capt. George Killam, it may be 
readily seen that the entire outlay exceeded $20,000. 

The organization that built the Yarmouth Seminary, originated in a 
movement undertaken in December, 1862, to raise, by voluntary contri- 
bution, within the central district of Yarmouth Town, the sum of 
$12,000; one-half to be devoted to a ii^ hool-building, the other half 
toward the support of a free school for four years. At that time there 
was not a single public-school building in the County of Yarmouth, and 
the central district of the town was but poorly provided with school- 
rooms of any kind. 

Upon the presentation of a prospectus and subscription paper, dated 
Dec. 16, 1862, the following amounts were readily subscribed by residents 
of the district : — 



John W. Lovitt <sr,ooo 

John K. Ryerson 1,000 

George Killam 1,000 

George S. Brown 1,000 

Nathan Moses 500 

Amasa Durkee 500 

Abel C. Robbins 400 

John T. Hutchinson 200 

Robert Brown, sen 200 

George Ryerson 200 

James A. Sterritt loo 

John C. Moulton lOO 



Samuel M. Ryerson $100 

Benjamin Killam, jun 100 

Thomas B. Dane 100 

James E. Suttie 100 

Dennis Horton 100 

John R. Crosby 100 

Samuel Flint 100 

A. W. Homer 100 

Loran E. Baker 100 

Samuel Brown 100 

William H. Jenkins 100 



together, $7,300. 

In addition to this amount of $7,300, Thomas Killam, Esq., not a 
resident of the district, though conducting his extensive business there, 
and employing many men with families living within its limits, in a letter 
written at Halifax, where he was attending the legislative session, 
expressed his intention of adding his name to the hst for $1,000. 



I 



YARMOUTH SE.^rLXARY. 355 

Not long after this stage was reached, Capt. N. K. Clements returned 
from the dis-United States, and proposed that the entire $12,000 should 
be devoted to a school-building according to plans and estimates which 
he had brought from Boston ; and the subscribers having generally 
adopted his views, Capt. Clements at once set himself to their accom- 
plishment. Leading off with his own for $1,000, he obtained the follow- 
ing other subscriptions within the district : — 

N. K. Clements $1,000 Joseph Seeley $50 

James Murray 200 George G. Gray 50 

G. Joseph Parish 200 J. Alvin Flint 25 

Freeman Dennis 150 John R. Corning 25 

George B. Doane 100 \ William E. Huestis 25 

Jonathan Horton 100 ■ David Churcliill 25 

Robert Hunter 100 Calvin Wyman 25 

Samuel M. Ryerson, additional . 100 | John G. Dallinger 25 

Benjamin Killam " . 50 , William Weddleton 25 

James E. Suttie " . 50 ; Samuel F. Raymond 20 

Joseph W. Crowell 50 ! Joseph R. Kinney 20 

making $2,415, or a total subscription, within District No. 3, of $9,715, 
exclusive of the grounds. 

The subscriptions from residents of other districts adjoining, which 
deserved the greater commendation from the fact that they would soon 
have to contribute for school-buildings in their own sections of the town, 
were as follows : — 

Thomas Killam $1,000 Charles Tooker $30 

Benjamin Murphy 100 Thomas M. Lewis 25 

Bowman Corning 100 , John W. Moody 25 

William Burrill 50 i A. F. Stoneman 25 

William D. Lovitt 50 i Joseph B. Stoneman 25 

Aaron Goudey 200 t Gilbert Allen 20 

Nathan Utley 100 I 

making $1,750, or a grand total of $11,465. 

As the work of building, etc., progressed, other contributions were 
made in the form of materials, labor, etc., which probably brought the 
whole subscription not far from $12,000, exclusive of the grounds. 

When the work was completed, the grounds graded and fenced, and 
the building furnished throug.iout, there was still a deficiency of some 
$5,000, which was advanced by Capt. Clements, and has never been 



3S6 COMMON SCHOOLS. 

repaid ; and for the reason, probably, that about that time there came 
into operation a Provincial law for the support of schools by compulsory 
assessment, when free contributions were more difficult of attainment. 
Be that as it may, the Yarmouth Seminary has since afforded accommo- 
dation for the high school of the county, supported by a legislative 
grant. The edifice itself has served as a model for school-buildings 
throughout the Province, and there remains the question whether some 
further legislative action should not still be taken in order to repay to 
the heirs of Capt. Clements the amount of his advances. 

During the legislative session of 1864 was passed the first Provincial 
law for the support of schools by compulsory assessment ; and under 
the operation of that law and its amendments, Yarmouth County has 
become supplied with public-school buildings and schools ample for all 
the needs of the inhabitants.' 

The report of the superintendent of education for 1882 gives for 
Yarmouth County 70 school sections with 89 schools and 96 teachers 
for the winter, and 86 schools with 91 teachers for the summer term; 
and a total of 5,268 different pupils attending during the year, being 
one in four of the population. The salaries in that year were, male 
teachers, grade A and B, $498 ; C, $401 ; D, $2fi2)- Female teachers, 
grade B, S341 ; C, $273 ; D, $187. 

These salaries, though low, were far above the general average of 
the Province ; and upon this point the superintendent "^^ys, " That the 
salaries paid to teachers have not advanced in sympathy with the ten- 
dency toward the increased remuneration observable in all other depart- 
ments of labor, is due in part to the fact.'not peculiar to our Province, 
that teaching affords to young persons, who do not intend to adopt it 
as a profession, a convenient temporary employment in advance of the 
regular business of life. ... I may also allude to the circumstance 
that our present scale of salaries was virtually fixed at a time when 
the supply greatly exceeded the demand." 

School commissioners are appointed by the Government, and hold 
office during pleasure. 

' Appendix T. 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



357 



SCHOOL COMMISSIONERS FOR 1886. 



YARMOUTH DISTRICT. 

Charles E. Brown. 
Nathan Hilton. 
John W. Moody. 
Charles W. Clements. 
Stephen N. Allen. 
James Cain, sen. 
George Crosby. 
Amos Hilton, jun. 
William H. Moody. 
Robert B. Brown. 
Harris H. Crosby. 



ARGYLE DISTRICT. 

Rev. J. M. Manning. 
Enos Gardner. 
Michel Surette. 
David D'Entremont. 
Nathaniel Travis. 
James .\. Hatfield. 
P. Lent HatfielJ. 
Anselme O. I'oJiier. 
Milford Sims. 
Edward S. Perrv. 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

1842. — The Yarmouih County Agricultural Society was organ- 
ized at the Court House on April 29, 1842. The members were, — 



Barnard, Thomas. 
Bazalgette, Herbert. 
Bingay, Edward. 
Bingay, George. 
Bingay, John. 
Bond, James. 
Bond, Joseph B. 
Bond, Norman J. 
Brown, John. 
Brown, Robert. 
Brown, Stayley. 
Brown, Thomas. 
Burrill, William. 
Churchill, William. 
Churchill, Zaccheus. 
Clements, Reuben. 
Clements, William. 
Cook, Caleb. 
Cook, Walter. 
Corning, Nelson. 
Crawley, John. 
Crosby, Enoch. 
Crosby, Isaiah. 
Crosby, James. 
Crosby, James, jun. 
Dunseith, Samuel. 
Durkee, John. 
Durkee, William. 
Eakins, Robert S. 
Ellenwood, Benjamin. 
Ellis, Joseph Alden. 



Parish, H. G. 
Fifield, Noah. 
Forster, James. 
Goudey, H. T. 
Guest, Robert. 
Haley, Ebenezer. 
Hall, John G. 
Harris, Nathaniel. 
Harris, William. 
Hilton, John. 
Hilton, Samuel. 
Hilton, Thomas, jun. 
Holmes, Samuel. 
Huestis, Samuel. 
Huntington, A. W. 
Huntington, Herbert. 
Jenkins, James. 
Kelley, Daniel. 
Kelley, Robert. 
Killam, Mark. 
Killam, Thomas. 
Lawson, Alexander. 
Lonergan, Edmund. 
MacNamara, William. 
MacNutt, James. 
Moody, E. W. B. 
Moody, John. 
Moody, William H. 
Murray, James. 
Patten, John. 



Patterson, Charles E. 
Pinkney, John. 
Pitman, John. 
Poi ■ , Benjamin. 
Raymond, Josiah. 
Redding, F. W. 
Robbins, A. C. 
Robbins, Asa. 
Robbins, Joseph. 
Robertson, William. 
Robson, E. M. 
Rogers, Joseph. 
Rowley, J. W. H. 
Saunders, Henry. 
Saunders, John. 
Scott, Amos H. 
Scott, Ebenezer. 
Scott, John F. 
Stowe, Thomas. 
Tooker, George W. 
Tooker, Joseph. 
Tooker, Joseph, jun. 
Tooker, Thomas B. 
Townsend, W. H. 
Trask, Elias. 
Trask, Thomas. 
Van Norden, Gabriel. 
Webster, F. A. 
Winter, Thomas, 
Wyman, Calvin. 



358 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

President, James Bond. Vire-President, John Saunders, zd Vice-President, 
Reuben Clements. Secretary, Herbert Huntington. Treasurer, Stayley Brown. 
Directors, John Hingay, Mark Killam, William Harris, Joseph Robbins, Gabriel 
Van Nordcn, Caleb Cook, E. W. 15. Moody, H. G. Farish. 

This Society existed until 1848, and was succeeded in 1855 by the 
Yar.mouth Township Agricultural Societ\', whose headquarters were 
at Hebron, and whose first office-bearers were, — 

President, Joseph A. Ellis. Vice-President, David Eldridge. sd Vice-President, 
James Churchill. Secretary, Thomas W. Longstaff. Treasurer, Josiah Raymond. 
Directors, Jesse Wyman, John Rose, Richard Crosby, Loran Cann, Joseph Rogers, 
Henry Saunders, John MacCormack, Benjamin B. Moses. 

The officers chosen for 1885 were, — 

President, \^\\\\2XA R. Doty. Vice-President, l/losts Harris. Secretary, ]3imts 
Ciosby. Tieastirer, George W. Saunders. Directors, James Butler, John Mac- 
Cormack, Robert K. Rose, Charles M. Rogers, John F. Dowling. 

A new Yarmouth Count\' Agricultural Society was organized on 
Oct. 3, 1867, which continues in active operation with an annual 
exhibition and attractive prize list. 

1S67. 
President, William B. Townsend. Vice-President, ^\'illiam Burrill, sen. Secre- 
tary, Charles E. Brown. Directors, William Kinney, Henry Burrill, sen., Dennis 
C. Weston, Enos K. Rogers, Stephen Churchill. 

1872. 
President, Frank Killam. Vice-President, Loran E. Baker. Secretary, Thomas 
E. Corning. Directors, William Burrill, sen., Henry Burrill, sen., Charles W. 
Smith, N. W. Blethen, Byron C. Sims. 

1877. 
President, C. E. Brown. Vice-President, L. E. Baker. Secretary, T. B. Crosby. 

18S2. 
■ President, L. E. Baker. Vice-President, William Corning. Secretary, T. B. 

Crosby. 

iSS5. 

President, L. E. Baker. Vice-President, William Corning. Secretary, Thomas 
B. Crosby. 



AfO UNTA IX CEAfE TER Y. 



359 



George S. Brown was a member of the Central Board of Agriculture 
of Nova Scotia from 1864 to 1866 inclusive; and the representative of 
the Yarmouth County Agricultural Society upon that board, from 1872 
to 1875 inclusive; Charles E. Brown from 1876 to 18S5, when, by an 
Act of the Legislature, the Central Board was abolished. 

MOUNTAIN CEMETERY. 

i860. — The first tract of land, formerly known as " the Mountain," 
was purchased, and the " Mountain Cemetery Company " was organized, 
in i860. Some five years later the area of the grounds was enlarged by 
an extension easterly. The following have been the directors at different 
periods : — 



i860. 

President, E. W. B. Moody. 

Vice-President, Joseph H. Bond. 

Thomas Allen. 

George Killam. 

George S. Brown. 

G. Joseph Parish. 

James C. Parish. 

Comfort Haley. 

William Rogers. 

James H. Kinney. 

1865. 

President, Stayley Brown. 

Vice-President, Nathan Moses. 

Ji-seph B. Bond. 

J..ines C. Parish. 

George Killam. 

John W. Lovi... 

Samuel Brown. 

John K. Ryersor.. 

Edward Huestis. 

Andrew Lovitt. 



1875- 

President, Nathan Moses. 

Vice-Presidents Stayley Brown. 

James C. Parish. 

George S. Brown. 

James B. Kinney. 

Bowman Corning. 

Benjamin Killam. 

L. E. Baker. 

Preeman Dennis. 

James M. Davis. 

1885. 

President, L. E. Baker. 

Vice-President, William Law. 

Nathan Moses. 

Bowman Corning. 

John K. Ryerson. 

John Murphy. 

Thomas B. Dane. 

Oscar Davison. 

Lyman E. Cann. 

H. G. Parish 3d. 



Secretary and Treasurer (iS6o-iSSo), G. Joseph Parish. 
Secretary and Treasurer (1SS1-1SS6), Nathan MoseS. 



ABBOTSFORD AND OTHER FUNDS.' 

1833. — A subscription was opened in Yarmouth in aid of the fund 
then being raised througliout both continents to repurchase for the family 
of Sir Walter Scott the beautiful estate of Abbotsford, involved in the 

' Appendix U. 



36o 



ABBOTSFORD AXD OTHER FUNDS. 



failure of an I ' .ibiirr^h publishing-house to which Sir Walter had loaned 
;^i 0,000 procured tlirough a mortgage upon his Abbotsford property. 
The amount subscrii.cd in Yarmouth has not been ascertained. 

1846. — A meeting was helil at the Court House, — John Bingay, 
sheriff, in the chair, — and measures were taken in aid of the sufferers 
by a recent devastating conflagration at St. John's, Newfoundland. The 
sum of ^183/2/9 was sent from Yarmouth. 

1855. — Joseph Shaw, sheriff, summoned the people to the Court 
House to devise measures in aid of the " Patriotic Fund," to be devoted 
to the families of soldiers and sailors who might fall in the Crimean War. 
^^299/4/6 were forwarded from Yarmouth, of which £^t^i formed a 
special contribution by the ladies. 

1863. — A letter from Lord Derby to E. W. B. Moody, dated July 6, 
1863, acknowledged the receipt of ^^280 sterling, subscribed in Yarmouth 
to the fund for the Lancashire operatives thrown out of employment 
through the scarcity of cotton caused by the blockade of the Southern 
seaports of the United States. The following were the subscribers to the 
Lancashire fund : — 



Thomas Killam 5ioo 00 

Samuel Killam 100 00 

Ryerson, Moses, & Co 60 00 

E. W. B. Moody 50 00 

James Murray 50 00 

George Killam 50 00 

George S. Brown 50 cxi 

N. K. Clements 50 00 

Young & Baker 50 00 

Joseph Shaw 40 00 

John \V. Lovitt 40 00 

G. J. Parish 32 00 

W. H. Moody & Son .... 30 00 

A. C. Robbins 20 00 

Lyman Cann 20 00 

Stayley Brcwn 20 00 

Andrew Lovitt 20 00 

W. K. Dudrn;>n 20 00 

John Flint 12 00 

Dennis Horton 12 00 

Aaroti Goudey 10 00 

James McNutt 10 00 

J. G. Dallinger 10 00 

William Burrill & Co. . ! . . 10 cxd 



Joseph Burrill f 10 00 

Thomas M. Lewis 8 00 

H. A. Grantham 8 00 

Nathan Utley 6 00 

David Cook 6 00 

G. J. Goudey 6 00 

Samuel Brown 5 00 

Hugh Cann 4 00 

Thomas Allen 4 00 

Thomas Allen, jun 4 cx) 

Enos Gardner 4 <jo 

Robert Guest 4 00 

F.A.Webster 4 00 

\V. H. Gridley 4 00 

A. F. Stoneman 4 00 

Jonathan Horton 4 00 

James B. Moody 4 00 

A. C. White 4 00 

Henry Kenealy 4 00 

Gilbert Sanderson 4 00 

Theodore Churchill 4 00 

Thomas E. Moberly 4 00 

Thomas A. Geddes 4 00 

Robert K. Lonergan .... 4 00 



INLAND NAVIGATION COMPANY. 



361 



C. B. Owen J4 

George W. Tooker 4 

Alexander J. Hood 4 

Benjamin Rogers 4 

Dennis Sullivan 

Joseph H. Stoneman .... 

Robert Hrown 

Charles Tooker 

James E. Clements .... 

George Christie 

Edward Huestis 

Reuben Clements .... 

Thomas B. Dane 

Anonymous 

Charles E. Horton .... 

Robert Hunter 

John R. Corning 

J. J. Moody 

Freeman Gardner .... 
Alexander S. Murray . . . 

James C. Parish 

John Murray 

Samuel Messenger .... 

Gilbert Allen 

James A. Sterritt 

Israel Horton 

James B. Kinney 

Jacob Smith 

Joseph Stoneman .... 

George M. Lewis 

William Lewis 

George Bingay 

Hemau Gardner 

Anonymous 

James E. Suttie 

Richard Huntington . . . 
William Churchill .... 



00 
00 
00 

CO 

00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

~1 

00 ' 

I 
00 j 

00: 

00 1 

00 

00 

COj 

00 I 
00 I 

00 I 

I 
00 

00 

50 
50 

so 

00 

00 

00 ' 

00 

00 j 

00 ] 

00 ■ 

00 

00 

00 



William Haley #2 00 

John ( '. Moulton 2 00 

George H. Lovitt 2 00 

Comfort Haley 2 00 

John Baxter 2 00 

L. I). Raymond 2 00 

George W. Johnson 2 00 

Dennis Crosby i 50 

Robert M. Kelley i 50 

Nathan Lewis i 00 

William Caskey i 00 

J. A. Flint I 00 

B. E. Rogers i 00 

James D. Horton i 00 

James Forster i 00 

G. G. Sanderson i 00 

N. J. B. Tooker i 00 

Benjamin Rogers, jun i 00 

Henry Lewis i 00 

Daniel Gardner i 00 

Patrick Kelley i 00 

Richard Smith I 00 

Joseph A. Haley 1 00 

Robert B. Brown i 00 

N. B. Lewis i 00 

D. B. Brown i 00 

Benjamin Crosby i 00 

Benjamin Ellenwood .... i 00 

Daniel C. Kelley i 00 

Joseph Challen i 00 

John Cann i 00 

Small contributions '3 92 

Baptist Church collection ... 41 38 

Presbyterian Church collection . 28 50 

Trinity Church collection ... 52 27 



Total $1,280 57 



which, with sundry donations in the country districts, made up the ;^28o 



sterling, remitted to Lord Derby. 



THE INLAND NAVIGATION COMPANY. 

181 1. — The Inland Navigation Company was incorporated by a 
special Act of the Legislature in 181 1. 

The purpose of the company may be gathered from the preamble to 
the Act, which says, " Whereas the opening a communication by means 
of locks between the head of Cape Fourchu Harbor and Lake George 



362 



MARINE IXSURANCE COMPANIES. 



through the several intervening lakes would be of great service to the 
neighboring settlers ^nd to the Province in general, as well by facilitating 
the carriage and transportation of wood, lumber, and other heavy arti- 
cles in boats or by rafts from the • interior of the country to the place of 
shipment, as by carrying the produce of the sea-coast to the inland 
settlers, and whereas," etc. 

This seems to have been a reasonable project when it is remembered 
that it was nearly twenty years afterward that railroads were first con- 
structed for purposes of general transportation in America or Europe. 
The locks at Miltou were substantially completed, but no work of impor- 
tance was done at Hebron or beyond it. Some thirty vessels were built 
upon the shores of the lakes, and carried through to the harbor. One 
vessel, found too large to go through the locks, was taken out at William 
Robertson's landing, and transported over the " Devil's-half-acre " to the 
nearest beach below. 

The stock of the company consisted of loo shares, and the capital 
was limited to ;:^5,ooo. The following are the names of the stock- 
holders : — 



Allen, Nathaniel. 
Bond, James. 
Bond, Joseph N. 
Butler, Eleazer. 
Byrne, Thomas. 
Cann, Hugh. 
Crichton, William. 
Crosby, Ansel. 
' asby, Joshua, 
rosby, Lemuel. 
Crosby, Theophilus. 
Cuff, Thomas. 
Dane, Thomas. 
Fletcher, Richard. 
Flint, David. 
Huntington, Miner. 



Jenkins, James. 
Jenkins, John. 
Killam, Eliakim. 
Killam, John, sen. 
Killam, John, jun. 
Landers, Anthony. 
Landers, David. 
Landers, Jabez. 
Landers, Thorndyke. 
Marshall, Samuel. 
Patch, John. 
Patch, Xehemiah. 
Patten, Richard. 
Perry, Cyrus. 
Perry, Thomas. 
Phillips John T, 



Pitman, lienjamin. 
Porter, Nehemiah, sen. 
Porter, Nehemiah, jun. 
Pyke, John W. 
Raymond, John. 
Saunders, Henry. 
Saunders, Nathaniel. 
Sav.iders, William. 
Scott, Benjamin. 
Strickland, Christopher. 
Strickland, Jonathan. 
Tedford, Jacob. 
Tooker, Joseph. 
Trask, John, jun. 
Tremain, Jonathan. 
Wilson, Thomas. 



MARINE n73URANCE COMPANIES. 

i8og. — The first Marine Insurance Company of Yarmouth was 
established in 1809. The stock consisted of 75 shares held by 50 
shareholders in the proportions expressed by the figures before their 
names. 



YARMOUTH MARINE. 



363 



I. 


Bain, Alexander, jun. 


I. 


Hilton, Henry. 




Poole, Samuel S. 


I. 


Baker, Jonathan. 


3- 


Huston, Robert. 




Prout, John. 


2_ 


Baker, Horace. 


1 


Jenkins, James. 




Raymond, John. 


I. 


Baker, Nathan. 


I. 


Kelley, Israel. 




Robbins, Joseph. 


I. 


Beal, Othnie!. 


I. 


Ktlley, Jacob. 




Robbins, Joseph, jun. 


1 


Brown, William. 


2. 


Kelley, Robert. 




Rose, Stephen. 


I. 


Churchill, Ezra. 


'^ ^ 


Kelley, Samuel. 




Saunders, William. 


I. 


Clements, Elkanah. 


I. 


Killam, Jacob. 




Scott, Benjamin. 


2. 


Clements, Silas. 


2. 


Killam, John, jun. 




Shaw, Zebina. 


I. 


Crosby, Edward. 





Landers, Anthony. 




Shipley, James. 


I. 


Crosby, Lemuel. 


2. 


Lewis, Waitstill. 




Smith, Job. 


I. 


Crowell, Thomas W. 


s- 


Marshall, Samuel. 




Strickland, Christopher. 


2. 


Durkee, Amasa. 


I. 


Patch, Nehemiah. 




Tedford, Jacob. 


I. 


Ellis, Samuel. 


I. 


Perry, Elisha. 




Tooker, Joseph. 


2. 


Flint, David. 


2. 


Perry, Levi. 




Trask, John, jun. 


I. 


Harris, William. 


2, 


Perry, Thomas. 




Wilson, Thomas. 


I. 


Hatfield, Job. 


2. 


Poole, Samuel. 







The company met at Job Smith's tavern, on July i, 1809, Samuel 
Marshall chairman. Joseph Tooker, John Killam, jun., Samuel Mar- 
shall, Job Hatfield, Elkanah Clements, Samuel Poole, and Robert Hus- 
ton, were chosen directors. ^Tiner Huntington was appointed broker, 
and Samuel Poole surveyor. 

The war of 181 2 appears to have terminated the existence of th'i 
company. 

YARMOUTH MARINE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. 

1837. — This company was established in 1837. There were origi- 
nally So shares held by 60 shareholders in the following proportions : — 



1. Allen, George. 

2. Baker, James. 

1. Barnard, Thomas. 

2. Bingay, John. 

2. Bolton, Thomas. 
2. Bond, George W. 
2. Bond, Joseph 1' 

1. Brown, George >^ . 

2. Brown, Stayley- 

1. Butler, Robert D. 
I. Cann, John. 

1. Churchill, V/illiam. 

2. Clements, Reuben. 
I. Cook, Caleb. 

I. Cook, John. 



I. Crosby, Freeman. 
I. Crosby, Thomas. 
I. Dane, James B. 

1. Dennis, Ambrose. 

2. Durkee, John. 
I. Farish, H. G. 
I. Flint, Dsvid. 

I. Flint, Thomas. 
I. Goudey, George. 
I. Guest, Robert. 
I. Haley, Ebenezer. 

1. Harris. William. 

2. Jenkins, James. 

3. Kelley, Robert. 

2. Killam, Benjamin. 



3. Killam, John. 
2. Killam, Samuel. 
2. Killam, Th<imas. 
I. Kinney, Stephen V. 
I. Lewis, Benjamin. 
I. Lewis, C. and W. 
I. Lonergan, E. M. 
I. Lovitt, Israel. 
I. Lo. itt, John W. 

1. MacNutt, James. 

2. Moody, E. W. B. 
I. Moody, Jane. 

1. Moody, John. 

2. Moody, W. H. 

I. Murray, James, sen. 



3^4 



YAIiMOiriH MARINE. 



I. Murray, Jrihn. 

I. Kcdrling, F. W. 

I. ki' liaii, Klcazcr, 

I. kobliinn, Jf»se|)l). 



2, Robert, licnjariiin. 

I. koj^CfH, JflHCpll. 

I. Kuii, Saniiiel. 

I. kydcr, John. 



I. kobcrtft'in, William, r. Stolt, Amos M. 



2. Scott, l,l>ciic/cr. 
r. Tooker, Jrrticph, jun. 
I Utlfy. Nathati. 
I. Wc-iton, l-conard. 
I. Willett, Thoiriiui. 



The sharchoMers met on Marrh K, ,ifloi)tefl a • cfxle of by-laws, 
elected seven directors, — kol)crt Kellcy, f",. W. 15. Moody, Thomas 
Killam, Staylcy I'.rown, John .Moody, Oeorge .Allen, anrl Khene/.cr S^ott, — 
and a broker, lieiijamin Barnard. The dirc< tors chose Xu\nix\. Kclley 
for their president. 

'Hie arnoimt to be taken on any one bottom was limitefl l(< Xio""» 
and the risks were confined to pn)perty or interests owned in the County 
of Yarmouth. 

In 1S40 the number of shares was increased to 100; in 1852 to 150; 
-.id in 1858 to 200 shares, held as follows : — 



fOIJR SHARKS. 

Killam, Thomas. 
I,ovitt, John W. 

THKKK SHARKS. 

Allen, George. 
IJolton, Thonjas. 
Hrown, Gerjrgc S. 
lirown, ficorge W. 
Ooiiflcy, Aaron. 
Killam, ejeorgc. 
Moofly, K. W, B. 
kycrson, John K. 
TowiiHctjci, W. M. 

TWO SHAKES. 

Uond. Joseph I'. 
Ilond, Norman J. 
Brown, Charles K. 
IJrown, kohcrt. 
iSurrill, William, sen. 
Churchill, William. 
Clements, kt'ubcn. 
Crosby, Nchcmiah. 
Dane, Thomafi. 
Diidman, W. K. 
Diirkec, Amasa. 
EDenwood, lien jam in. 



F'arish, (/. J, 
Farinh, Janics C. 
Flint, John. 
{Joudcy, O. J, 
Goudcy, n. T. 
Guest, kobcrt. 
Ilatfidd, J. V. ,V. 
Ilorlon, fJennis. 
Moofly, W. I(.,scn. 
Moses, N.'ithan. 
Murray, James, 
kaymond, Ira. 
Robbins, Abel C 
kobljins, Chandler. 
Kobliins, I.emiiel. 
kogcrs, Hcnjamin, jun. 
Kf)^',crs, Jf>scph. 
kyerson, (ieorgc, 
kycrgon, .S. M. 
Sanderson, c;ill)crt. 
Shaw, Joseph. 
•Stoncman, Joseph, sen. 
Utiey, Nathan, jun. 

ONK SHARP.. 

Allen, Gilbert. 
Allen, Lewis. 
Allen, Thomas. 
Haker, I,. E. 



Hrown, Ilcnj.imin, 
I'rown, Samuel. 
iJrown, Staylcy. 
Hrown, Thf>m;is I). 
Iturrill, Joseph. 
Cann, John. 

Churchill, Nathaniel, sen. 
Churthill, Nathaniel, jun. 
Clements, N. K. 
Cook, I);!vid. 
Cook, John. 
Crawley, Jrihn, sen. 
Crawley, John, jun. 
Crawley, W. k. 
Oockcr, l)anie|, 
* rocker, kowlanfl 1 1. 
Crosby, I »ennis. 
Crosby, kichard T. 
f.irosby, Wallace. 
Currier, William. 
I).ine, Thomas II. 
iJurken, John. 
Fait, Joseph. 
Fleet, Hcnj.trnin I). 
Flint, SaniMcl, sen. 
Gardner, Enos, 
Gardner, Nathaniel. 
Gcddcs, Th'imas <). 
Go wen, iJavid. 



YAKMoUl II MAh'liXK. 



365 



Maley, (Comfort. 
Italry. Jolin H. 
Haley, Josf|)h O. 
Haley, William. 
llalfieUI, I-.l. I.. 
Ilaldcld, VV. J, 
Halfiflfl, William, jiiri. 
Mernc'iri, J'llm. 
Ililt'iii, John. 
Hilt'in, 'I'honia'*. 
Motiicr, A. W. 
Ilorton, Charles K. 
Il'jrloii, Isra<-1. 
HiicHti^, Kdwarfl. 
MucHtiN, William V,. 
Hunter, H'»l)crt. 
Jenkins, VV. H. 
Kclley, Kflgar K. 
Kellcy, Israel. 
Kclley, John D. 
Kellcy, .Silas C. 



Kinney, Jarnet H. 
I.awHon, Alrxanflci. 
Lewis, Nathan. 
I,ewls, Sheldon. 
I/CwIh, 'Ihonia't M. 
I^cwiH, William. 
I.oviti, Aiulrew. 
I.oviit, Joseph 1'. 
MarManiiH, Hugh. 
Moody, James H. 

Moofly, Jr)lin W. 

Moody, W. H., jiin. 
Moiilton, ficor^c K. 
Moidlon, John ' . 
Murphy, licnjarnin. 
Miirjiliy, John. 
Owen, Charles j!. 
I'orier, Horace I'.. 
Porter, l,f'(>n. 
Rcddiui^, ficoigc H. 
K'llihihs, Ansel. 



koMiins, A»a. 
koMiins, Fra. 
koM>inM, William S. 
kol>erfHon, William. 
ko^cfH, I'.enjaniin, sen. 
koj{cr'- ■■■'illiam. 

Scott, ,\i.ir)S Ft. 
.Sims, I<ol)ert. 
Smith, Ccorge l<. 
Smith, Jol). 
Stoncman, Joseph Ft. 
'looker, ('liarlcs. 
'F'ookcr, Ceotge W. 
Tooker, Jtjseph. 
'I'ooker, Thomas li. 
L'tley, Xalhan, sen. 
Wch,tcr, F. A. 
Weston, F.eonard, 
Weston, N'afhan. 
N'oung, John. 



1.S40. 

Robert Kellcy. 
!•;. W. I!. Moody. 
I'lliene/er Scott. 
•Staylcy Ilrown. 
John Moodv. 
CeorKe Allen. 
Thomas Killam. 
John I'innay. 
lienjamin F<ogcrs. 

1850. 

K. W. V,. Mor,dy. 
Thomas Killam. 
Henjamin koj^cru. 



DIRECTORS. 

Joseph l!. Ilond. 
keiihen ' lenients. 
Ainasa l>iirkee. 
Joseph Shaw. 

K. W. I!. Moody. 
Fienjainin koj^crs. 
Joseph Shaw. 
John W. I/>vilt. 
William II. Moody, sen. 
George Killam. 
Al>€l < . Kol)l)ins. 

1870. 



William II. Moody, !ien. 
.Nathan I'ttcy. 
John W. Moo(|y. 
I »ennis FForifJJi. 
l.oraii I'., liaker. 
S. M. kyerson. 

iSHo. 

John W. Mofjdy. 
lyoran V.. iiaker. 
A. F. Stoneman. 
John Mui|)hy. 
Frank Killam. 
Ocorpe FI. f fucsl. 



I'.enjaniin Kogers. 
liriiktr (1837-1840;, lienjamin I'.arnard. 
" (1846^ t874), JamcH .Murray. 
" (1874-1883), Stephen li. Murray. 

In 1S47 the company rftiirncl to tlic (jri,i.;iii;il fiuinl>cr of seven 
directors, at which it ruiitinued until 1H77, when it was rethiced to six. 
S(jnu; of the directors h.id k>ng lortT>s of service. 

K. W. IJ. Mo«Kly, 25 years, 1H37-1862, excepting 1854. Mr. Moody <lied 1863. 
benjamin Kogcrs, 32 year*, 183H-1872, excepting 1857, 1858, 1859. ,Mi. Rogers 
died 1884. 



3^/-) 



ACADIAN. 



Tlioina* Killam, 22 years, 1H37-1H57 and r862. Mr. Killam died 186S. 
Kciil^n Clements, J) yearn, 1H43-1H66, excepting iSrx). Mr. Clements dic<l 



186X. 



William H. Mooriy, sen., 17 ycarH, 1S57-1.S72 and 184'j. Mr. Moody died 

i»7.5- 

John W. Moody, 22 years, 1862-1S83 inclunivc. 
I.oran l'„ Hakcr, 17 years, 1867-18X3 inclusive. 
Capt. kol)ert Kellcy died 184.4. 
<'apt. Joseph Shaw died iH7r. 

The business of this company was brought to rt riosc, in 1883, with 
a net profit of ^206,171. 



THE ACADIAN INSURANCE: COMPANY. 

1858. — I'he Acadian Insiiranrx- (.'ompany was established in Mardi, 
1858. '("tie stock consisted f)f 150 shares, and tlie business throughout 
was managed by a board of seven directors. 'I'he shareholders in i86f) 
were, — 



ioi;k sharks. 

lirown, Cforgc .S. 
I)urkec, Arnasa. 
Townvicnd, VV. H. 

Illkl K MtAKKS. 

(ioiidcy, Aaron. 
I.ovitt, Andrew. 
I,ovitt, John \V. 
Moody, W. Jf., Hcn. 
Kohbinn, A J)cl C. 
Kycrson, John K. 
Kyerson, S M. 
Young, John. 

TWO SHARES. 

Allen, Ccorge. 
Allen, Thomas, jun. 
liakcr, I.oran K. 
liond, Joseph I!, 
lirown, Ci^orge W. 
Urown, Robc.t. 
Carlisle, I.ydia. 
Cronhy, Dennis. 
Dudrnan, W. K. 
Ellenwood, iJcnjamin. 



Parish, C J. 
Farish, James C. 
Flint, John. 
I torton, l)(!niiis. 
Hunter, Kobcrt. 
Killam, (icorgc. 
Killam, 'I hoinas. 
Moody, v.. W. H. 
Raymond, Ira. 
I<ol»frtsoii, William. 
Rogers, William. 
Kycrson, George. 
.Stonciiiaii, Joseph 15. 
Townsend, W. 15. 

ONK SflAKK. 

Dain, Samuel S, 
llaxter, John. 
Ueular, Jf)hn. 
Holtnii, Thomas. 
Urown, Charles E. 
Urown, Jrisrph J. 
IJrown, Samuel, 
lirown, Th<;mas I). 
Hurrill, Henry. 
Hurrill, Joseph. 
Hurrill, William, sen. 



Cann, Hugjj. 
(Churchill, Theodore. 
Churchill, William. 
Cl<-rnents, Rculxrn. 
Cook, Eno!.. 
<'rosby. Freeman. 
Cfoshy, Neticmiah. 
I)ane, TIioiiia.s I'. 
Durkcc, (ieorge C. 
Fleet, r.'iijarnin D. 
Flint, Samuel, sen. 
Gardner, Ivnos. 
(lardner, Nathaniel. 
Gcddcs, Thomas O. 
Goudcy, II. 'I". 
( iiicst, Robert, 
liamrnotirl, .Nelson. 
Matheld, J. V. N. 
Ili'ioii, ISenjaiiiin. 
I Iutc:liiiison, J. T. 
Killam, llenjamiji, j.in. 
Lewis, Nathan. 
Lewis, Thomas M. 
MatManiis, Hugh. 
Moody, John VV. 
Moses, Nathan. 
Murphy, iJenjamin. 



ACADIAN. 



3^'7 



Murphy, John, 
Murray, James, jun. 
Murray, Jolm. 
Owen, Charlcd \\. 
I'inkticy, Oillicrt. 
kcdiliiig, (icorne II. 
Hirhardft, I'nvid. 
KoliliiiiM, AriHcl. 
I<')l)l)iii'*, Ira. 
KobbiiiH, I/rtiiiicl. 



iKfe. 

f Jcorc.c S. Itrowii. 
Willi.im Roger**. 
A. iron fJiiiidcy. 
'IhomaH K illam, nen. 
Atr);iHa Oiirkec. 
\V. II. Townscnd. 
William KotjcrtHiiti. 

1S65. 

(ieorgc S. Brown. 
William Rogers. 
Aaron fJfjudcy. 
William Robertson. 



R<»bbiim, William .S. 
Rogers, Itinj.imiri. 
Rowley, J. W. I.'. 
Ryctfion, Loin. 
S.indcrMon, (iillicrt. 
.Servant, Zrbulon. 
Sceley, JoHcph. 
Shaw, Joseph. 
Stoncmaii, A. F. 

DIRECTORS. 

Charlcfi Tookcr. 
.Vatlian Mosch. 
lienjamin Murphy. 

1870. 

George S. Ilrown. 
William Rrjgeri*. 
Aar')ii Goiidcy. 
' harlcs 'I'ooker. 
Nathan Moses, 
r.ciijainin Murphy. 
A. I''. Stoncman. 

1875. 

Cieorgc S. lirown. 



Stri<:kland, Robert. 
Sullivan, iJennis. 
Tookir, ( harles. 
Tooker, George W. 
Tooker, John. 
Uticy, NalJian. 
While, Atjdrcw G'. 
Wyrnan, f alvin. 
Wyman, James W. 



Aaioti (Joudcy. 
(,'harles 'looker. 
.N'alhan Moses, 
lienjamin .Murphy, 
/cbina Goiidcy. 
Thomas M. Lewis. 

iSSo. 

Aaion Gondcy. 
Nathan .Moses. 
Henj.iiniTi Miirpliy. 
/,el)iii.i Gourlcy. 
William r.urrill, jun 
J.iincH I''. Si oil. 
John (J. Anderson. 



Ilroker (iH5H-fH7r,), Thomas V. I!, liingay. 
" (1.S76-1HH1), George I'.ingay. 

G(!or;.^f S. I'.rown, t'j years, i.S5'i-iH7') inclusive. 

William Rogers, 13 years, 1H5H-1870 inclusive. Mr. Rogers died 1875. 
Aaron Goudcy, 21 years, 1858-1879 in'lusivc, excepting 1859. Mr. Gondcy 
died 1883. 

(JharlcB Tooker, 15 years, 18C1-1875 inclusive. .Mr. Tfjoljcr died 1876. 
Nathan Moses, 21 yearn, 1861-1881 incluHive. Mr. Mosch died 1887, 
Benjamin Murphy, 19 years, 1862- r88o inclusive. 
/,(,-bina Goiidey, 10 years, 1S71 -iHSo inclusive. Mr. fJoudcy died 1887. 



'Ilie Ac.Klian Insurance (,'otn|).iny dosed their business in «88i willi 
a net profit of $107,061. 



sos 



CO.\tMERCIAL. 



THE COMMERCIAL INSURANCE COMPANY. 

i86i. — 'Ihc Coiiunercial Insurance Comijaiiy was established in 
March, 1861, with 150 shares and a board of seven directors. The 
following is a list of the original shareholders : — 



SIX SHARKS. 

Lovitt, Andrew. 

KIVI. SHARKS. 

lirown, C'.eorge S. 
(Joudcy, A.iron. 
Lovitf, John W. 
Robbins, Abel C. 

FOUR SHARKS. 

I)udinan, W. K. 

THREK SHARES. 

ISaker, l.orati K. 
Kcllcy, D.iiiicl C. 
J.cvvis, 'I'hiini.'is ,M. 
Moses, Nathan. 
Ryerson, John K. 
Shaw, Joscpli. 
Stoneman, A. F. 
t'tley, .\athan. 
Voung, John. 

TW<J SHAKES. 

I'.rown, Charles E. 
Hrown, kobcft, sen. 
(!ann, Hugh. 
Dane, Thomas 15. 
I)urkec, .\niasa. 
Parish, (i. J. 
Flint, John. 



1865. 

Abel C. Robl)ins. 
John W. Lovitt. 
Andrew Lovitt. 
lienjamin Killam, jun. 
Rol)(.-rt Guest. 
W. K. lJudrnan. 
Lyinan Cann. 



Oridlcy, W. H. 
Morton, nennix. 
Hunter, Robert. 
Killam, I'.enjaniin, jun. 
Kill.'ini, Thomas, sen. 
Lovitt, George II. 
Lovitt, John, jim. 
Lovitt, JoNcpli 1!. 
Lovitt, William I). 
Moody, VV. H., jun. 
Raymond, Ira. 
Robcrts<jn, William. 
Rogers, lienjatnin. 
Rogers, William. 
Ryerson, George. 
Ryerson, S. M. 
Stoneman, Josc|)h, sen. 
Stonem.in, Joseph H. 
Townscnd, W, 11. 

ONE SHARE. 

Allen, Thomas, jun. 
Urown, Joseph J. 
Hrown. Samuel, 
f ain, James. 
Cann, 1-yman, 3d. 
Churchill, William. 
Crocker, R. IL 
Crosby, iJennis. 
Crosby, Freeman S. 
Currier, Wiliiani. 



DIRECTORS. 

1870. 

Abel C. Robbins. 
John W. I (vitt. 
Andrew Lovitt. 
W. K. Dudman. 
I.yman (,'ann. 
Jonathan Iforton. 
Joseph R. Kinney. 



I»iirkee, George G. 
(jardiicr, F.nos. 
Gardner, Freeman, 
(iuest, Robert. 
Guest, Thomas. 
Hilton, Rciijamin. 
Horton, Charles E. 
Horton, Jonathan. 
Horton, .Smith. 
Killam, George. 
Ladd, liyron !'. 
I^ewia, Henry. 
Ix-wis, Nathan. 
Lewis, Sheldon, 
l/ovitt, James J. 
MatMuilcn, Joseph. 
Moody, Jame.H 1^. 
Moody, W. IL, sen. 
Murphy, lienj.imin. 
Murray, James, jun. 
Perry, Edward S. 
Porter, Horace 1!. 
Porter, .\orinan S. 
Richan, Eleazer. 
.Sterritt, James A. 
Tooker, < harles. 
Tooker, George W. 
Tooker, (Jcorgc W. 15. 
Townsend, W. 15. 
Trask, Asa H. 
Wcddltton, William. 



1875- 
Abel C. Robbing. 
Andrew Lovitt. 
W. K. Dudman. 
Lym.in ("aim. 
Jonathan Horton. 
Nathaniel Churchill. 
Thomas M. I^wis. 



ATLAATIC. 



3^'9 



1880. 



Joseph n. 'ann. Joseph H. Canii. 

Nathan It. I^cwis. Nathan H. Lewis. 

Abel C. Robhin.1. „ William I), Lovitt. 

W. K. Diidman. ''*^5- 

I.yman Canii. Abel C. Rnbbins. 

l!iracl [y. Ifurrill. I.yman Cann. 

lhol;cr (1861-1863), Alexander S. Murray. 
(1865-1869), Waitstill I'atch. 
(1869-1873), James J. Lovitt. 
" ('''<73-'886), George G. Sanderson. 

Aljel C. Robbins, 25 years, 1861-1885 inclusive. 

John W. Lovitt, 13 years, i86i-t873 inclusive. Mr. J. W. Lovitt viicd in r874. 
Andrew f-ovilt, \-] years, 1861-1877 inclusive. Mr. A. Lovitt died in 1883. 
William K. I.'iidman, 21 years, 1X61-1881 inclusive. .Mr. Dudman died in 1883. 
Lyman ("ann, 21 years, 1865 1S85 inclusive. 

Toward the end of 18X5 the Commercial Insurance C'ompany 
decided to close tlieir business. An account for the twenty years 
ending Dec. 31, rK.So, shows a net profit of i>^*)\,^)y), •'! result not 
materially changed by the operations of the succeeding years. 



1865. 



THP: ATLANTIC INSURANCE COMPANY. 
— '['he Atlantic Insurance Company was established Feb. t8, 



1865, with 150 shares and a board of seven directors. The following 
were the original shareholders : — 



Allen, Thoma.s, jim. 
liakcr, Loran E. 
Hlcthen, Nathan VV. 
iJond, Joseph I'. 
Brown, Charles K. 
Urown, George S. 
iJrown, Robert, sen. 
Brown, Samuel. 
Burrill, William, 
liurrill, William, jun. 
Cann, Hugh. 
Cann, William A. 
f^ann, Lyman. 
Clements, N. K. 
Corning, Howman. 
Deniii.s, P'reeman. 
1 )oane, George B. 
Dudman, VV. K. 
Durkce, Amasa. 
Durkce, George G. 



Farish, G. J. 
Parish, James C. 
Gardner, Knos. 
(joiidey, Aaron. 
Gridlcy, W. 11. 
Guest, Robert. 
Guest, Thomas. 
Hatfield, J. V. N. 
Killam, lienjamin, jun. 
Killam, .Samuel, sen. 
Killam, Thomas, sen. 
Lrtvitt, George II. 
Lovitt, James J. 
Lovitt, John W. 
Moody, W. II., sen. 
Moses, Nathan. 
Murphy, Ilenj.imin. 
Murray, James, jun. 
Perry, Kdward S. 
Perry, Thomxs. 



Porter, Horace B. 
Richards, David. 
Richards, Henry K. 
Robbins, Abel C. 
Rogers, Benjamin. 
Rogers, William. 
Ryerson, George. 
Rycrson, Jf)hn K. 
Ryerson, .S. M. 
.Shaw, Joseph. 
Shaw, Joscj.h, jun. 
Tooker, Charles. 
Tookcr, George W. 
Town8(-nd, W. li. 
Townsend, W. II. 
Utley, Nathan. 
Weddl'ton, William. 
Voung, John, 



370 



PACIFfC. 



1865. 

George B. Doane. 
John K. Rycrson. 
Bowman Corning. 
Hugh Cann. 
Samuel Hrown. 
N. K. Clements. 
John Young. 

1870. 
George B. Doane. 



DIRECTORS. 

John K. Ryerson. 
ISowman Corning. 
Hugh Cann. 
.Samuel Hrown. 
George H. Lovitt. 
John H. Killam. 

>S7S- 
George 11. Doane. 
John K. Ryerson. 
Bowman ('orning. 
Hugh Cann. 
Broker (1865-1881), John Kil'am. 



George H. l,ovitt. 
John H. Killam. 
Benjamin Killam. 

1880. 

George B. Doane. 
John K. Ryerson. 
Bowman Corning. 
Hugh Cann. 
George IT. Lovitt. 
John H. Killam. 
Benjamin Hilton. 



The Atlantic Insurance Company closed their business at the end of 
the sixteenth year, February, 1881, with a net profit of 5117,376. 



THE PACIFIC INSURANCE COMPANY. 

1870. — The Pacific Insurance Company was established Feb. 19, 
1870, with 200 shares and a board of s^ven directors. The following 
were the original shareholders : — 



SIX SHARES. 

Doane, George B. 

FIVE SHARES. 

fiaker, Loran E. 
Goudey, Aaron. 
Killam, Benjamin. 
Ryerson, John K. 
Ryerson, S. M. 

FOUR SH.\RES. 

Dennis, Freeman. 
Dudman, \V. K. 
Parish, G. J. 
Parish, James C. 
Moody, W. H., sen. 

THREE SHARES. 

Blethen, N. W. 
Clements, N. K. 
Flint, John. 
Horton, Dennis. 



Killam, Thomas, jun. 
Lewis, Nathan B. 
Lewis, Thomas M. 
Lovitt, William D. 
Moses, Nathan. 
Robbins, A. C. 
Stoncman, A. F. 
Townsend, \V. H. 
Utley, Nathan. 

TWO SHARES. 

Allen, Gilbert. 
Allen, James G. 
Brown, Charles E. 
Crosby, Dennis. 
Crosby, George. 
Crosby, John R. 
Crosby, William. 
Currier, William. 
Goudey, Zebina. 
Hatfield, James A. 
Hatfield, J. Lyon. 
Hatfield, S. J. 



Hilton, Benjamin. 
Horton, Charles F,. 
Horton, Jonathan. 
Killam, Frank. 
Killam, John. 
Killam, John H. 
Killam, Samuel. 
Lewis, Sheldon. 
Lovitt, John, jun. 
Moody, John W. 
Moody, Thomas C. 
Moody, W. H., jun. 
Murray, James. 
I'erry, Edward S. 
Rogers, William. 
Scott, James F. 
Young, John. 

ONE SHARE. 

All'.n, Thomas. 
Brown, George S. 
Brown, Joseph J. 
Brown, Samuel. 



ORIENTAL. 



371 



liurrill, James. 
Hurrill, William, juii. 
Cain, William. 
Cann, Hugh. 
Cann, Joseph H. 
Cann, Lyman. 
Cann, William A. 
Churchill, Xathaniel. 
Cook, Francis G. 
Cook, William H. 
CorninK, John R. 
Crocker, k. H. 
Crosby, Amos. 
Crosby, Josiah. 
Davis, James M. 
Dodds, Charles. 



Durkee, Prince W. 
Gardner, Freeman. 
Guest, Thomas. 
Hatticld, Abram M. 
Hatfield, Forman. 
Hatfield, W. J. 
Horton, Israel. 
Horton, Smith. 
Jolly, Thomas R. 
Kelley, Thomas E. 
Kinney, Josei)h R. 
I-ewis, ll> iiry. 
Lewis, James. 
Lewis, Nathan. 
Lovitt, Andrew. 
Lovitt, George H. 



Lovitt, James J. 
Lovitt, John W. 
MacGill, William. 
Millar, D.ilhoiisie. 
Murjihy, Benjamin. 
Murphy, John. 
Perry, Thomas. 
Porter, George H. 
Richan, Kleazer. 
Richards, H. K. 
Rogers, Benjamin. 
Ryersoi), George. 
Sanderson, George G. 
Scott, Ebenezer. 
Smith, George R. 
Trefry, George K. 



The directors were Thomas Killam, jun., William I ). Lovitt, Freeman 
Dennis, William H. Moody, jim., John Young, John Lovitt, jun., and 
Nathan 15. Lewis. John Young retired in 1875, '^"'' William A, Cann 
was elected to the vacancy. There were no other changes in the direct- 
ory from 1870 to 1880 inclusive, and William A. Chase was broker. 
The company closed their business at the end of the eleventh year with 
a profit of $61,906, or $309.53 per share. 



THE ORIENTAL INSURANCE COMPANY. 

1874. — The Oriental Insurance Company was established on Jan. i, 
1874, with 300 shares and a board of seven directors. Unlike the five 
other companies, which had no paid-up capital, the Oriental began 
business with the equivalent of $30,000 capital, to provide promptly for 
any liabilities that might accrue in excess of premiums received. The 
following were the original shareholders : — 



FIVE SHARES. 

Baker, Loran E. 
Lovitt, John W. 

KOUR SHARES. 

Blethen, N. W. 
Brown, Charles E. 
Davis, James M. 
Dudman, W. K. 
P^arisli, James C. 
Guest, George H. 



Guest, Thomas. 
Law, William. 
Lewis, Henry. 
Lewis, Thomas M. 
Murphy, John. 
Robbins, A. C. 
Rogers, William. 
Stoneman, A. F. 

THREE SHARES. 

Cann, William A. 
Corning, John R. 



Doane, George B. 
Ellenwood, Benjamin. 
Goudey, Aaron. 
Goudey, Zebina. 
Haley, William. 
Hatfield, A. M. 
Huntington, Charles. 
Killam, lienjauiin. 
Kihngy, Joseph R. 
Lewis, N. B. 
Lo itt, James L 
Rogers, Benjamin. 



372 



OK I E NT A L. 



Kyerson, S. M. 
'looker, N. J. It. 
Willctt, I,. M. 

TWO SHARKS. 

Anderson, John C. 
liingay, Jacob V. B. 
Cain, James. 
Cain, William. 
Cann, Hugh. 
Cann, Joseph H. 
Charteris, K. A. 
Churchill, Nathaniel. 
Crosby, George. 
Crosliy, Joseph, sen. 
Currier, William. 
Daley, J. H. 
Dennis, Freeman. 
Doty, (jcrjrge K. 
Eakins, R. S., jun. 
Evans, Joseph E. 
Karish, i'l. J. 
Flint, Thomas ]{. 
Hatfield, George A. 
Hatfield, James A. 
liatfic' I, John V. N. 
Hatfield, .Samuel J. 
Hatfield, WiHiam J. 
Hibbard, John. 
Hibbard, William. 
Killam, John. 
Kinney, I'earl D. 
Ladd, liyron I'. 
Lewis, Cieorge M. 
Lewis, .Sheldon. 
Lewis, William W. 
Levitt, ficorge H. 
Lovitt, John, jun. 
Moody, John W. 
Moody, Thomas C. 
Mooc'/, W. H. 
Moses, Nathan. 
I'crry, Thomas. 
Porter, George H. 
Rogers, V>. K. 
Rowley, J. W . H. 



Ryerson, John K. 
•Sanderson, Gill)ert. 
Schurman, A. H. 
Scott, Klienezcr. 
Scovll, Reuben. 
Spinney, Kdgar K. 
Tooker, (ieorge W. I!. 
Trefry, George K. 
Utley, Nathan. 
Webster, J. L. R. 
Young, John. 

ONK SJIARE. 

Allen, Amos W. 
Allen, Charles. 
Allen, Kdward. 
Allen, Gilbert. 
Allen, James G. 
Cain, Ste|)hen. 
Caskey, William. 
Crosby, Ambrose. 
Crosby, Amos. 
Crosby, George G. 
Crosby, Harris H. 
Crosby, Richard R. 
Crosby, William. 
Dane, Thomas li. 
Davison, Hlair. 
Davison, Oscar. 
Dennis, James. 
Dodds, (!harles. 
Dudman, (jeorgc li. 
Eakins, Arthur W. 
Ellenwood, Benjamin. 
Gardner, Freeman. 
Geddes, Thomas O. 
Goudcy, Joseph. 
ILdey, Alvin. 
Haley, John H. 
Haley, Josejih O. 
Harding, Smith. 
Harris, J. H. 
Hatfield, Forman. 
Hatfield, George K. 
Hatfield, Job. 
Hatfield, Norman li. 



Hines, Benjamin. 
Hines, Byron. 
Homer, A. C. 
Homer, W. B. 
Hood, .Alexander J. 
Hood, (ieorge A. 
Hurlburt, Joseph. 
Jolly, Thomas R. 
Kellcy, Daniel C. 
Killam, John H. 
Kinney, J.imcs B. 
Landers, Jacob. 
Lavers, (ieor^c E. 
Law, liowman B. 
LawsoM, James. 
Lennox, John. 
Lewis, Josiah B. 
Lewis, .Vathan. 
Lovitt, Edward. 
Lovitt, Joseph B. 
MacGill, Charles L. 
MacGill, Oliver. 
MacGill, William. 
Mildon, Frederick. 
Moody, James B. 
Moses, Frank. 
Mott, John P. 
Murphy, lienjamin. 
Murphy, Jtrcmiah. 
Parker, Kdward. 
Parr, H. A. 
Pelton, S. H. 
I'erry, Edward S. 
Porter, HoraceJB. 
Richards, David. 
Robbins, Ansel. 
Rose, Robert K. 
.Sanderson, George G. 
Scott, James F. 
Smith, George. R. 
Steele, Israel. 
Taylor, (ieorge S. 
Viets, E. M. 
Williams, J'".dward S. 
Wilson, Frank H. 
Wilson, Israel K. 



nosrox maiuxe. 



373 





DIRECTORS. 






James J. Lovitt. 


Joseph H. Lovitt. 


1874. 


Abram M. Hatfield. 


Jacob V. H. Uingay. 


William Law. 
Jani-t J. I.ovitt. 


Henry Lewis. 
Robert Kllcnwood. 


1 88 J. 


James M. Davis. 


Joseph li. I»vitt. 


James J. Lf)vitt. 


Abram M. Hatfield. 


Jacob V. H. Uingay. 


Henry Lewis. 


John K. < Orning. 
Henry I.ewis. 


1880. 


Joseph H. Lovitt. 
Jacob V. IS. Uingay. 


Robert Ellenwood. 


William Uw. 
James J. Lovitt. 


Thomas Ferry. 


1877. 


Henry Lewis. 




William Law. 







Broker ( i.S74-i,SS4), Job Hatfield, 

William Law retired from the directory, in 1881, to accept a Yarmouth 
agency of the Uoston Marine Insurance Coinpany. 

At a special meeting of shareholders, in October, 1X83, it was de- 
cided to close the business of the Oriental Company at the end of the 
tenth year, which was done accordingly, resulting in a net profit on the 
ten years' business of $49,880, or 5166.26 per share. 



THE BOSTON MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

The lioston Marine Insurance Company of 1 7 State Street, established 
an agency at Yarmouth in 1882, with William Law & Co. as managers ; 
and, following the liberal methods and i>rompt payment of claims which 
characterize the parent company, the agency at once met the well- 
deserved po[)ularity and patronage which it has since enjoyed. The 
business of the Yarmouth agency extend throughout the Province, and 
is steadily increasing ; and the elegant and commodious building, which, 
at a cost of over ;J!30,ooo, the company have erected at the corner of 
Main and Cliff .Streets, is at once an ornament to the town, an apprecia- 
tion of the enterprise of the Yarmouth people, and a liberal expression 
of the company's confidence in the stability and permanence of their 
Yarmouth agency. 

BANKS. 

1839. — The Yarmouth Agency of the Bank of Nova Scotia was 
established in February, 1839, under the joint management of James 
Bond and Stayley Brown. Upon Mr. Brown's retirement in 1842, Dr. 



374 



BANKS. 



Bond remained sole manager until his death, in 1854, when his son^ 
Norman J. Bond, succeeded. He resigned in 1858, when James Mur- 
ray was appointed manager. Mr. Murray conducted the Agency until 
April, 1 88 1, after which George VV. Daniel held the position for a year, 
and in May, 1882, was succeeded by the present incumbent, J. H. 
Lombard. 

THE BANK OF YARMOUTH. 

1865. — The Bank of Yarmouth began business in January, 1865. 
Capital, $400,000. 

DIRECTORS. 



1865. 

W. H. Townsend, President. 
Thomas Killam. 
John W. Lovitt. 
Loraii E. Baker. 
Charles E. Brown. 

1866. 
John W. Lovitt, President. 



Thomas Killam. 
Loran E. Baker. 
Charles E. Brown. 
Abel C. Robbins. 

1S69. 

J. W. Lovitt, President. 
Loran E. Baker. 
Charles E. Brown. 



Abel C. Robbins. 
Johr. \V. Moody. 

1875. 

L. E. Baker, President. 

C. E. Brown, Vice-President. 

Tohn W. Moody. 

Hugh Cann. 

John Lovitt. 



The Board remains as constituted in 1875 : 



J. W. H. Rowley, Cashier 
Charles Huntington, " 
Thomas W. Johns, " 
Bowman B. I aw, Teller . 
William E. Perry. " 



1865-1872. 
1872-1S75. 
1875-1886. 
. . 1873. 
. . 1875. 



ll.G. Fxr\sh,jd Accountant . . 1S73. 

F. S. Dunham, Clerk 1874- 

W. S. Moody, " 1874. 

W. H. Dodds, " 18S2. 

Ousely Rowley, " 1S85. 



THE EXCHANGE BANK OF YARMOUTH. 

1869. — The Exchange Bank of Yarmouth was established in 1869. 
Capital, $400,000. Paid-up capital, $350,000. The capital of this 
bank has been reduced to $280,000. 



1S69. 

W. H. Townsend, President. 

Benjamin Killam. 1 

Joseph R. Kinney. 
Aaron Goudey. 



DIRECTORS. 

George B. Doane. Benjamin Killam. 

A. F. Stoneman. Aaron Goudey. 

John H. Killam. George B. Doane. 

_ _ o A. F. Stoneman. 

'^74- John jj. Killam. 

A. C. Robbins, President. William D. Lovitt. 



CALIFORNIA EXPEDITIONS. 



375 



1879. 

A. C. Robbing, President. 
Aaron Goiidey. 
George B. Doane. 
A. F. Stonoman. A 



John H. Killam. 
William D. Levitt. 
Lyman Cann. 

1881. 



J. H. Killam, Vice-President. 
William D. Lovitt. 
Lyman Cann. 
Nathan B. Lewis. 



C. Robbins, President. 
Cashier (from 1869), Alexander S. Murray. 
Teller, Thomas V. B. Bingay, jun. 



In 1880 the number of directors was reduced to five, and the board 
remains as constituted in 1881. 

CALIFORNIA EXPEDITIONS. 

1849. — Early in 1849 the California gold-fever reached Yarmouth. 

In the latter part of the summer, a joint-stock company was formed, 
who bought the brigantine Mary Jane. With a full cargo, consisting 
chiefly of house-building materials, the brig sailed for San Francisco on 
Nov. 22 with the following persons on board, all stockholders except the 
cook, and arrived there all well on May 25, 1850. Fitz W. Redding, 
George Stairs Brown, Adam R. Noble, and George S. Brown, were the 
other stockholders in the enterprise. 



James Baker, Master. 
William Cook, Mite. 
Ebenezer Scott, sen. 
Ebenezer Haley. 
Thomas O'Brien, sen. 
Silas Baker. 



John Young. 
Benjamin B. Redding. 
Robert Van Norden. 
Freeman Dennis. 
Benjamin Killam, jun. 
Charles J. Fox. 



William S. Whitten. 
George W. Brown. 
Waitstill Baker. 
George A. Baker. 
Charles Hilton. 
Robert Hilton. 



William H. White, Cook and Steward. 

On Dec. 18, 1849, the brigantine Zone sailed from Yarmouth for 
San Francisco, loaded chiefly with building materials and patent gear 
for a saw-mill. 



STOCKHOLDERS. 

E. W. B. Moody, 32 shares. 

George W. Bond, 12 

Norma 1 J. Bond, 12 " 

John W. Moody, 6 

Dennis Horton, 2 " 

64 shares. 



SHIP S COMPANY. 

George W. Bond, Master. 
Henry l^lilton, Mate. 
Alfred Van Xorden. 
Levi Wyman, sen. 
Malachi Haley. 
Jacob Tooker, 
Norman J. Bingay. 
Charles W. Moody. 



3/6 



COMMERCIAL WHARF COMPANY. 



1850. — In November, 1850, the schooner Eagle sailed for San 
Francisco with the following passengers and crew. The Eagle passed 
through the Straits of Magellan. 



Calvin Valpey, Master. 
Joseph H. Cann. 
Samuel Ellenwood. 
Jonathan Moulton, sen. 
Ezekiel Moulton. 



Zebulon Servant. 
Henry Greggs Williams. 
Robert Williamson. 
James Starr. 
Joseph Muncey. 



Israel Pitman. 
John Churchill. 
Albert Bath. 
Enos Knowles. 
Augustus White. 



1852. — On Dec. 13, 1852, the brigantine Brilliant, owned by her 
master, sailed from Yarmouth for Melbourne, Australia. 



Thomas V. B. Bingay, Master. 
James Moody, Mate. 
George S. Fletcher, Sailing-Master. 
Edwin Wetmore, Cook and Stvivard. 
William Perry, Assistant Cook. 

CREW. 

George A. Wetmore. 
Jacob Wetmore. 
Henry Allen. 
William Halstead. 
C. John Bond. 
Richard Fletcher. 



PASSENGERS. 

Mrs. T. V. B. Bingay. 
Elizabeth Moody. 
Thomas Bingay, 
Charles Bingay. 
J. W. Bingay. 
George Bingay. 
John B., Bingay. 

Roberts. 

Mrs. George S. Fletcher. 
Sarah Fletcher. 
Laleah Fletcher. 
Stephen Fletcher. 
Ranald Fletcher. 
Charlotte Fletcher. 
Margaret Fletcher. 



THE COMMERCIAL WHARF COMPANY. 

1848. — The Commercial Wharf Company was organized in 1848, 

and incorporated March, 1850. Capital, ;^5,ooo, with ;j^2S per share 

paid up. The stock consisted of fifty shares owned in 1850 as 

follows : — 

Durkee, Prince. 
Goudey, Thomas, sen. 
Horton, Dennis. 
Hunter, Robert. 
Moody, W. H., sen. 
Moulton, D. D. 
Sanderson, Gilbert. 



FOUR SHARES. 

Ellenwood, Benjamin. 

THREE SHARES. 



Moody, E. W. B. 
Utley, Jacob, jun. 



TWO SHARES. 



Brown, George S. 
Crocker, Rowland H. 



ONE SHARE. 

Bond, Joseph B. '~ 
Clements, Reuben. 



Forster, James. 
Gardner, Nathaniel. 
Goudey, Aaron. 
Guest, Robert. 
Heckman, Henry. 
Horton, Israel. 
Kelley, Silas C. 
Lewis, Benjamin. 
Lewis, Nathan. 
Lewis, Sheldon. 
Perry, John. 



ELZCi MC TELEGRAPH. 



377 



Redding, Fitz W. 
Smith, John. 
Stoneman, Joseph. 



Tooker, Charles. 
Tooker, Joseph, jun. 
Utley, Nathan. 

DIRECTORS. 



Webster, F. A. 
Weston, Leonard. 
Weston, Nathan. 



1850. 
E. W. B. Moody, President. 
Reuben Clements. 
William H. Moody, sen. 
Jacob Utley, jun. 
Benjamin EUenwood. 

E. W. B. Moody, President. 
Reuben Clements. 
Joseph Stoneman. 
Benjamin Rogers. 
Charles Tooker. 



l86o. 
E. W. B. Moody, President. 
Reuben Clements. 
Benjamin Rogers. 
Charles Tooker. 
Benjamin EUenwood. 

1865. 
Aaron Goudey, President. 
Benjamin Rogers. 
Charles Tooker. 
Joseph Stoneman. 
Israel Horton. 



Secretary and Treasurer (1848-1866), W. H. Moody, sen. 

In 1866 the property was sold to Aaron Goudey and Augustus F. 
Stoneman. 

THE MOODY, BROWN, & CO. COPARTNERSHIP. 

1852. — The Moody, Brown, & Co. copartnership was formed in 
N: ember, 1852, primarily for furnishing outfits for the fisheries, with the 
following stockholders : — 



Brown, Robert, sen. 
Butler, Robert D. 
Cook, David. 
Crosby, Isaiah, jun. 
Crosby, Nehemiah. 
EUenwood, Benjamin. 
Goudey, Aaron. 



Goudey, George J. 
Hemeon, John. 
Holmes, Samuel. 
Knowles, Charles. 
Moody, E. Ny. B. 
Robbins, Ansel, sen. 
Robbins, Lemuel. 



Sanderson, Gilbert. 
Scott, Amos II. 
Utley, Nathan. 
Weston, Leonard. 
Weston, Walter C. 
Wyman, Lewis L. 



This company leased Commercial Whatf, and built the inner blocks 
of warehouses and stores afterward occupied by Aaron Goudey & Co. 



THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 

1852. — The Electric Telegraph Office was first opened in Yarmouth 
on June 8, 1852, in an apartment of "The Yarmouth Herald" estab- 
lishment in " Queen's Row." Alexander Lawson was manager from 
that date until his resignation in January, [1883. Sophia Snow suc- 
ceeded ; and, in October, 1884, the management devolved upon Harriet 
Gunn, assisted more^recently by Beatrice Elmsley. 



37^ STEAMSHJPS. 

STEAM COMMUNICATION. 

1842. — To James Whitney of St. John, N.B., Yarmouth was first 
indebted for regular steam communication with other ports. From 1842 
to 1845 his small steamers Herald and Saxe-Gotha plied between St. 
John, Yarmouth, Halifax, and intermediate ports; and in 1845 Mr. 
Whitney essayed a broader venture with his steamship Xorih America, 
which made a few trips between H. lifax and Boston, calling at 
Yarmouth each way. For a time Capi. Olivei Haley was pilot on 
Mr. Whitney's steamers. 

The writer remembers once standing 1 rward near Capt. Haley, who 
was peering through the fog for the next land-fall after leaving Barring- 
ton, and at length discovered, close under the starboard bow, the frown- 
ing face of the " Old Woman," from which a new departure was taken 
for Ellenwood's Passage. To a novice, a berth in the fog between the 
" Old Woman " and the " Old Man " seemed dangerous quarters. 

Mr. Whitney's steamboat enterprises, like others that have suc- 
ceeded his, were a great public convenience, yet not pecuniarily 
remunerative to the proprietor. It has required a heavy instalment of 
public spirit to bring up the credit side of the account. 

STEAMSHIP "EASTERN STATE." 

1855. — The Yarmouth Steam-Navigation Company, organized 
early in this year, purchased at Philadelphia for twenty-five thousand 
dollars, about one-half her original cost, the steamship Eastern Siefe, 
three hundred and eighty tons register, built in 185 1. In May, 1855, 
under the command of Capt. Bowman Corning, she was placed on the 
route between Yarmouth and Boston, and continued there during that 
season and a part of 1856, making weekly trips. Under the command 
of Capt. George Killam, she was then placed on the route between 
Halifax and Boston, making ten-day trips, and calling at Yarmouth each 
way. She continued on this route till tow\rd the end of 1859, when 
the company sold the steamer to Ryerson, ^{oses, & Co., who, soon after 
the beginning of the Southern rebellion, sold her to the United-States 
Government for a transport. While owned at Yarmouth, the Eastern 
State was commanded successively by Capts;. Bowman Corning, George 



EASTERN STA TE. 



379 



Killam, Benjamin Killam, Amos Crosby, and Tlieodore Churchill. The 
stock of the Yarmouth Steam- Navigation Company consisted of 64 
shares, originally held as follows. Par value, $440 per share, which 
covered the cost of the Eastern State on arrival at Yarmouth with cargo 
of coal brought from Philadelphia : — 



9- 


Thomas Killam. 


2. 


Allen & Brown. 




Joseph Shaw. 


4- 


John W. Lovitt. 


2. 


Aaro'i Goudey. 




James Murray, jun. 


4- 


Thomas Allen, sen. 


2. 


Bowman Corning. 




A. C. Robbins. 


4- 


Stayley Brown. 




Andvew Lovitt. 




Lyman Cann, sen. 


4- 


Samuel Killam. 




Thomas Dane. 




William Robertson, 


4- 


W. H. Townsend. 




W. K. Dudman. 




John Young. 


3- 


Nathan Moses. 




George S. Brown. 




Thomas Barnard. 


3- 


George Killam. 




A'.'. H. Jenkins. 




N. J. Bond. 


3- 


E. W. r>. Moody. 




C. & G. 'V. Tooker. 




S. M. Ryerson. 


3. 


John K. Rye 1 son. 




Puestis & Moultoa. 




Gilbert Sanderson. 



The first directors were Thomas Killam, John ^Y, Lovitt, W. H. 
Townsend, Nathan Moses, and Samuel Killam. In 1857 a petition for 
a subsidy was favorably entertained by the Nova-Scotia Legislature ; but 
at the request of the Yarmouth memberr, three of whom were share- 
holders in the Eastern State, the appropriation was very properly 
diverted to the establishment of a fog-bell at the lighthouse. Ten or 
twelve years later, when the Canadian Government was about to substi- 
tute a fog-whistle, some volunteers from the town took the liberty of 
relieving the Government of the expense of removing the bell, by 
bringing it from Cape Fourchu to Fire- Engine Station No. 3, where it 
still remains. 

STEAMSHIP " DOMINION," ETC. 

For nearly fifty years our merchants and the travelling public have 
recognized the necessity for a regular and frequent packet service 
between Yarmouth and Boston. 

It is said that the schooner Freetown, Capt. Samuel Stanwood, sen., 
performed the first regular senice between the two ports. Custom- 
House regulations were not so strictly enforced in Capt. Stanwood's day 
as in more recent times, for in the thirties it was no uncommon occur- 
rence to diminish the labors of the customs officers by landing portions 
of inward cargo before reporting at the Custom House. It seemed one 
part of the mission of the Freetown to demonstrate that her name fairly 



38o DOMINION. 

described our port, and that/r<r<f trade, both in theory and practice, was 
popular with our importers generally. In fine, the doctrine seemed in 
those days to be gaining ground that commerce, as all nature teaches, 
should be free as the air we breathe ; that Custom Houses and all such 
restrictions upon the freedom of exchange should be banished as relics 
of a barbarous age ; and that, as governments are maintained chiefly for 
the protection of property, the revenues required for all honest purposes 
of government should be raised by direct taxation upon the owners of 
property in proportion to the value of their respective holdings or 
possessions. 

While it would take too much space to enumerate the many enter- 
prising ship-owners and ship-masters who at different periods contributed 
to the improvement of the packet service up to the year 1855 when the 
Eastern State took possession of the route, mention must be made of 
Capt. Theodore Churchill, who, from 1840 to 1856, in the schooners 
Mary Ann and Oregon, and the brigantine Constitution, built expressly 
for that route, kept up a regular communication with Boston ; and who 
later commanded the Eastern State and the schooners Lydia and Forest 
Oak, making altogether about twenty-five years of constant service 
between Yarmouth and Boston, performed with such safety to persons 
and property committed to his care as entitle him to be ever held in 
grateful recollection. 

Nor is it possible to pass over Capt. James M. Davis, who rose by 
successive steps from the little Boston packet Loyal, of 1S61 to the 
command of the steamship Dominion ; and who, equal to every emer- 
gency, was placed in charge of the steamer Alpha, when, in 1884, her 
ownf 1-, Samuel Killam, decided to establish an opposition lin,; upon the 
Boston route, resulting, as might have been expected, in an early 
consolidation of the two lines. 

And of Capt. Samuel F. Stanwood, now of the Alpha, what may be 
said ? Only this, — that a Capt. Stanwood in whose veins flows some of 
the best blood of Yarmouth's early settlers, — of the Bains and Browns 
and Perrys and Wymans, — inherits all the qualities which make up the 
courageous, skilful, and energetic ship-master. 

As before intimated, the investment in the Eastern State did not 
prove directly remunerative to her shareholders. Yet it was not possible 



DOMIXION. 38 1 

for Yarmouth, after enjoying for six years the advantages of steamship 
communication with Boston, to be long content with sailing-packets 
alone. Accordingly, in 1865, Capt. Nehemiah K. Clements organized 
the Yarmouth and Boston Steamship Company, and purchased in New 
York for $65,000 the steamship I.inda, now better known as the 
Dominion ; and from that time until 'lis death in 1880, Capt. Clements 
labored with energy and perseverance beyond all praise to solve the 
problem of successful steam-navigation between Yarmouth and Boston. 

In 1869 the Fishwick line of steamers was established between 
Yarmouth and Halifax and the intermediate ports. 

The Dominion having become temporarily disabled, Capt. Clements 
purchased, in the spring of 1872, a controlling interest in the steamer 
Emperor to run between Yarmouth and Portland. That venture proved 
disastrous ; for on May 26, 1872, the Emperor ran into a fog-bank while 
on her way to Portland, and was totally wrecked upon a ledge near 
Matinicus, off the inhospitable coast of Maine. The passengers and 
crew, about a hundred and twenty in number, passed safely through a 
rough sea to a landing upon Matinicus Rock. 

After thorough renovation and repair, the Dominion, in 1873, — 
Capt. Clements having meanwhile become sole owner, — resumed her 
place upon the Boston route, wi.ere, under different commande:s and 
with some changes of ownership, she has since remained, niak'r.jj weekly 
trips between Yarmouth and Boston, and Yarmouth and St. John. 

JL,atterly, the Dominion has been greatly improved, both in appear- 
ance and in speed ; and now the vessels of the Yarmouth steams'nip line, 
comprising the Dominion, Capt. Robert R. Blauvelt ; the Alpha, Capt. 
Samuel F. Stanwood, running between Yarmouth, Loston, and St. John ; 
and the City of St. yohn, Capt. Forbes^ in the place of the Fishwick 
line on the Halifax route, and all under the present management of 
Loran E. Baker, — are making their trips with a regularity heretofore 
unequalled. 

Moreover, it is now announced that in the spring of 1887, a steel 
steamship, to carry four thousand barrels, and accommodate three 
hundred passengers, now building on the Clyde, will be placed upon 
the Boston route with a promise of making the passage in seventeen 
hours ; and then, with a more extensive hotel accommodation in 



3S: 



MARINE RAILWAY. 



Yarmouth, a completed railway between Yarmouth and Annapolis, .i 
renewal of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1855 with the United States, and 
with a severance of the union of Nova Scotia with Canada, the hopes 
and expectations of the founders of the Yarmouth and Boston steam- 
ship lines may be fully realized.' 

THE YARMOUTH GAS-LIGHT COMPANY. 

1863. — The Yarmouth Gas-Light Company was organized May, 
1863 ; capital, $36,000. The streets were first lighted by gas in 1S71. 



DIRECTORS. 



1S63. 

Samuel Killam, President. 
John W. I.ovitt. 
Nathan Moses. 
George Killam. 
George S. Brown. 
Horace Barnes. 
Thomas D. Bixby. 



1S73. 

Samuel Killam, President, 

John W. Lovitt. 

Nathan Moses. 

Hugh Cann. 

John W. Moody. 

Loran E. Baker. 

John Young. 

Secretary and Treasurer (1863-1S72), J. \V. H. Rowley 
Secretary and Treasurer {1S72-1886), Robert S. Eakins, 



1883. 
Samuel Killam, President. 
Nathan Moses. 
Hugh Cann. 
Abel C. Robbins. 
A. F. Stoneman. 
Thomas Killam 3d. 
Bowman Corning. 



THE YARMOUTH STEAM-TUG COMPANY. 

i86g. — The Yarmouth Steam -Tug Company was organized, and 
had built, by Burrill, Johnson, & Co., the tug George W. Johnson. 

President, Thomas Killam 3d. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Joseph R. Kinney. 



THE YARMOUTH MARINE RAILWAY COMPANY. 

1870. — The Yarmouth Marine Railway Company was incorporated; 
capital, $15,000. The railway was built in this year, and first operated 
on Oct. I. 

DIRECTORS. 



1S70. 
Nathan Moses, President. 
Hugh E. Cann. 
James B. Kinney. 
George B. Doane. 
Frank Killam. 



1880, 

L. E. Baker, Ptesident. 
Nathan Moses. 
Bowman Corning. 
Aaron Goudey. 
Samuel Killam 3d. 



1885. 

L. E. Baker, President. 
Bowman Corning. 
James W. Wyman. 
Hugh Cann. 
Hugh E. Cann. ^ 



I A 



Sippendix 



Ua. 



yOINT-STOCK COMPANIES. 383 

THE WESTERN COUNTIES RAILWAY COMPANY. 

1870, — In the winter of 1869 the first surveys were made for a 
railroad between Yarmouth and Annapolis by CoUingwood Schreiber, 
C.E. ; and in April, 1870, the Western Counties Railway was incorporated. 

To supplement a local subscription to the stock of the company for 
about $100,000, the Nova-Scotia Legislature, in 1872, voted a subsidy 
of $30,000 a year for 20 years, and 150,000 acres of crown lands. 
The cash subsidy was subsequently increased to $8,000 per mile for the 
90 miles between Yarmouth and Annapolis. New surveys were made in 
1873; and in July of that year the Township of Yarmouth voted a 
subscription to the stock of the company for $100,000, upon which the 
work of construction began in September following. Various political 
complications having retarded the progress of the work, it was not until 
Sept. 29, 1879, ^"f^ ^f'^"" ^" additional provincial grant of ,1^5 0,000 
sterling, that the road was opened to traffic to Digby ; and the same 
influences have hitherto been the chief factor in obstructing the 
completion of the line to Annapolis. 

DIRECTORS. 

1S71. 1875. 18S5. 

Loran E. Baker, President. George B. Doane, President. Loran E. Baker, President. 

John Young. Byron P. Ladd. Hugh Cann. 

Byron P. Ladd. Frank Killam. William D. Lovitt. 

Frank Killam. Samuel M. Kyerson. Jacob V. B. Bingay. 

George B. Doane. Hugh Cann. Frank Killam. 

George S. Brown. Nathan W. Blethen. Abel C. Robbins. 

Samuel M. Ryerson. William H. Moody. Joseph R. Kinney. 

William H. Moody held his position on the Board as Township Director 
from August, 1873, to January, 1884, when he resigned, and Joseph R. 
Kinney was appointed in his stead. 

THE YARMOUTH WATER COMPANY, 

1879. — The Yarmouth Water Company was incorporated April 17, 
1879. Capital, $200,000. The pipes were laid during 1881 ; and water 
from Lake George, ten miles distant, was introduced toward the end of 
that year. _ 



384 JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES. 



DIRECTORS. 

1 886. 

Hugh Cann, Prtsident. 

John Lovitt. 

L. E. Baker. 

William D. Lovitt. 

Joseph R. Kinney. 
Secretary and Treasurer, George Bingay. 
Superintendent, George H. Robertson. 



THE YARMOUTH BUILDING SOCIETY. 

1880. — The Yarmouth Building Society was incorporated April 10, 
1880. It has now about 550 members, and assets for upwards of 
$100,000. 

DIRECTORS. 

1 886. 

John C. Anderson. 
James C. Farish. 
Nathan Moses. 
Robert S. Eakins. 
Thomas B. Flint. 
Secretary and Treasurer, Barnard E. Rogers. 

THE MUTUAL RELIEF SOCIETY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

1881. — The Mutual Relief Society of Nova Scotia was organized at 
Yarmouth in November, 1881. It was announced as the first life-insur- 
ance company ever established in the Province on a perfectly equitable 
basis, and with principles to commend themselves to the people of the 
maritime provinces. The following was the Board of Trustees as 
originally constituted : — 

Abel C. Robbins, President. George W. Johnson. 

Jacob V. B. Bingay, Vice-President. Edgar K. Spinney. 

''William V. Brown, Secretary. Joseph R. Kinney, M.P.P. 

Thomas B. Crosby, Teas-irer. - ' Arthur W. Eakins. 

J. Wentworth Bingay, Q.C., 5<'//V»Vt>r. Joseph R. Wyman. 

William Law. 

•;. Rev. George E. Day, M.D., 1 .... 

T r^ T? • 1- -Kt T\ I Medical Examiners. 

James C. Fansh, M.D., 



\JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES. 385 



THE YARMOUTH WOOLLEN-MILL COMPANY. 

1882. — The Yarmouth Woollen-Mill Company was incorporated 
March 10, 1882. 

SOLr, STOCKHOLDERS. 

Loran E. Baker, President. 
Hugh Cann, Vice-President. 
William D. Lovitt. 
Jacob V. B. Bingay. 
John R. Corning 

THE YARMOUTH TELEPHONE COMPANY. 

1882. — The Yarmouth Telephone Company was established June i, 
1882. 

DIRECTORS. 

1882-1886. 
Anselme O. Pothier, President. 
Thomas Killam. 
Secretary and Treasurer, J. Murray Lawson. 

THE MAITLAND TELEPHONE COMPANY. 

1882. —The Maitland Telephone Company was established in 1882, 
and incorporated in 1S86. 

DIRECTORS. 

J. H. Harris, President. 
Joseph Goudey. 
Secretary and Treasurer, W. S. Porter. 

THE YARMOUTH DUCK AND YARN COMPANY. 
18S3. — The Yarmouth Duck and Yam Company was incorporated 
in 1883, CJapital, ti^ofioo. 

DIRECTORS. 

i884-r886. 
William D. Lovitt, President. 
Samuel Killam, sen., Vice-President. 
A. C. Robbins. 
Frank Killam. 

Bowman Corning. , , . ^ 

Thomas E. Kelley. 

Hugh Cann. 

-^ — Secretary and Treasurer, T\ioma.sK\\\3iVa. 



386 CONCLUSION. 

THE CO-OPERATIVE DEPOSIT AND LOAN SOCIETY OF 

YARMOUTH. 

1885. — The Co-operative Deposit and Loan Society of Yarmouth 
was organized in November, 1885. 

DIRECTORS. 

John W. Moody, President. 
Bowman Corning, Vice-President. 
Jacob V. B. Bingay. 
Thomas Killam. 
Edgar K. Spinney. 
Secretary and Treasurer, Stephen B. Murray. 

These notes may be now brought to a close. They have far ex- 
ceeded the limits originally assigned for them ; and, whatever may be 
said of some of the earlier ones, the later chapters have seemed to the 
author to contain no records which might have been as well left out. In 
the course of his work, the author has come into possession of many 
very interesting family records - of the early settlers of Yarmouth Town- 
ship, which deserve to be continued to the present day, and given a per- 
manent form. It has not, however, been found practicable to add them 
to these pages, owing to the time still required for their careful comple- 
tion, and the verj' considerable volume they will have attained when 
ready for publication ; and if, in the author's hands, they never reach 
that stage, his manuscript, when placed in the Yarmouth Archives, will 
be valuable for reference, and his reward will have been found in the 
gratification the researches have afforded hiin. 

■ Appendices V, W. 



APPENDICES. 



APPENDICES. 



APPENDIX A. 

(See page 26.) 
JOHN AND SEBASTIAN CABOT. 

\Frotn Hatton and Harvey's History of Newfoundland, republished at Boston in rSSj.] 

"John Cabot was born of Italian parents. Venice was probably 
his native city. There are those, however, who claim this honor for 
Bristol. At all events, he lived there for many years, and his son 
Sebastian was bom and lived in that ancient port. 

" Early in the month of May, 1497, the Cabots took their departure 
from Bristol in the Matthew. But of the voyage of Cabot, we know 
almost nothing. No diary was kept on board the Matthew. The rec- 
ords of the enterprise which have come down to us were written long 
afterwards, and are of the most meagre and unsatisfactory description. 

"The 24th June, 1497, is given as the date of making Newfound- 
land ; and the landing-place is supposed to have been Bona Vista, near 
the North Cape of Trinity Bay. Another account is, that the land seen 
by Cabot was a part of the Labrador coast, and that the ' island oppo- 
site to it,' mentioned in an inscription on an old map, was that part of 
Newfoundland near the northern end of the Straits of Belleisle. Hap- 
pily, however, for the students of American history, all doubts on the 
subject have been removed by the discovery a few years since of a map 
made by, or under the direction of, Sebastian Cabot, and bearing the 
date of 1544 ( ! )• 

"On Feb. 3, 1498, the king granted a new patent to John Cabot, 
authorizing him to sail with six ships, etc. John Cabot did not go on 
the second expedition, which was intrusted to Sebastian, then but 
twenty-three years of age According to Peter Martyr, on the second 



390 APPENDIX A. T 

voyage he sailed along the coast of Labrador to the latitude of sixty de- 
grees north, when, deterred by ice and cold, he turned his course to the 
west, and coasted south to the thirty-eighth degree, whence he returned 
to England. 

"On their return from the first voyage, the king presented John 
Cabot with a gratuity of ten pounds. In order that posterity might not 
forget his liberality, he made an entry of it in the privy purse accounts 
in the following brief words : — 

"'Aug. TO, 1497. To Hym that found the new Isle, ^10.' The 
most careful researches in the English archives have failed to bring to 
light any other official notice of the discovery. 

" There is no record of John Cabot after this period. It is probable 
he did not long survive his first famous voyage. Sebastian is said to 
have died in his eightieth year in London." 

The Maine Historical Society's collection says of Sebastian Cabot, 
" No details of his voyage were published by the navigauor himself, and 
after his death his original maps and papers disappeared in a mysterious 
manner. Some particulars of these voyages are given by Peter Martyr, 
the celebrated Italian, who derived his information from Cabot himself 
while a guest at his house." 

[From Pinkerion's Voyages, published at London, iSoS,] 

" John Cabot made a voyage to Newfoundland in 1494. In 1496 
Henry VII. granted him a charter for a second voyage, but he died 
without accomplishing it. 

" Sebastian Cabot says he made his voyage in 1496, but he must be 
mistaken , for he says it was after h's father's death, and his father was 
living in February, 1497, so that it was in the summer of 1497 he made 
his voyage. He kept no record of his voyage. 

" Sebastian Cabot is claimed by the English to have been born in 
Bristol ; but the Italians say positively that he was bom in Venice, which, 
to speak impartially, I believe is the truth, for he says that, when his 
father was invited to England, he brought him over with him, although 
he was very young." . .^ r: ^.. - 1-7" " 



APPENDIX Aa. 

{See page 28.) 

CORRESPONDENCE OF REV. JOHN ROY CAMPBELL AND 
PROFESSOR CAMERON. 

The following is a copy, verbatim et literatim, of the correspondence 
referred to in the opening of Chapter II. : — 

Dorchester, N.B., Jany 30th, 1886. 
To THE Editor of 

THE Yarmouth Herald: 
Sir: — 

In the issue of the 27th, which has just reached me, I observe that you make 
an acknowledgement to the Halifax Herald of a lette- of Mr. Cameron, copied 
therefrom. 

I am not disposed to be too particular on the doctrine of acknowledgements, 
especially as I now live at a distance, and I do not feel myself to be seriously 
affected one way or the other ; but I would like to say that all the leading facts 
bearing on the D'Entremont family, as re-stated with both spirit and ability by Mr. 
Cameron, were collected by my late lamented friend, G. J. Parish, and myself, as the 
result of many long journeys taken for the express purpose of gathering information 
on that, as well as on all other subjects in my History of the County. 

And, I may say that, although it is now ten years since that History was pub- 
lished, it is a source of great satisfaction to me, that no fact, as therein stated, has 
ever yet been successfully questioned, and I am. 

Yours obediently, 

J. ROY CAMPBELL. 

To THE Editor of the Yarmouth Herald, 

Sir : — 

In your last issue the Revd, J. Roy Campbell has a letter in which he seems to 
impute some sort of unrighteousness to me. Mr. C. has made some strange mis- 
take. I have written him about it, and hope he will correct the mistake himself, 

and so save me the trouble. J ,''~ 

Yours truly .^ _^.- -— 

' A.CAMERON. 

Yarmouth 

Feby 8th, 1886. 



392 APPENDIX Aa. 

To THE Editor of the Yarmouth Herald, 

Sir: — 

In my note of the issue of the 3d I was under the impression that Mr. Cameron 
was indebted to Yarmouth History for facts; 

Mr. Cameron has written to me that he is in no way so indebted ; 
I now write to say, that I regret having unintentionally done Mr. Cameron any 
injustice in writing under that impression. 

And I am 

Yours obediently 

J. ROY CAMPBELL. 

Mr. Editor: — 

The above was enclosed in a letter which I received from Mr. Campbell. To 
prevent possible misapprehension I may say, that the " facts " in the above must 
be understood as equivalent to the phrase "all the leading facts bearing on the 
D'Entremont family " in Mr. Campbell's first letter in your issue of 3d inst. 

These facts were the only facts in question. 

A. CAMERON. 
Yarmouth 

Feby 16th, 1886. 



APPENDIX B. 

{See page 31.) 
SIR WILLIAM PHIPPS. 

\From the Annals of Sa/em.] 

" WiLLLAM Phipps, the founder of the noble family of Mulgrave or 
Normandy of Mulgrave Castle, near Whitby, was a man remarkable for 
his energy and perseverance. His father was a gunsmith, a robust 
Englishman, settled at Woolwich in Maine. He was born in 1651, one 
of a family of 26 children, of v horn 2 1 were sons, whose only fortune 
lay in their stout hearts and strong arms. He was knighted for his 
success in recovering plate, pearls, and jewels valued at ;^30o,ooo ster- 
ling, from a Spanish ship sunk in the West Indies, the King's portion 
being ^j^i 0,000. He was made High Sheriff of New England, and was 
also Governor of Massachusetts. He died in London in 1695." 

A representative of this family, in the person of Lord Mulgrave, 
visited Yarmouth when Governor of Nova Scotia, nearly thirty years 
ago. The same gentleman, as the Earl of Normandy, has been now 
for many ytars governor of Australian colonies. 

The American ancestor of the Archer families of Yarmouth was 
John, of the British Navy, who, at the close of the Revolutionary war, 
settled in Cherryfield, Me., married there a Miss Tupper, and had eigh- 
teen sons and four daughters. Joseph Tupper Archer of Yarmouth 
was their sixth son ; and the eldest was William Gates Archer, who 
settled in Liverpool, N.S., and married there a Miss Mulhall. Two of 
their children were Henry Archer of Salmon River, and Elizabeth, wife 
of Joseph BuUerwell, of the same place. 

On p. 154 there is a reference to Fehx Deveau of Cape Cove, Clare, 



394 DEVEAU. 

the owner, and to his son Felix, the master, of the fast-sailing topsail 
schooner Mt;^y yane. "The Moniteur Acadian" of July 13, 1888, 
quoting from a correspondent of " The Yarmouth Times," says, — 

Felix Deveau and his wife both died, aged 88 years. They had 14 children : — 

I. Charles, died, aged 82 years. 

2. 



Twin-daughters, died, aged 84 years. 

3- J 

4. Madame Veronique Boiidreau, still living, aged 85. 

5. George L., still living, aged 83. 

6. Jean L., still living, aged 81. 

7. Timothee, still living, aged 79. 

8. Luc, still living, aged 78. 

9. Jacques, still living, aged 76. 

10. Felix, still living, aged 74. 

11. Twin-sister of Felix, died young. 

12. Madame Ver.jrante Surette, of Eel B'ook, still living, aged 73. 

13. Madame Marguerite Surette, of Eel Brook, still living, aged 72. 

14. Constant, still living, aged 70. 

George L., the second son, has the appearance of a man of from 
fifty to fifty-five years. He often walks to and from the church at 
Salmon River, six miles distant from his home. Last spring he caught 
more than once seventy-five codfish in a day, and he said that he would 
have been glad if the fish had taken the hook at the rate of three hun- 
dred a day. Last winter he hauled six hundred and fifty loads of sea- 
weed, and spread it upon his fields ; and in the spring, with the assist- 
ance of his two sons, he planted thirty bushels of potatoes. 

Anselme Frontain, of the same neighborhood, is in his eighty-sixth 
year (89th ?) . He also walks to and from the church on Sunday, and 
he says that h*. could easily walk twenty-five miles a day. Last winter 
he cut his own firewood, and he can do a day's work that a man of 
thirty years would not be ashamed of. 



APPENDIX C. 

(See page 36.) 

BRIGANTINE "BALTIMORE." 

\From HaliburtotCs History of Nova Scotia.] 

" At the investigation held at Annapolis, it was satisfactorily proved 
by Mr. D'Entremont, with whom Mrs. Buckler had taken refuge, that 
neither the French nor the Indians had oeen concerned in it." 

[J^rom Freeman's History of Cape Cod.] 

On Aug. 6, 1620, the Mayflower sailed from Plymouth, England, 
bound for the Hudson River with a hundred and one emigrants, of 
whom twenty were females, accompanying their husbands, and forty- 
two children and servants. On the nth of November the Mayflower 
entered Cape-Cod Harbor. 

On Nov. 15, Capt. Miles Standish, with a company of sixteen, set 
out, armed "with musket, sword, and corselet," on a foraging expedition. 
They found some Indian mounds, which they dug into, and carried off 
a ship's kettle they found there, and as much corn as they could carry. 
They also amused themselves in digging into the old Indian graves, and 
carried off " sundry of the prettiest things." They discovered some 
Indian houses lately occupied, and furnished with a great variety of 
useti;l articles. "Some of the best things we took away with us, but 
left the houspf standing as they were." All this within the first month ! 

Mr. Freeman remarks, " On the morality of these transactions, the 
Author does not feel that he is called upon to pronounce. But the prof- 
anation of the graves, to say nothing of the taking of the kettle, corn, 
beans, etc., was unfortunate." 

"In the year 1630, Richard Garrett and others, from Boston, were 
shipwrecked on Cape Cod, and some died from hardship and exposure. 



396 APPENDIX 6. 

The Indians buried the dead with great propriety, to save the bodies 
from being eaten by beasts, although the ground was deeply frozen, 
requiring great labor in digging the graves. The survivors, by most 
assiduous attentions on .the part of the Indians, were literally nursed 
back to life, so nearly perished were they ; and when recovered, and 
endued with sufficient str.agth, the Indians kindly conducted them 
some fifty miles through the woods to Plymouth. Such was the friendly 
and humane feeling that then prevailed among barbarians^ 



APPENDIX D. 

(See /age 4^.) 

SETTLEMENT OF LANDS AND A RECORD OF ACADIAN 
FAMILIES OF EEL BROOK. 

Prf-vious to the return of the Acadians fr in New England in 1 766, 
some of their former possessions at Pubnico had been occupied tempo- 
rarily by the English. As early as November, 1 761, John Frost, from 
Kittery, Me., and others, had settled at Argyle, where a few years later 
they received grants of lands ; but before that the whole southern por- 
tion of the lands between the Tusket and Abuptic Rivers had been 
granted. 

In 1 763, or earlier, had been granted to Gov. Montague Wilmot the 
tract, about 5,000 acie*, lying between what is now Tusket Village and 
the sea, and including Surette's and Wilson's Islands. The title to these 
lands appears to have reverted to the government; for in June, i8gi, 
they were again granted to Joseph Moul.'Mson and twenty-seven other 
Acadians, and a plan of division was executed the same year by Joshua 
Frost, surveyor. 

Adjoining the Wilmot grant on the east, came a grant \3assed in 
October, 1 763, to the Rev. John Breynton, Rector of St. Paul's Church, 
Halifax, and Chaplain to the House of Assembly, of the lands, 3,838 
acres, extending easterly to the Eel Brook ; and next came one of 
Ranald MacKinnon's grants, extending from the Eel Brook to the 
Abuptic River, and stated at 1,000 acres. 

To the northward of the Breynton land, and extending westerly from 
Eel Lake, was a lot granted to the Rev. William Doyle of Halifax, and 
which he advertised in "The Nova-Scotia Gazette " of Jan. 19, 1773, in 
fonn following : — 



398 EEL BROOK. 

" To be let in Parcels or altogether : — 

" About 500 acres of entirely cleared land (having been an old In- 
dian Settlement) the Estate of the Rev. William Doyle of Halifax, situ- 
ate in the Township of Argyle, between Harrington and Yarmouth, at the 
West end of the Peninsula of Nova Scotia, and just opposite to Boston, 
within a quarter of a mile of the tide from which it is separated by 1 )r. 
Breynton's land on the South and by the late Mr. Pierpont's on the 
West. It is bounded on the East by Eel Lake, nine miles long and one 
broad, on the banks of which is a great plenty of hard and other wood. 
On the North lie ungranted lands. The rent to be nothing, the first year, 
and but a penny an acre the second year, and to rise gradually to two 
shillings which it is never to exceed ; and for laboring people the rent 
will be taken out in work." 

This land seems also to have reverted to the government, for in 1 79 1 
it was again granted to Jean Bounjue and others. 

In 1773 Dr. Breynton leased for 999 years to Pierre Burette, Pieijie 
LeBlanc, Pierre Meuse, and Louis Meuse, 1,193 acres, which included 
the lands from the Eel Brook and Eel Lake westerly to the marsh, the 
peninsula from where the church now stands to Roco Point, and other 
lands. 

On Aug. 16, 1775, Ranald MacKinnon leased for eight Spanish dol- 
lars yearly, and by deed executed April 7, 1795, for the sum of one 
hundred pounds he sold, to Dominique Pothier, Jean Bourque, Paul 
SuRE'iTE, Pierre Surette, and Joseph Babin, 236 acres of land, " begin- 
ning at Goose Bay at the ' carrying-place,' so called, thence running east- 
erly to the Lake, thence Northerly by Eel Lake to the Eel Brook, thence 
Westerly by the Eel Brook to Goose Bay, thence Southerly by Goose Bay 
to the first-mentioned bounds." The "carrying-place " was at the foot 
of Eel Lake : and in the district described in this deed from Ranald 
MacKinnon, there are now 30 houses occupied by Acadian families ; 
namely, 1 7 Surette, 5 Pothier, 5 Babin, and 3 D'Entremont. 

The following is some account of the families of the men who pur- 
chased these lands in the Eel-Brook district from Dr. Breynton and 
Ranald MacKinnon as well as of some collateral branches of other 
families. 



APPENDIX D. 399 

PiKRRE SuRETiE ist, OS herein designated, was the ancestor of all of 
the name in Yarmouth County. Long before the expulsion of 1755, he 
was prominent among the Acadians of the northern shores. As chief 
and governor, not by appointment of any government, but by the choice 
and consent of the people, he presided over 150 Acadian families at the 
settlement of Pigiguit, some 15 miles from Grand Pr^, the site of the 
present town of Wintlsor. What wi:5 sent from France for this Acadian 
settlement passed for distribution through the hands of Pierre Surette. 
His name appears in the census of Port Royal of i 714 ; and in 1730 he 
signed the Oath of Allegiance (not the "long oath") with 226 others, 
all males, and comprising 72 different family names. 

Pierre Surette ist, m. Cathkrine Breau. 

I. Philomene Bois-Jolis. 



Issue: Pierre 2d, m. I ., . , , ., , 

( 2. Mane Duon, d. Abel. 

Paul, m. Madeleine Amirault, d. Joseph 2d. 

Olivier, m. Marie Madeleine l^ois-Jolis. 

( I. Osithe Pellerin, ) 
Amand, m. ! | settled at Chezetcook, Halifax Co. 

( 2. Claire Bois-Jolis, ) 

Joseph, tn. Marguerite Pellerin. 

Anne, m. Dominique Pothier ist. 

Marie Rose, m. Jean Bourque ist. 

Madeleine, m. Joseph Babin ist. 

Olivier Surette built the house at Eel Brook afterward occupied by 
Pierre 2d. Olivier and his wife died early, and left an only daughter, 
Madeleine, who was brought up by her aunt, Madeleine Babin. She 
married Pierre Robicheau of Meteghan, brother of Armand ; and they 
had four sons, Isaac, Michel, Marcel, and Paul ; and three daughters, 
Perp^tue, Ursule, and Marguerite. 

I. Philom6ne Bois-Jolis. 



Pierre Surette 2d, s. Pierre ist, m. , ,, , , 

( 2. Marie Duon, d. Abel 

( I. Marguerite Amirault of Clare. 
Issue, 1765: Pierre 3d (Pierre Riche), m. ) „ , 

( 2. Colombe Frontain, d. Alexandre. 

'Athanase, m. Louise D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 

Frederic, m. Anne Meuse, d. Pierre ist. 

Augustin, m. Frangoise Pothier, d. Amand. 

Paul 2d, m. Marie Pothier, d. Jean Baptiste. 

Gabriel, m. Marguerite Babin, d. Joseph (Carino). No issue. 

— Raphael, m.£lisabeth Babin, d. Joseph (Carino). 



Pierre Suretfe 3d, s. Pierre 2d, m. s 



400 SURETTE. 

Pierre Surette, contimud. 

Joseph 2d, m. Scholastique Amirault of Clare. 

Anne, m. Martin Le Blanc of Belliveau's Cove. 

Marcel, not married. 

Joseph Surette, s. Pierre ist,'m. Marguerite Pellerin. 

Issue : Jean Louis, m. Rosalie Amirault, d. Jacques ist. 

Charles Borrome, m. Marie Babin (see note end chap. x.). 

Frederic, m. Sophique Babin, d. Victor. 

Marguerite, m. Joseph Amirault 3d, s. Ange of Pii aico. 

Paul Surette, s. Pierre ist, m. Madeleine Amirault, d. Joseph 2d. 

Issue : Paul Franjois, m. Julie D'Entremont, d. Cyrille. 

Marguerite, m. Pierre Doucette of Clare. 

Marie, m. Cyriaque Amirault, s. Ange o£ Pubnico. 

Anne, ni. Simon Amirault, s. Ange of ^''-ibnico. 

Scholastique, m. Charles Amirault, s. Ange of Pubnico. 

Theotiste, not married. Housekeeper of Abbe Goudot. 

Madeleine, not married. 

Marguerite Amirault of Clare. 

Colombe Frontain, d. Alexandre. 

Issue : Pierre 4th (ship-builder), m. Marceline Babin, d. Hippolyte. 

Simon, m. Marie Boudreau, d. Joseph. 

Cyriaque, m Marie Monique Doucette of Sissibou. 

( I. Julie Babin, d. Hippolyte. 
Andre, m. \ 

( 2. Marguerite Doucette, w. Germam. 

Rem!, m. Anne Doucette, d. Paul. 

Genevieve, m. Philippe D'Entremont, s. Benoni. 

Marthe, m. George Amirault, s. Joseph 3d. 

Euphroisine, m. Eusebe Surette, s. Frederic of Surette's Island. 

Helene, m. Remi Babin, s. Hippolyte. 

Marguerite, m. Paulin Bourque, s. Joseph ist. 
Athanase Surette, s. Pierre 2d, m. Louise D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : Philippe Andre, deaf and dumb, not married. 

Jean Francois, deaf and dumb, not married, educated by Abbe Sigogne. 

Julie, m. Jean Bourque, s. Basile. 

Perpetue, deaf and dumb, not married. 

Augustin, m. Jeanne Franij-oise Bourque, d. Francois. ' 

Luc, deaf and dumb, not married. , .r ;, ,* 

Marie, deaf and dumb, not married. , _ . 

- Cyrille, m. Catherine Melanjon of Clare. 

Louis Athanase, m. Frances Jane Shattuck, d. Hon. Daniel of Concord, 
Mass. 

Pierre sth, m. Rosalie Pothier, d. Sylvain of Eel Brook. 



APPENDIX D. 401 

Athanase Surktte, continued. 

Celeste, m. Clement Mande Melan^on of Clare. 

Genevieve, m. Jean V. Le Blanc of Clare. — " 

Paul FRANgois SuRKr/-., s. Paul ist, m. Julie D'Entremont, d. Cyrille. 
Issue : Maiie, m. Tulien Duon, s. Augustin. 

Franij'ois, m. Anastasie Surette, d. Paul 2d. 

Michel, m. Marie Jeanne Amirault, d. Marc 1st. 

Sylvain, not married. 

Joseph Octave, m. Vitaline Robicheau of Meteghan. 

Crepin, m. Marguerite Surette, d. Raphael. 

Leon, m. Elisabeth Doucette, d. Joseph of Clare. 

Zacharie, m. Helfene .Surette, d. Augustin of Pubnico. 

Elisabeth, m. Franc^ois Silvestre Bourque, s. Fran9ois. 

Ambroise Gervais, m. Marie Gertrude Surette, d. Raphael. 

Anselme, m. Julie Surette, d. Prospere of Surette's Island. 

Charles, ;n. Marie Charlotte Pothier, d. Remi. 
Frederic Surette, s. Pierre 2d, m. Anne Meusf, d. Pierre ist. 
Issue : Marie Anne, m. Vincent Cothereau, s. Jean ist. 

Germain, m. Venerante Deveau, d. Felix of Cape Cove. 

Francois, m. Marguerite Deveau, d. Felix of Cape Cove. 

Francoise, m. Jacques Deveau, s. Felix of Cape C(jve. 

Marguerite, m. Archange Doucette, s. Michel of Chebec. 

Marc, not married. 

Sylvain, m. Rosalie Doucette, d. Joseph of Clare. 
Augustin Surette, s. Pierre 2d, m Francoise Poi-hier, d. Amand. 
Issue : Jean B., m. Henriette Amirault, d. Frederic 

Archange, m. Rosalie Duon, d Paul • 

Marguerite, m Jean D'Entremont, s. Hilaire. 

Ursule, m. Gabriel Duon, s. Paul. 

Helene, m. Zacharie Surette, s. Paul Francois. 
» Symphorien, m. Rosalie Duon, d. Jean. 

Pierre D., m. Marie Anne Babin, d. Gervais, a Charles Amand. 

Zoee, m. Pierre Duon, s. Cyprien. 
Paul Surette 2d, s. Pierre 2d, m. Marie Potiuer. d. Jean Baptiste. 
Issue : Fran9ois, m. Sophique Amirault, d. Marc. 

Anastasie, m. Franfois Surette, s. Paul Francois. ' r. ' "' ', - ''•' 

Anne Catherine, m. Francois Babin, s. Joseph 2d. 

Marie, m. Gabriel Babin, s. Joseph 2d. 

Jean Baptiste, m. Francoise Surette, d. Prospere of Island. 

Julien, m. Ursule Surette, d. Prospere of Island. . . . 

Elisabeth, m. Gervais Babin, s. Michel (a Carino). 



402 SURETTE. 

Raphael Surette, s. Pierre 2d, m. Elisabeth Bahi.n, d. Joseph (Carino). 
Issue: Marguerite, m. Crepin Surette, s. Paul Fran9ois. 

Judithe, m. Joseph Richard, s. Charles. 

Marie Gertrude, m. Ambroise Gervais Surette, s. Paul Fran9ois. 

Sylvain, m. Marie Babin, d. Remi, a Hippolyte. 

Michel, m. Esther Pothier, d. Remi. 

Catherine, m. Charles Pothier, s. Sylvain, a Jean B. 

Elisabeth, m. Felix Saulnier. 
Joseph Surette, s. Pierre 2d, m. Scholastique Amirault of Clare. 
Issue: Prospere, m. Genevieve Babin, d. Jean (Carino). 

Joseph, m. Elisabeth Babin, d. Joseph (Carino). 

Mande, m. Catherine Babin, d. Joseph (Carino). 

Etienne, died unmarried, aged twenty-two. 

Madeleine, m. Simon D'Entremont, s. Charles Celestin. 
' I. Antoine Richard 2d, s. Antoine. 



Jeanne, m. 

2. Jean B. De Villiers, s. Jacques. 

Julienne, m. Olivier Babin, s. Michel. 

Jean Louis Surette, s. Joseph ist, m. Rosalie Amirault, d. Jacques ist. 

Issue 1792 :' Joseph, m. Marie Bourque, d. Joseph ist. 

Cyrille, m. Marguerite Babin, d. Charles Amand. 

Jean, m. Schola.-tique Bourque, d. Basi'e ist. 

Pierre, m. Marthe Pothier, d. P'?i-e isl. 

Paul, m. Marguerite Boudreau, d. Joseph. 

Prospere, m. Catherine Boudreau, d. Dominique. 

Marie, m. Benjamin Bourque, s. Joseph ist. 

Thecle, m. Jean Belliveau, s. Joseph. 

Charles Borrom^ Surette, s. Joseph ist, m. Marie Babin, d Michel ist. 

Issue iSoi : Jean, m. Marie Saulnier, d. Joseph of Clare. 

Hippolyte, m. Marie Comeau, d. Jean of Clare. ■ ■ 

Michel, m. Veronique Boudreau, d. Michel ist. 

Frederic, m. Felicite Saulnier, d. Jean B. of Clare. 

Marie, m. Celestin Saulnier, s. Pierre. 

Marguerite, not married. . '• - - 

Adelaide. 

Frederic Surette, s. Joseph ist, m. Sophique Babin, d. Victor. 

Issue : Joseph, m. Madeleine Saulnier, d. Jean of Clare. , f ' ■ > 

Eusebe, m. Euphroisine Surette, d. Pierre 3d. V-. - 

Prospere, m. Monique Saulnier, d. Jean of Clare. 

~ Marceline, m. Jean Saulnier, s. Pierre of Clare. 

Marie, m. Pierre Saulnier, s. Pierre of Clare. 

' Still living. 



APPENDIX D. 403 

EUSERE SURETTE, s. Frederic, m. Euphroisine SuRErrE, d. Pierre 3. 
I. Marie Surette, d. Cyrille of Chebec. 



Issue : Placide, m. 

, 2. Nathalie I5ourque, d. Benjamin. 

George, not married. 

Frederic, m. Nathalie Surette, d. Joseph, a Frederic. 

Cyriaque, m. Dorothee Surette, d. Cyrille of Chebec. 

Pierre, m. Julienne Moulaison, d Marc. 

Marguerite, in. Marc V. Surette, s. Hippolyte. 

Sophique, m. Athanase D'Entremont, s. Joseph. 

Joseph Surette, s. Jean Louis, m. Marie Bour<jue, d. Joseph ist. 

Issue : Genevieve, m. Felix Houdreau, s. Amable. ^ , 

Veronique, m. Hilaire Pothier, s. Anselme. 

Marc, m. Marie Boudreau, d. Felix, by first wife. 

Benjamin, m. Margaret Mulcahy of r'are. 

Madeleine, Elisabeth, not married. 

Damas, died unmarried. 

Cyrille Surette, s. Jean Louis, m. Marguerite Babin, d. Charles Amand. 

Issue : Louis, m. Leonice Surette, d. Michel of the Island. 

I. Marie Jeanne Pothier, d. Anselme. 



Anselme, m. , 

2. Felicite Comeau, w. 

Fran9oise, m. Mathurin Pothier, s. Anselme. 

Genevieve, m. Placide Pothier, s. Anselme. 

Augustine, m. Cyriaque Pothier, s. Anselme. 

Charles Amand, m. Madeleine Pothier, d. Anselme. 

Sylvain, m. Madeleine Boudreau, d. Jean B. 

Mathurin, m. Marie Surette, d. Joseph of the Island. 

Marie, m. Placide Surette, s. Eusebe. 

Alexis, m. Monique Surette, d. Joseph of the Island. 

Dorothee, m. Cyriaque Surette, s. Eusebe 

Jean Surette, s. Jean Louis, m. Scholastique Bourque, d. Basile. 

Issue: Clement, not married. - -' 

( I. Celenie Pothier, d. Alexandre of Eel Brook. 
Casimir, m. -j 2. Marthe Amirault, d. Philippe of Pubnico. 

V. 3. Marie Burrage, w. 
Ambroise, not married. 

Gregoire, m. Marie Saulnier, d. Ange of Clare. . .• 

Michel, m. Madeleine Saulnier, d. Ange of Clare. 
Fran9ois, died young. .;. 

Gertrude, m. Cyriaque Amirault, s. Hilaire of Tusket Hill.; 
Elisabeth, Rosalie, Catherine, not married. 



404 SURETTE. 

Pierre Surette, s. Jean Louis, m. Marthe Pothier, d. Pierre ist. 

Issue : Pierre, m. Rosalie Le Blanc, d. Frederic. 

( I. Adelaide Pothier, d. Anselme. 
Felix, m. j 

( 2. Mane Doucette, d. Ignace. 

R^mi, m. Madeleine Boudreau, d. Joseph. 

I. Jean Le Blanc, s. Benjamin. 



Nathalie, m. 

2. Jean B. Pothier. s. Seraphin. 

Madeleine, m. Anselme Le Blanc, s. Simon. 

Marie, m. Marc Pothier, s. Sylvain, a Amand. 

Anne, m. Henri Pothier, s. Sylvain, a Amand. 

Monique, m. Remi Pothier, s. Sylvain, a Amand. 

Jacques, drowned. 

Fran<;ois, m. Elisabeth Bray of Halifax. 

Marguerite, m. Antoine Richard 2d, s. Antoine. 
Paul Surette, s. Jean Louis, m. Marguerite Boudreau, d. Joseph. 
Issue : Jovitc, died unmarried. 

Monique, m. Alexis Surette, s. Joseph of the Island. 

Leonice, m. George Pothier, s. Seraphin. 
Prosp&re Surette, s. Jean Louis, m. Catherine Boudreau, d. Dominique. 
Issue: Michel Vinceslas, m. Josephine Colin, d. Marcel. 

Joseph D , m. Rosalie Boudreau, d. Joseph 2d. 

Luc, m. Marie Colin, d. Marcel. 

Rosalie, m. Timothee Le Blanc, s. Simon. 

Pelagie, m. Joseph Sulpice Boudreau, s. Joseph 2d. 

Mande, m. Marie Comeau of Clare. 

Doctrove, m. Euphemie Cothereau, d. Jerome. 

I T Charlotte Pothier, d. Fran(,-ois, a Sylvain. 
( 2. Leonice Cothereau, d. Adrien. 

Charlotte, m. Severin Boudreau, s. Sylvain. 

Fran^oise, m. Placide Boudreau, s. Sylvain. 

Marine, m Gabriel Comeau of Clare. : * 

'i. Madeleine Pothier, d. Jean, a Amand. 

2. Marie Anne Theriault of Clare. 

3. Monique Le Blanc, d. Simon. 
.4. Madeleine Melan9on of Clare. .:>>;■■ 

Jean Surette, s. Charles Borrome, m. Marie Saulnier, d. Joseph of Clare. 
Issue : Luc, m. Anne Marguerite Amirault, d. George. 

Catherine, m. Ambroise Surette, s. Prospere. ' •'. . . ; i". ■ 

'_:^ _i Levi, died unmarried March 6, 1886. .■::.. . . 1 ■ ..'■:■ 

Anne Susanne, m. Louis Pothier, s. Charles Amand. T'^Sifii-i-''." 
Marc, m. Angelique Surette, d. Anselme of Chebec 
Elisabeth, Alexandre, not married., — ^— ^ .— .^ ., 



Guillaume, m. - 



APPENDIX D. 405 

HippoLYTE SuRETTE, s. Charles Borrome, m. Marie Comeau, d. Jean of Clare. 
Issue : Jean B., m. Rosalie Surette, d. Prospere. 
Joseph, m. Elisabeth Babin, d. Jean. 
Marc v., m. Marguerite Surette, d. Eusebe. 
Remi, m. Celenie Surette, d. Placide. 
Elisabeth, m. Sylvain Le Blanc, s. Benjamin. • 

Veronique, m. Michel Bourque, s. Benjamin. 
Michel Surette, s. Charles Borrome, m. Veronique Boudreau, d. Michel. 
Issue : Charles, m. Deliette Le Blanc. 

Leonice, m. Louis Surette, s. Cyrille of Chebec. 
Frederic Surette, s. Charles Borrome, m. Felicity Saulnier, d. Jean B. of 
Clare. 
Issue : Hilaire, m. Julienne Amirault, d. Frederic. 
Joseph Surette, s. Frederic ist, m. Madeleine Saulnier of Clare. 
Issue : Marie, m. Mathurin Surette, s. Cyrille of Chebec. 
Monique, mr Alexis Surette, s. Cyrille of Chebec. 
Nathalie, m. Frederic Surette, s. Eusebe. 
Alexis, m. Monique Surette, d. Paul of Chebec. 
PROSPfeRE Surette, s. Frederic ist, m. Monique Saulnier of Clare. 
Issue : Mathilde, m. George D'Entremont, s. Joseph Elie. 
Julie, m. Anselme Surette, s. Paul Fran9ois. 
Ursale, m. Julien Surette, s. Paul 2d, of Eel Brook. 
Franc^oise, m. Jean B. Surette, s. Paul 2d, of Eel Brook. 
Rosalie, m. Jean B. Surette, s. Hippolyte. 
Sophique, not married. 

Ambroise, m. Catherine Surette, d. Jean of the Island. 
Dominique Pothier ist, m. Anne Surette, d. Pierre ist. 
Issue : Pierre, m. Marie D'F remont, d. Joseph ist. 

Jean Baptiste, m. Esther D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 
Sylvain, m. Elisabeth Le Blanc, d. Pierre of Church Point. 
Amand, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 
Anastasie, m. Cyrille D'Entremont, s. Joseph ist. 
Marguerite, m. Michel Boudreau ist of Tusket Wedge. 
Anne, m. Benoni D'Entremont, s. Jacques 2d. 
Pierre Pothier, s. Dominique, m. Marie D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : Cyrille, m. Rosalie Bourtjue, d. Joseph ist. 

Ambroise, m. Monique Theriault of Meteghan. 

I. Marie Thibeaudeau of Church Point. "' 



Alexandre, m. , 

. 2. Anastasie Amirault, d. Cyriaque. 

Leon, m. Rosalie Thibeaudeau of Church Point. 

Henriette, m. Etienne Melancon of Meteghan. 

Marthe, m. Pierre Surette, s. Jt in Louis of Tusket Wedge. 



406 POTHIER. 

Pierre Pothier, continued. 

Eulalie, m. Joseph M. Amirault, s. Joseph 3d of Pubnico. 

Pauline, m. Germain Gaudet of Belliveaii's Cove. 

Anne, m. David Duon, s. Augustin. 
Jean Baptiste Pothier, s. Dominique, m. Esther D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue: Joseph Josue, m. Rosalie MelanijOn of Church Point. 

Sylvain, m. Marie Melani^on of Church Point. 

Remi, m. Gert ude Babin, d. Charles Amand. 

Francois, not married. 

Marie, m. Paul Surette 2cl, s. Pierre 2d. 

Anastasie, m. Marc Amirault 2d, s. Simon. 
Sylvain Pothier. s. Dominique, m. Elisabeth Le Blanc, d. Pierre ist of Clare. 
Issue : Anne, m. Ililaire D'Entremont, s. Paul. 

Mathurin, not married. 

Perpetue, m. Charles Amirault, s. Ange. 

Marie Susanne, m. Jean Amirault, s. Ange. 

Isaac, not married. 

Monique, m. Fran9ois Bourque, s. Jean ist. 

Seraphin, m. Monique Duon, d. Augustin. 

Nicolas, m. Scholastique Amirault, d. Jacques 2d. 

Sylvain, m. Marie Amirault, d. Jacques 2d. 
Seraphine Theriault of Clare. 



Pierre, m. \ 

. 2. Pelagie Babin, d. Charles. 

Dominique, m. Madeleine Babin, d. Charles. 

Catherine, not married. 
Amand Pothier, s. Dominique, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue: Genevieve, m. Amable Babin, s. Joseph ist. 

Anselme, m. Madeleine Duon, d. Augustin. 

Sylvain, m. Ursule Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist. 

Marguerite, m. Joseph Babin 2d, s. Joseph ist. 

Theotiste, m. Luc Babin, s. Joseph ist. 

Fran9oise, m. Augustin Surette, s. Pierre 2d. 

Charles Amand, m. Genevifeve Babin, d. Charles. • . 

Euphroisine, m. Benjamin Le Blanc, s. Joseph ist. 

Jean B., m. Marie Anne D'Entremont, d. Jacques 3d. 

Cyrille, m. Euphroisine Babin, d. Charles. 

Joseph, m. Veronique Amirault, d. Joseph 3d. 
Cyrille Pothier, s. Pierre ist, m. Rosalie Bourque, d. Joseph ist. 

Issue: Rosalie, m. Jean B. D'Entremont, s. Joseph Vincent. - » 

I. Joseph Le Blanc 3d, s. of Joseph 2d of Pubnico. ^ _ 



Marie, m. 

'2. Andre D'Entremont, s. Hilaire. 

Gertrude, m. Louis Le Blanc, s. Joseph 2d of Pubnico. 

Pierre, m. Anne Amirault, d. Gabriel. 



Seraphie, m. ] 



APPENDIX D. 407 

Cyrille Pothier, continued. 

Felix, m Marie Anne Mallet of Clare. 

Ludger, died young. 
Ambroise Pothier, s. Pierre ist, m. Monique Theriaui.t of Meteghan. 
Issue: Mathilde, m. Avit Dugas of Clare. 

Lezin V., m. Elisabeth Pothier, d. Joseph Josue. 

Adelaide, m. Sylvain Robicheau of Clare. 

Placide, died unmarried, aged 22. 

Marie Anne, a sister ot charity. (Soeur Rosalie.) 

Monique A., m. Octave Gravel of Quebec. 

1. George Bowles of Hoston. 

2. Abraham Wainwright of Manchester, Eng. 

Agnes Eleonore, m. William Meehan of Boston. 

„ . ( I. Marie Thibeaudeau of Clare. 

Alexandre Pothier, s. Pierre ist, m.\ 

( 2. Anastasie Amirault, d. Cyriaque. 

Issue : Vitaline Therese, m. Joseph Bourque, s. Pierre. 

Gertrude, m. Cyriaque D'Entremont, s. Benjamin. 

Jovite, removed. 

Celenie, m. Casimir Surette, s. Jean of Chebec. 

Matthias, Pierre, Joseph, Jean B., died unmarried. 

Elisabeth, Fran5oise, Marie, Madeleine, died unmarried. 
L4oN Pothie"., s. Pierre ist, m. Rosalie Thibeaudeau of Clare. 
Issue : Jean H., m. Marie Anne Surette, d. Augustin, a Athanase. 

Louis, m. Emilie Bourgeois, d. Raphael. 

Avit, m. Julia Gallagher. 

Marie, m. Pierre Pothier, s. Remi. 

David, m. Josephine Boudreau, d. Dominique D. 

Sophique, m. Louis Buurque, s. Toussaint. 

Simon, m. Judithe Doucette, d. Jacques 2d. 

Urbain, m. Elisabeth Babin, d. Thaddee. 

Sylvain, m. Frangoise Bourque, d. Jean. 

Augustin, m. Rose Emma Pothier, d. Lezin. 

Ambroise, m. Rose Rabin, d. Jean 2d. 

Fran9oise, died aged 13 years. 

Joseph Octave, died aged 2 years. 

Jacques, not married. 

Joseph Piefre, not married. , 

Henri Damien, not married. * 

Marie Madeleine, died in infancy. , . ' - 
Joseph Josufi Pothier, s. Jean B., m. Rosalie Melancon of Clare. 
Issue : Anne, m. Pierre S. D'Entremont, s. Simon. 

Elisabeth, m. Lezin Pothier, s. Ambroise. 



408 POTH/ER. 

Joseph Josu6 Pothier, continued. 

Alexandre, in. Rosalie Robicheau of Clare. 

Jean B. J., m. Elizabeth Maclver, d. Hugh ist. 

Marie Anne, m. Andre Le Blanc, s. Joseph. 

Marguerite, not married. 

Simon, m. Elisabeth Surette, d. Simon. 

Theodore, m. Madeleine Bourque, d. Ambroise. 

Josue, m. Rosalie Bourque, d. Jean. 

Madeleine, m. Casimir Bourque, s. Jean. 

Genevieve, Rosalie, Leoiiice, died young 
Sylvain Pothier, s. Jean B., m. Marie Melan(;on of Clare. 
Issue : Rosalie, m. Pierre Surette, s. Athanase. 

Elisabeth, m. Louis R. Amirault, s. Louis. 

Catherine, m. Martin Amirault, s. Marc. 

Charles, m. Catherine Surette, d. Raphael. 

Mande, m. Louise Bourque, d. Jean. 

Marguerite, m. David Le Blanc, s. Joseph 2d of Pubnico. 

Joseph, m. Elisabeth Boudreau of Meteghan. 

Jean B., died unmarried, aged 30 years. 

Susanne, not married. 
R6mi Pothier, s. Jean B., m. Gertrude Bahi.n, d. Charles Aniand. 
Issue : Pierre, m. Marie I'othier, d. Leon. 

Marie Charlotte, m. Charles Surette, s. Paul Fran9ois. 

Esther, m. Michel Surette, s. Raphael. 

Louis, m. Babin, d. Fram^ois. 

Seraphin Pothier, s. Sylvain ist, m. Monique Duon, d. Augustin. 
Issue : Julienne, m. Simon D'Entremont, s. Joseph Vincent. 

Pierre, m. Adele D'Entremont, d. Severin. 

Francois, m. Dorothee Le Blanc, d. Anselme. 

Nathalie, m. Frani^ois D'Entremont, s. Maximin. 

George, m. Leonice Surette, d. Paul of Chebec. 
I. Leonice Le Blanc, d. Anselme. 
! 2. Nathalie Le Blanc, w. Jean, a Benjamin. 

Elisabeth, m. Augustin Le Blanc, s. Joseph, a Anselme. 

Esaie, Marguerite, not married. 
Nicolas Pothier, s. Sylvain ist, m. Scholastique Amirault, d. Jacques 2d. 
Issue : Hilaire, m. Augustine Pothier, d. Jean B. of Chebec. 

Jacques, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Frederic. , . • .. ' 

Madeleine, m. Pierre Le Blanc, s. Frederic. 
-- - - Cesar, m. Marie Deveau, d. Gabriel. 

Pierre, m. Virginie Pothier, d. Jean B. of Chebec. 
'— ^— Sylvain. m. Anastasie Pothier, d. Cyrille of Chebec. 



Jean B., m. | 



APPENDIX D. 409 

Nicolas Pothier, lontiuued. 

Augustin, m. Marie Anne Pothier, d. Jean B. of Chebec. 

Elisabeth, m. Jean Le Blanc, s. Benjamin of Chebec. 

Genevieve, died unmarried. 

( I. Seraphine Theriault of Clare. 
Pierre Pothier, s. Svlvain ist, m. \ 

Kz. Pelagie Bakin, d. Charles. 

Issue : Marine, m. Jacques Boudreau, s. Jean B. 

Adesse, m. Onesiphore Boudreau, s. Jean B. 

Marie, m. Fulgence Pothier, s. Svlvain, a Amand. 

Calixte, m. Catherine Pothier, d. Cyrille of Chebec. 

( I. Sylvie Le Blanc, d. Joseph, a Anselme. 
Theodore, m. ] 

( 2. Mane D'Entremont, d. Etienne. 

Dominique Pothier, s. Sylvain ist, m. Madeleine Babin, d. Charles. 

I. Emilie Boudreau, d. Jean B. 



Issue: Severin, m. , , ., . , , ,_, .„ 

2. Bibienne Surette, d. Anselme, a Cyrille. 

Bonaventure, m. Julienne Pothier, d. Jean B. of Chebec. 

Michel D., m. Angeliquc Le Blanc, d. Jean B., a Anselme. 

Michel, m. Marie D'Entremont, d. Jean. 

Levi, m. Fran9oise D'Entremont. 

Philomene, m. Jean U. Boudreau, s. Charles M. 

Julie, died unmarried. 
Sylvain Pothier, s. Sylvain ist, m. Marie Amirault, d. Jacques 2d. 
Issue : Moise, not married. 

Joseph L., m. Victoire Le Blanc, d. Maximin, a Benjamin. 

Marin, m. Ursule Boudreau, d. Charles M. 

Martin, m. Emilienne Le Blanc, d. Cyriaque, a Anselme. 

Mande, m. Ursule Pothier, d. Mathurin, a Anselme. 

Celestin, not married. 

Jean, not married. 

Angelique, not married. 

Leonice, m. Pierre P. Doucette, s. Archange of Chebec. 
Anselme Pothier, s. Amand, m. Madeleine Duon, d. Augustin, 
Issue : Mathurin, m. Fran(^oise Surette, d. Cyrille of Chebec. 

Simon Romain, m. Madeleine Le Blanc, d. Anselme of Chebec. 

Placide, m. Genevieve Surette, d. Cyrille of Chebec. 

Hilaire, m. Veronique Surette, d. Joseph of Chebec. 

Cyriaque, m. Augustine Surette, d. Cyrille of Chebec. 

Rosalie, m. Joseph Le Blanc, s. Anselme of Chebec. 

Fran^oise, m. Joseph Le Blanc, s. Frederic of Chebec. 

Marie Jeanne, m. Anselme Surette, s. Cyrille of Chebec, 

Adelaide, m. Feli.\ Surette, s. Pierre of Chebec. 

Madeleine, m. Charles Amand Surette, s. Cyrille of Chebec. 



4IO POTHIER. 

Sylvain Pothier, s. Amand, m. Ursule Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist. 

( I. Honorine Houdreau, d. Jean \'>. 
Issue : Franyois, m. { 

( 2. Julienne Kobicheau, d. IMerrc 2d. 

Marc, m. Marie Surette, d. F'ierre of Chebec. 

Fulgence, m. Marie Futhier, d. Pierre of Chebec. 

Henri, m. Anne Surette, d. Pierre of Chebec. 

Renii, ni. Monicjue Surette, d. Pierre of Chebec. 

Marguerite, ni. Anseinie Houdreau, s. Dominique. 

Elisabeth, m. Michel Boudreau, 9. Domini(|ue. 

Rosalie, m. Charles M. Boudreau, s. Jean B. 
Charles Amand I'othikr, s. Amand, m. (liiiNKVifevE Babin, d. Charles. 
Issue : Charlotte, m. Renii Le Blanc, s. Anselme. 

Hazacle, m. Anselme Lc Hlanc, s. -Simon. 

Madeleine, m. Joseph Meuse, s. George, a Benjamin. 

Julienne, m. Josue Le Blanc, s. Francois, a Joseph. 

Louis, m. Anne S. Surette, d. Jean of Surette's Island. 
Jean B. Pothikr, s. Amand, m. Marie .^nne D'Entremont, d. Jacques 3d. 
Issue : Thelesphore, m. Anne Le Blanc, d. Frederic. 

Stephanie, m. Cyriaque Le Blanc, s. Anselme. 

Agnes, m. Zacharie Le Blanc, s. Simon. 

Virginie, m. Pierre Pothier, s. Nicolas. 

Madeleine, m. Guillaume Surette, s. Prospere of Pinkney's Point. 

Augustine, m. Ililaire Pothier, s. Nicolas. 

Marie Anne, m. Augustin Pothier, s. Nicolas. 

Julienne, m. Bonaventure Pothier, s. Dominique. 

Philomene, m. Romain Le Blanc, s. Joseph, a Anselme. 
Cyrille Pothier, s. Amand, m. Euphroisine Bakin, d. Charles. 
Issue : Amand A., m. Elisabeth Boudreau, d. Lucien. 

Jeremie H., m. Eulalie Le Blanc, d. Simon. 

r ""•■*'-■ 

Andre, m. Charlotte Dugas, d. Benjamin of Clare. 
Delphine, m. Andre Le Blanc, s. Frederic. 
Vitaline, m. Joseph Richard, s. Charles. 
Catherine, m. Calixte Pothier, s. Pierre. 
Anastasie, m. Sylvain Pothier, s. Nicolas. - - 

Joseph Pothier, s. Amand, m. Veronique Amirault, d. Joseph 3d. 
Issue: Gertrude, m. Michel Doucette, s. Sylvain ist of Chebec. 
Paul, m. Marguerite Pothier, d. Mathurin, a Anselme. 
I. Emilie Pothier, d. Fran9ois, a Sylvain. 



Anselme 0.,m. \ 2. Elisabeth Le Blanc, d. Marc. 
.3. Elisabeth Le Blanc, d. Mande. 



Urbain, m. •, ,,,-,• 

. 2. Marie Anne Boudreau, d. telix. 



APPENDIX D. 411 

Joseph Pothier, continued. 

Pierre Arcade, m. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Pierre of Eel Brook. 

Elie, not married. 

Sophie, Marin, died unmarried. 
Jean Bourque ist, m. Marie Rose Surette, d. Pierre ist. 
Issue : Joseph, m. Veronique Amirault, d. Ange of Pubnico. 

Basile, m. Elisabeth lielliveau, d. Isidore of Pubnico. 

Fran(,ois, m. Monique Pothier, d. .Sylvain ist. 

Pierre, m. Marie Amirault, d. Joseph of Clare. 

Rosalie, m. Armand Kubichcau, s. Prudent of Meteghan. 

Madeleine, m. Frederic Theriault, s. Hilarion of Belli veau's Cove. 

Scholasti()ue, not married, housekeeper for Abb^ Sigogne. 

Marguerite, not married, founded first convent in Clare. 

Angelique, m. Jacepies D'Entreniont, s. Paul. 

Charlotte, not married, died at convent, Clare. 

Marie Osithe, m. Joseph Belliveau, s. Charles J. of Pubnico. 

Jean Haptiste, not married. 
Joseph Bourque, s. Jean ist, m. Veronique Amirault, d. Ange. 

Issue : Louis Q. (uSoo), m. Rosalie Comeau, d. Major Francois of Clare. 
I. Marie .Surette, d. Jean Louis. 



Benjamin, m. , 

2. Monique Pothier, w. Ambroise. 



Franyois 2d, m. j 



1. Rosalie D'Entremont, d. Charles Celestin. 

2. Anne Esther Habin, d. Joseph 2d. 
Toussaint, m. Sylvie Amirault, d. Gabriel of Meteghan. 
Paulin, m. Marguerite Surette, d. Pierre 3d, no issue. 
Rosalie, m. Cyrille Pothier, s. Pierre ist. 

Marie, m. Joseph Sirette, s. Jean Louis. 
, Genevieve Agathe, m. Cyrille Babin, s. Amable. 

Simon, drowned in early manhood. 
FRANgois Bourque, s. Jean ist, m. Monique Pothier, d. Sylvain ist. 
Issue : Sylvain, m. Madeleine Le Blanc of Clare, settled there. 

Francois Silvestre, m. Elisabeth Surette, d. Paul Francois. 

Basile, m. Catherine Surette, d. .Simon. 

Jeanne Fran^oise, m. Augustin Surette, s. Athanase. 

Madeleine, m. Thaddee Babin, S. Amable. 

Colombe, m. Pierre Severin Comeau of Sissibou. — 

Leonice, m. Felix ]5abin, s. Amable. • - ■ 

Gertrude, m. Jean Babin, s. Jean, a Charles Amand. 

Maximin, died in boyhood. 
Basile Bourque, s. Jean ist, m. Elisabeth Belliveau, d. Isidore. 
Issue : Jean 2d, m. Julie Surette, d. AthanaSt. 

Ambroise, m. Marguerite \jt Blanc, d. Anselme of Church Point. 

Scholastique, m Jean Surette, s. Jean Louis. 



412 BOURQUE. 

Pierre I1ouri.>i;k, s. Jean ist, m. Marik AMiRAtar of Clare. 

Issue : Joseph, m. Vitalim I'heri-se Pothier, d. Alexandre. 

Pierre, lost at Hea, unmarried. 

Charlotte, m. Frani^ois Amirault, s. Marc 1st of I'ubnico 

Marie Klisahcth, m. Raymond Comeati of Meteghan. 

Dorothee, ni. ililaire Hclliveau of Clare. 

Catherine, m. Charles llabin, s. C harles Amand. 

Blondine, not married. 

Rosalie, m. Kemi Hahin, s. Amable. 

Genevieve, m. Uriel J. Habin, s. Joseph 2d. 

Louis, died in boyhood. 

_ ( I. Marik Surette, d. Jean Louis. 

Benjamin IJourque, s. Joseph, m. I 

( 2. MoNH^UK Pothier, w. Ambruise. 

Issue : Nathalie, m. PKicide Surette, s. Eusebe. 

Marc, m. Madeleine Saulnier of Clare. 

Felix, m. Monique Saulnier of Clare. 

Simon, m. Catherine Saulnier of Clare. 

(lahriel, m. Ursule Saulnier of Clare. 

Michel, m. Veronitiue Surette, d. Hippolyte. 

Francois, m. Edithe Saulnier of Clare. 

Elisal>eth, m. Simon .Saulnier of Clare. 

I I. Rosalie D'Entrkmont, d. Chailes Celestin. 
Francois BouRQiiE, S.Joseph, m. I 

( 2. Anne EsTufeR Habin. d. Joseph 2d. 

Issue: Mande, m. Julienne l!abin, d. Jean, a Charles A. 

Anselme, m. Dorothee D'Entremont, d. Anselme. 

Cyriaque, not married. 

Marie Anne, ni. Walter Scott of Plymouth, Argyle. 

Elisabeth, m. Mathurin Surette, s. Augustin. 

Sophique, m. I'ierre Belliveau, s. Jean of I'ubnico. 

Madeleine, m. Denis Amirault, s. Louis. 

Franc^oise, m. I>eon Duon, s. David. 
By 2d wife : — 

Uriel, m. Adfele Bourque, d. Marc 

Octave, not married. . 

Monique, m. Elie Duon, s. Phir >e. , . . ; 

Fannie, m. Louis Bourque, 8. Michel. .. ' - ' 

Rosalie, not married. :, ' ,- ' - -c .'■/,: i 

ToussAiNT liouRQUE, s. Joseph, m. Silvie Amirault, d. Gabriel of Meteghan. 
Issue : Louis, ni. Sophique Pothier, d. Leon. 

Marie, m. Marc V. D'Entremont, s. Severin. 

Henri. 

Leonice, m. Basile Comeau, s. Raymond. 



APPENDIX 1). 413 

TOUSSAINT HoURQUE, COHtinueJ. 

Acleline, m. Thcophile Kabin, >. Felix. 
I"'rani,()isc, m. Nicolas Surette, s. Jean It. of Pubnico. 
Tiicodore. 
Louis Q. Houkquk, s. Joseph, m., 1S34, Kusalib Comkau, d. Major Franyoii of 
Clare. 
Issue: Jean, m. Rose l^ Illanc, d. Augustin of Little Brook, Clare. 
Marguerite, 111. Hilaire Comcau of Metcghan. 
Marie, not married. 

Catiierine, m. Armand Comeau of Meteghan. 
I'hilippe, lost at sea, 1879. 
Elisal)eth, ni. Tln-ophile Comeau of Metejjhan. 
Jean Bourquk id, s. Itasile, m. Jiti.ik Surkitk, d. Athana.se. 
Issue: Casimir, m. Madeleine I'othier, d. Joseph Josuc. 
I. Josue Pothier, 9. Joseph Josue. 



Kosali'-, m. , 

2. Sylvain J. Gallant of Prince pAiward's Island. 

Anne Louise, m. Mandt- Pothier, s. Sylvain of F.?1 Krook. 

Elisabeth, m. Mii;hel Boudrcau, s. Dominifjue. 

Ma ie .\iine, m. .^everin Melani,()n of Meteghan. 

MarguTite, m. Jeaa Pierre Robicheau of Meteghan. 

Marie Genevieve, in Alexandre P. Landry, M.D. 

Fran(,'oi-S "ot married. 

Louis T., m. FranCjOi.se Habin, d. Thaddec. 

Fran(,'oi8e, m. Sylvain Pothier, s. L^on. 
AvBROisE BouRQUE, s. Basile, m. Marcuerite Le Blanc, d. Anselme of Clare. 
Issue : Madeleine, m. Theodore Pothier, s. Joseph Josue. 

Hilaire, m Marie Pothier, d. .Sylvain of Eel Brook. 

(ienevieve, m. Francois Surette, s. Augustin. 

Rosalie, m. Jovite Babin, s. Jean. 

Anselme, m. Elisabeth Surette, d. Capt. Pierre. 

Jean, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Pierre of Pubnico. 

Marie, m. Avit Amirault, s. Cyriaque. 

Ambroise, m. Elisabeth Surette, w. Louis, a Francois. 

Julie. 
Joseph Bourque, s. Pierre, m. Vitaline Tn^RfesE Pothier, d. Alexandre. 
Issue: Marie, m. Augustin Comeau of Clare. ,.. , 

Elisabeth. ^ ; ;^v > ir-.^^:i - v : .:.r, , ' 

. Joseph. ..^.;\,o ...•;,*.,•;;.: i;;.. :;.-■. -i 

Louis. f, . 

Guillaume. ,;:-.— .»->-^--'- 

/^ Marguerite, a sister of charity. 

Rosalie. 
Fran^oise. 



414 BOURQUE.—ROBICHEAU. 

FRANgois S. BouRQUE, s. Fran9ois ist, m. Elisabeth Surette, d. Paul Franjois. 

( I. Louis Surette, s. Francois, a Julien. 
Issue : Elisabeth, m. j 

( 2. Ambroise Bourque, s. Ambroise. 

Sylvain. 

Julie. 

Marie, m. Pierre J. Amirault, s. Simon, a Simon. 
Basile Bourque, s. rran9ois ist, m. Catherine Surette, d. Simon. 
Issue : Marie. 

Fran9ois, m. Eunice MacGill of Boston. 

Irene. 

Henri. 

Joseph. 

Genevieve, m. Laurent D'Entremont, s. Francois. 

Fran9oise. 

Adele. 

Emilie, m. Antoine D'Entremont, s. Ansehne. 

Edithe. 
Armand Robicheau, s Prudent, m. Rosalie Bourque, d. Jean ist. 
Issue : Basile, died young. 

Benjamin, m. Anathalie Theriault. 

Frederic A., m. Marguerite Melan9on. 

Nicolas, not married. 

Fran9ois, m. Monique Melan9on. 

Adelaide, m. Celestin Comeau. 

Celestin A., m. Genevieve Melan9on. 

Basile A., m. Charlotte Theriault. 

I. Charlotte Belliveau. 



Mathurin, m. 

. 2. Monique Comeau. 



Frederic A. Robicheau represented Clare in the House of Assembly 
from 1836 to 1840, when he sold his property at Meteghan, and settled 
on the beautiful shores of Lake Went worth, fifteen miles from the sea, 
where he had obtained a grant of fourteen hundred acres of land. 

Mathurin Robicheau represented Clare from 1855 to 1867, and was 
then placed in charge of the Light Station at Cape Ste. Marie, — a sta- 
tion best filled by those who, like Mathurin, have once been ship-masters. 
Their grandfather. Prudent Robicheau, married Anne Dugas at Annapo- 
lis Royal in 1 734. For thirty years Prudent Robicheau was prominent 
among the Acadians at Annapolis, and the annals of the time show 
that he enjoyed the confidence of Governors Armstrong and Mascarene. 



APPENDIX D. 415 

Joseph Babtn ist, m. Madeleine Surette, d. Pierre ist. 

Issue: Joseph 2d (Nagoe), tn. Marguerite Pothier, d. Amand. 

Amable, m. Genevieve Pothier, d. Amand. 

Charles Amand, m. Marguerite Kelliveau, d. Charles J. 

( I. Theotiste Pothier, d. Amand. 
Luc, m. ) 

( 2. Marguerite Melancj-on, d. Amand. 

Marguerite, m. Patrice Thibeaudeau of Clare. 
Perpetue, m. Joseph Comeau of flare. 
Anastasie, m. Alexis Houdreau of Clare. 

Pelagie, m. Dominique Boadreau, s. Michel of Tusket Wedge. 
Joseph Babin 2d, s. Joseph ist, tn. Marguerite Pothier, d. Amand. 
Issue : Alexandre, m. Marguerite Mallet. 

Francois, m. Anne Catherine Surette, d. Paul 2d. 
Gabriel, m. Marie Surette, d. Paul 2d. 
Uriel J., m. Genevieve Bourque, d. Pierre. 
Jean Baptiste, m. Helene Gaslin of Massachusetts. 
Elisabeth, m. Simon Babin, s. Charles. 
Melanie, m. Jovite Mallet. 

Anne Esther, m. Fran9ois Bourque, s. Joseph ist. 
Genevieve, m. Olivier Doucette of Clare. 
Hel^ne, m. Etienne Comeau. 
Amable Babin, s. Joseph ist, m. G^neviAve Pothier, d. Amand. 
I. Genevieve Agathe Bourque, d. Joseph ist. 
\ 2. .Sophique Melan9on, w. Cyrille of Sissibou. 
Thaddee, m. Madeleine Bourque, d. Fran9ois ist. 
Remi, m. Rosalie Bourque, d. Pierre. 
Marguerite, m. Charles Thibeaudeau of Clare. 
Felix, m. Leonice Bourque, d. Francois ist. 
Charles Amand Babin, s. Joseph ist, m. Marguerite Belliveau, d. 
Charles J. 
Issue: Jean, m. Anne Thibeaudeau of Clare. 

Gervais, m. Elisabeth Thibeaudeau of Clare. 

Charles, m. Catherine Bourque, d. Pierre. 

Anselme, not married. 

Marie, m. Marcel Robicheau. 

Marguerite, m. Cyrille Surette, s. Jean Louis of Tusket Wedge. 

Elisabeth, m. Frederic Melan^on of Clare.' 

Gertrude, m. Remi Pothier, s. Jean Baptiste. 

Franij-oise, m. Jean B. D'Entremont, s- Cyrille. _ 

Madeleine, m. Pierre D'Entremont, s. Cyrille. 



Issue : Cyrille, m. \ 



4l6 BABIN. 

Luc BABIN, s. Joseph ist. m. j '• Th^otiste Pothier. d. Amand. 

' 2. Marguerite Melancon, d. Atrand. 
Issue : Clement 
Leon. 
Marie. 

Rosalie. 

Anne. 



Among the early Acadians of Argyle were also Victor and Michel 
Babin, whose relationship with Joseph ist we cannot definitely establish. 
Some authorities say the three were brothers ; others, that Michel and 
Joseph were brothers, and Victor their cousin, more or less remote ; 
while others say Joseph and Victor were brothers, and Michel their 
cousin. The Babins were among the earliest settlers of Acadia, their 
names appearing in the first census of 1671 ; and they, with the ancestors 
of the Boudreaus, Bourgeois, Bourques, Comeaus, Corporons, Cothe- 
reaus, Doucettes, Gaudets, Landrys, LeBlancs, Melangons, Richards, 
Robicheaus, Theriaults, and Thibeaudeaus of Yarmouth County, are 
believed to have belonged to that respectable class of colonists brought 
to Acadia about 1632 by the Seigneurs de R.4zillv and D'Aulnay for 
the permanent settlement of the country. 

Victor Babin, m. Marguerite Piot. 

Issue : Charles, m. Ludivine Amirault, d. Jacques ist. 
Hippolyte, m. Veronique Meuse, d. Pierre ist. 
Sophique, m. Frederic Surette, a. Joseph ist. 
Charles Babin, s. Victor, m. Ludivine Amirault, d. Jacques ist. 
Issue: Genevieve, m. Charles Amand Pothier, s. Amand. 
Euphroisine, m. Cyrille Pothier, s. Amand. 
Pelagie, m. Pierre Pothier, s. Sylvain ist. 
Madeleine, m. Dominique Pothier, s. Sylvain ist. 
Gabriel, m. Fran^oise D'Entremont, d. Charles Celestin. 
Simon, m. Elisabeth Babin, d. Joseph 2d. 
Hippolyte Babin, s. Victor, m. Veronique Meuse, d. Pierre ist. 
Issue : Marceline, m. Pierre Surette 4th, s. Pierre 3d. 
Marie, m. Frederick Burke. 
'^^ Julie, m. Andre Surette, s. Pierre 3d. , 1 ^ _ 

ii. H^lene Surette, d. Pierre 3d. 
2. Charlotte Le Blanc, d. Joseph Joppd of Clare. 
3. Marguerite Babin, d. Jean (a Carino). 



APPENDIX D. 417 

HiPPOLYTE Bab IN, continued. 

Euphemie, m. Ambroise Trahan of Clare. 

Marguerite, in. Pierre Meuse, s. Firmain. 

Urbain, m. Marguerite Richard, d. Charles. 

Catherine, m. Francois Doucette, s. Francois. 

Fran^oise, m. Jean B. Le Blanc, s. Bernard. 
Joseph Babin (Carino), s. Michel, m. Elisabeth Le ISlanc, d. Pierre ist_of Eel 
Brook. 

SI. Madeleine Robicheau. 
2. Scholastique Comeau. 
Joseph, m. Osithe Trahan. 
Marguerite, m. Gabriel Surette, s. Pierre 2A. 
Elisabeth, m. Raphael .Surette, s. Pierre 2d. 
I. Victoire Robicheau. 



Michel, m. 

'2. Euphroisine Melan<;on, w. Charles. 

Marie, m. Patrick Russell. 

Pierre, m. Gertrude Martin, d. Cyprien. 

Pierre Le Blanc ist of Eel Brook, m. Marguerite Amirault, d. Joseph 2d. 

Issue : Pierre. 

Honore, m. J^dithe Meuse, d. Joseph 2d. 

( I. Anne Doucette, d. Charles ist. 
Joseph, m. ! . 

( 2. Rosalie Meuse, d. Jean Pierre. 

Elisabeth, m. Joseph Babin, s. Michel ist. - 

Charles (1755-1S27), m. Marie Meuse, sister of JPaul. 

Marie, m. Paul Meuse. 

Honore Le Blanc, s. Pierre ist, m, Judithe Meuse, d. Joseph 2d. 

Issue : Scholastique, m. Martin Dulin, s. Louis. 

Seraphie, m. Jacques De Villiers. 

Madeleine, m. Germain Meuse, s. Louis 2d. 

Julie, m. Eude Dulin, s. Louis. 

Marguerite, m. Luc Meuse, s. Louis ist. 

Pierre, m. Scholastique Meuse, d. Firmain. 

Antoine, m. Marguerite Frontain,'[d. Augustin. 

Jean, m. Madeleine Doucette, d. David. 

Marie, m. Louis Le Fevre ist. 

Osithe, m. Esaie Meuse, s. Firmain. 

( I. Anne Doucette, d. Charles isf. 
Toseph Le Blanc, s. Pierre ist, m- ! ^ 
^ (2. Rosalie Meusf, d. Jean Piern. 

Issue : Basile, m. Ludivine Robicheau. 

Beniamin, m. Ilenriette Ilebert, d. Joseph 2d. 

Fran9ois, m. Elisabeth Doucette, d. Francois. . 

I. Henriette Doucette, d. Fran9ois. 
Remi, m. J , . . 

Trahan, w. Dominique. 



41 8 LE BLANC. 

Joseph Le Blanc, couthmed. 

Marguerite, m. Christophe Hubert, s. Joseph 2d. 

Simon, m. Catherine Meuse, d. Frederic. 

Marie, m. Jean Le Blanc, s. Jean, a Amand. 

Julie, m. Chrysostome Doucelte, s. Francois. 

Elisabeth, m. Joseph Clermont, s. Francois. 

Rosalie, m. Louis Doucette, s. Fran9ois. 

Ursule, m. Rigobert Meuse, s. Dominique. 

Leonice, m. Benjamin Meuse, s. Anselme. 

Therese, m. Jean Meuse, s. Frederic. 
Charles Le Blanc, s. Pierre ist, m. Marie Meuse, 1748-1847. 
Issue : Benoni, m. Susanne Doucette, d. Charles ist. 

Bernard (1802), m. Marguerite Doucette, d. Michel ist. 

Jean, m. Lucie Doucette, d. Michel ist. 

Marie, m. Joseph Moulaison 2d, s. Joseph. 

Anne, m. Jacques Doucette, s. Michel ist. 

Veronique, m. Paul Doucette, s. Charles 1st. 

Marguerite, m. Edouard Doucette, s. Michel ist. 

Madeleine, not married. 
Jean Le Blanc, s. Charles ist, m. Lucie Doucette, d. Michel ist. 
Issue : David, m. Marceline Le Blanc, d. Jean ist of Amirault's Hill. 

Joseph Mathurin, m. Esther Meuse, d. Louis 2d. 

Seraphin, m. Catherine Meuse, d. Louis 2d. 

Jean Adrien, m. Catherine Meuse, d. Gregoire. 
I. Catherine Le Blanc, d. Fran9ois. 



Pierre, m. 

' 2. Fran9oise Doucette, d. Antoine of Clare. 

Monique, m. Andre Doucette, s. Timothee. 

Henriette, m. Francois Meuse, s. Florent. 

Madeleine, m. Louis Le Fevre 2d, s. Louis. 

Patrice, drowned in his third year. 

Anne, m. Charles Meuse, s. Dominique, a Benjamin. 

Benoni Le Blanc, s. Charles, m. Scsanne Doucette, d. Charles ist. 

Issue : Barnabe, m. Perpetue Le Blanc, d. Jean of Amirault's Hill. 

Firmain, m. Madeleine Robicheau of Clare. 

Ursule, m. Cyrille Doucette, s. Joseph. 

Perpetue, m. Augustin Clermont, s. Fran9ois. 
Bernard Le Blanc, s. Charles, ni. Marguerite Doucette, d. Michel. 

Issue : Rosalie, m. Chrysostome Meuse, s. Gregoire. 
- Marie Antoinette, m. Maximin Le Fevre, s. Louis. 

1. Fran9oise Babin, d. Hippolyte. 

2. Judithe Le Blanc, d. Pierre, a Honore. 
Jean Baptiste, m. -; 

3. Marie Domathilde Frontain, d. Anselme of Cape 

Ste. Marie. 



A P> END IX D. 419 

Bernard Le Blanc, continued. 

Fran9ois, m. Rosalie Dulin, d. Martin. 
Pierre, m. Elisabeth Meuse, d. Archange. 
Charles, m. Rosalie Le Fevre, d. Louis. 
Marie, m. Severin Doucette, s. Athanase. 
Michel, not married. 
Marguerite, died in infancy. 

r I. 1850, Francoise Babin, d. Hippolyte. 
I 2. 1859, JuDiTHE Le Blanc, d. Pierre, a Ho- 
Jean B. Le Blanc, s. Bernard, m. \ nore. 

;. 1S61, Marie Domathilde Frontain, d. 
Anselme. 
Issue of Jean B. and Francoise : — 

Elisabeth, m. Martin Surette, s. Placide of Surette's Island. 
Marguerite, m. Mande Surette, s. Fran9ois. 
Frangoise, m. Francois Doucette, s. Germain. 
Rosalie, m. Charles Huntress of Wakefield, Mass. 
Marie, died in infancy. 
Issue of Jean P>. and Marie Domathilde : — 
Joseph Henri, died in infancy. 
Joseph Henri. 
Jean L. 
Pierre. 
Marc. 

Adele, m. Thomas Abbott of Stoneham, Mass. 
Louis. 
Marie. 

Jean Baptiste Le Bl.\nc, eldest son of Bernard and Marguerite 
Le Blanc of Eel Lake, was born there Aug. 21, 1825. More fortunate 
than many Acadian youths of his day, he had the privilege of attending 
the village schools taught by Pierre Amirault, Charles Theriault, Hippo- 
lyte Babin, and Louis A. Surette. At the age of fifteen he went to live 
with the Abb6 Goudot, with whom he remained for about eight years ; 
and, under the good abba's guidance and instruction, he became himself 
qualified for a school-teacher, — a position he filled for about eight years 
at different periods between 1848 and 1863 ; namely, two years each at 
Eel Brook and Abram's River, one year at Eel Lake, and three years at 
the Forks. , •-; ■ . ,. ; .^-.- ^/.^—__^ ;__:.;__— 

In 1 85 1 Mr. Le Blanc engaged in business at Eel Brook, and built 



4*3 JEAN B. LE BLANC. 

some vessels there upon the eastern bank of Abram's River. In 1853 
he was concerned in the contract for the brig Gold-hunter of 295 tons, 
built for Gilbert Sanderson and others. In 1856, under a contract with 
Joseph B. Stoneman and Thomas B. Dane, he built the Annie Laurie of 
258 tons. In 1858 he built, on his own account, the brig Eugenie of 
370 tons, which vessel was purchased by Louis A. Surette, rigged into 
a bark, and, with the name changed to the Thomas Whitney, was 
placed upon Glidden & Williams's regular line of packet-ships between 
Boston and London. 

In 1859 Mr. Le Blanc was appointed a justice of the peace for 
Yarmouth County ; and with evident satisfaction he recalls an occasion 
when in argument he was able to lead older heads upon the bench to 
a just concluiion, which otherwise, though with the best intentions, they 
might have failed to reach. 

In 1845 the Abb^ Goudot purchased a neat cottage with twenty acres 
of land attached opposite the Eel Brook presbytere, to which he removed 
shortly before he gave up the charge of the Parish of Ste. Anne ; and 
when, in 1859, he finally left Eel Brook, in remembrance of the kind 
treatment received from Jean B. and Frangoise Le Blanc, who had 
lived with him since their marriage in 1850, the abbe executed 
a will, bequeathing to them and their children his property at Eel 
Brook. 

In 1880 Mr. Le Blanc removed with his family to Wakefield, Mass., 
and thence two years later to Stoneham, where they now reside ; but 
while on a visit to Eel Brook in 1886, Mr. Le Blanc intimated to bis 
friends there his intention of returning in 1888 (D. V.) to his old 
homestead. 

It is perhaps needless to add that the writer has found no one whose 
personal knowledge of the Acadian families of Argyle generally is more 
correct or extensive than that of Jean B. Le Blanc. 

Amand Le Blanc ist, between whom and the Le Blancs of Eel 
Brook and Tusket Wedge no relationship can be here established, was 
one of the early settlers of the district on the eastern side of the Tusket 
River, below what is now Tusket village. He was appointed surveyor 
of highways in 1792, and in 1801 he participated in the distribution of 
the lands originally granted to Gov. Montague Wilmot. 



APPENDIX D. 421 

Amand Le Blanc ist m. Isabelle Meuse, d. Dominique 1st. 

( I. Helene Doucette, d. Jean 2d of Chebec. 
Issue : Chrysostome, m. j 

( 2. Fran9oise Hebert, d. Charles ist. 

Jean, m. Nannette Meuse, d. Joseph 2d. 

Genevieve, m. Francois Doucette, s. Joseph isi. 

I. HitLfeNE Doucette, d. Jean 2d. 



Chrysostome Le Blanc, s. Amand, m. ; 

2. Francoise HEBfeRT, d. Charles ist. 

Issue : Chrysostome, m. Mathilde Meuse, d. Fran9ois. 

L^on, m. Marie Susanne Meuse, d. Fran9ois. 

Marc, m. Madeleine Landry, d. Frederic. 

Henriette, m. Jacques Amirault, s. Jacques 2d. 

Seraphie, m. Marc Amirault, s. Jacques 2d. 

Adele, m. Maximin Meuse, s. Fran9ois. 

Jean Le Blanc, s. Amand, m. Nannette Meuse, d. Joseph 2d. 

I. Dominique Meuse, s. Benjamin. 



Issue : Isabelle, m. 

( 2. Emmanuel Meuse. 

Marguerite, m. Augustin Doucette, s. Joseph ist. 

Anne, m. Hilaire Amirault, s. Jacques 2d. 

Marie, m. Magloire Richard, s. Antoine ist. 

Amand, m. Charlotte Boucher, d. Jean ist. 

Jean G., m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist of Eel Brook. 

Marceline, m. David Le Blanc, s. Jean, a Charles. 

Madeleine, m. Thomas Cothereau, s. Jean ist. 

Perpetue, m. Barnabe Le Blanc, s. Benoni. 
Joseph Moulaison ist of Amirault's Hill, m. Marie Comeau. 
Issue]: Joseph 2d, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Charles ist 

Guillaume, removed to Magdalen Islands. 

Michel, m. Monique Meuse, d. Pierre, no issue. 

Anne, m. Frederic Meuse, s. Louis ist. 

Marguerite, m. Isaac Meuse, s. Paul. 

Genevieve, m. Jean Baptiste Meuse ist of "the Forks." 

Brigide, m. Basile Bertrand, s. Jean. 

Josephte, m. Paul Bertrand, s. Jean. 
Joseph Moulaison 2d, s. Joseph, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Charles ist. 
Issue : Anibroise, m. Marguerite Thibault of Clare. 

Matthias, m. Henriette Thibault of Clare. 

Marc, m. Marie Thibault of Clare. 

Damas, m. Celeste Meuse, d. Luc. 

(i. Rosalie Thibault of Clare. 

Cyrille, m. } . , ^ . 

(2. Rosalie Meuse, d. Gregoire. 

Madeleine, m. Simon Meuse, s. Louis 2d. 

Genevieve, m. Frederic Meuse, s. Louis 2d. 



422 .VO ULAISON. — DOUCE TTE. 

Joseph Moulaison, continued. 

Catherine, m. Archange Meuse, s. Firmaiu. 
Marguerite, m. Calixte Meuse, s. Firmain. 
Marie Therese, m. Geo»-'^;e Meuse, s. Benjamin. 

The name of Doucette has been long distinguished in Acadian 
history, men of that name having been often found holding important 
positions. There appear to have been two, or perhaps three, branches 
of the family in Argyle ; though it may be that Jean, the head of one 
family, never lived in the county. 

Jean Doucette ist, m. 

Issue : Michel ist, m. Marie Meuse, d. Dominique 1st. 

Jean 2d, m. Padene Amirault, d. Joseph 2d, settled at'Chebec. 

. Nannette, m. Benjamin Meuse 1st of Meuse's Point. 

Michel Doucette ist, s. Jean ist, m. Marie Meuse, d. Dominique ist. 

Issue : David, m. Isabella Meuse, d. Pierre, removed to Ste. Croix. 

Michel, m. Marguerite Frontain, d. Victor, settled at Salmon River. 

Joseph, m. Angelique Meuse, d. Paul. 

( I. Anne Le Blanc, d. Charles ist. 
Jacques, m. { , 

( 2. Theotiste Meuse, d. Nicolas. 

ii. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Charles 1st. 
2. Monique Doucette, d. Sylvain^ist of Chebec. 
Anne, m. Jean Boucher ist. 
Rosalie, m. Jean B. Thibault of Clare. 
Elisabeth, m. Augustin Frontain, s. Victor. 
Marie, m. Jean Hebert, s. Joseph ist. 
Genevieve, m. Firmain Meuse, s. Louis ist. 
Lucie, m. Jean Le Blanc, s. Charles ist. 
Marguerite (1795'). •"• Bernard Le Blanc, s. Charles ist. 
Henriette, not married. 

I. Anne Le Blanc, d. Charles ist. 
Theotiste Meuse, d. Nicolas. 
Issue : Jean Marin, m. Madeleine Doucette, d. Timothee. 
Athanase, m. Madeleine Meuse, d. Nicolas. 
Michel, died unmarried. 
Remi, m. Perpetue Meuse, d. Nicolas. 
Jicques, m. Anne Meuse, d. Dominique, a Paul. 
Monice, m. Archange Meuse, s. Anselme, a Benjamin. 
Cyrille, m. Vitaline Meuse, d. Basile, 
Cieme;it, m. Rosalie Duiin, d. Martin. 

' Still living. 



Jacques Doucette, s. Michel ist, m. \ 



APPENDIX D. 423 



Jacques Doucette, continued. 

Marguerite, m. Vital Meuse, s. Basile. 

Anne, m. Thelesphore Meuse, s. Basile. 

Henriette, m. Cyrille Meuse, s. Cyrille, a Anselme. 

Marie, m. Joseph Hebert, s. Jean. 

By 2d wife : — 

( I. Marie Hebert, d. Joseph "jd. 
Levi.m. ^ . ^ . , ^, 1 . , 

( 2. Fran90ise Frontain, d. Gabriel. 

Michel, married and settled in Clare. 

Gervais, m. Sylvie Meuse, d. Fran(;ois, a Francois. 

Catherine, m. Alexis Doucette, s. Joseph Mathurin. 

Dosite, m. Sophique Doucette, d. Joseph Mathurin. 

Madeleine, m. Josue Hebert, s. Joseph 3d. 

Elisabeth, m. Louis Hebert, s. Clement. 

Rosalie, m. Marc Le Blanc, s. Benjamin, a Joseph. 

Jacques Doucette had nine other children who died young. 

Joseph Doucette, s. Michel ist, m. Angelique Meuse, d. Paul. 

Issue : Michel Patrice, m. Nannette Meuse, d. Fran9ois, a Jean P. 

Joseph Mathurin, m. Julie Bertrand, d. Basile. 

Jean Baptiste, m. Julienne Meuse, d. Basile. 

Franfoise, m. Pierre A. Doucette, s. Charles 2d. 

(I. Elisabeth Meuse, d. Frederic 2d. 
Robert, m. { 

( 2. Rosalie Meuse, d. Fran9ois, a Fran5ois. 

Rosalie, m. Cyrille Baptiste Meuse, s. Jean Baptiste 1st. 

Marie, m. Zacharie Meuse, s. Maximin. 

Frangois David, m. Honorine Doucette, d. Augustin. 

Sophique, m. Mande Doucette, s. Charles 2d. 

Elisabeth, m. SyWaio T.Teuse, s. Frederic ist. 

ScholastiquL, m. Charles Charrette, a schoolmaster. 

Julienne, ni. Simon Dulin, s. Martin. 

( I. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Charles ist. 
Edouard Doucette, s. Michel ist, m. J 

( 2. MoNiQUE DucETTE, d. Sylvain of Chebec. 

Issue : R^mi, m. Rosalie Meuse, d. Louis 2d. 

Henriette, m. Jacques Meuse, s. Nicolas. 

Anselme, m. Marie Dulin, d. Martin. 

Leonice, m. Fran9ois Dulin, s. Eude. 

\ I. Fran9ois Le Fevre, s. Louis. 



Marguerite, m. r • j 

2. Joseph Meuse, s. Louis 2d. 

Jean, m. Fran9oise Dulin, d. Martin. 

Patrice, died young. 

Charles Doucette ist of Tusket Hill, m. F^licit^ Meuse. 

Issue : Paul, m. Veronique Le Blanc, d. Charles ist. 



424 DOUCETTE. 

Charles Doucette, continued. 

Charles 2d, m. Anne Meuse, d. Louis ist. 

Th^otiste, m. Louis Meuse 2f'. s. Louis ist. 

( I. Benoni Le Blanc, s. Charles ist. 
Susanne, ni. \ 

( 2. Francois Castin. 

Anastasie, m. Nicolas Meuse, s. Paul. 

Anne, m. Joseph Le Blanc, s. Pierre ist of Eel Brook. 

Marie, m. Abraham Corporon, s. Eustache. 

Osithe, m. Eleazar Robicheau, s. Pierre ist of Chebec. 

Marguerite, m. Honort Robicheau, s. Pierre ist of Chebec. 

Ursule, m. Etienne Bertrand, s. Jean. 

Paul Doucette, s. Charles ist, m. Veroni<>ue Le Blanc, d. Charles ist. 

Issue : Germain, m. Marguerite De Viiiiers, d. Jacques. 

Simon I?., m. Scholastic ne Meuse, d. Jean B. (Gar9on). 

Charles Casimir, m. Jeanne Le Blanc, d. Pierre, a Honore. 

Pierre, died unmarried. 

Gabriel, m. Elisabeth Meuse, d. Esaie. 

Fran(,ois, m. Madeleine Meuse, d. Germain. 

Anne, m. Remi Burette, s. Pierre 3d. 

Fran9oise, m. Jacques Doucette, s. Louis. 

Marie, m. Remi Le Fevre, s. Louis. 

Charles Doucette 2d, s. Charles, m. Anne Meuse, d. Pierre ist. 
Issue : Simon, m. Seraphie Dulin, d. Martin. 

Pierre A., m. Franyoise Doucette, d. Joseph, a Michel. 

David, m. Cecile Meuse, d. Anselme, a Paul. 

Louis Thomas, m. Veronique Dulin. 

Marie, m. Joseph M. Meuse, s. Anselme, a Paul. 

Scholastique, m. Cyrille Meuse, s. Anselme, a Paul. 

Catherine, m. Maurice Frontain, s. Gabriel. 

Mande, m. Sophique Doucette, d. Joseph, a Michel. 
Jean^Doucette 2d of Chebec, s. Jean, m. Pad^ne Amirault, d. Josephj2d. 
I. Genevieve Boudreau, d. Michel. 



Issue : Pierrcf m. 

2. Jeannette Meuse, d. Benjamin ist. 

Michel, m. Marie Robicheau, d. Pierre ist of Chebec. 

Sylvain, m. Rosalie Cothereau, d. Jean ist. 

Cecile, m. Antoine Richard ist of Chebec. 

Helene, m. Chrysostome Le Blanc, s. Amand ist. 

Veronique, m. Anselme Doucette of Cape Ste. Marie. 

I. G^NEViivE Boudreau, d. Michel ist. 

' 2. Jeannette Meuse, d. Benjamin ist. 

Issue : Cyrille, m. Parfit, d. Thomas. 

Celestin, m. Henriette Cothereau, d. Jean ist. "^' "!' T'~^** ^ — -' 



Pierre Doucette, s. Jean 2d, m. \ 



APPENDIX D. 425 



Pierre Dol'cette, toiitinufif. 

Ignace, m. Elisabeth COthereaii, d. Jean ist. 

I. Catherine Robicheau, d. Honor^. 



Ange, m. 

( 2. Mathilda Cothereau, d. Pierre. 

Pierre, m. Marie Robicheau, d. Honore. 

Epiphane, m. Marie Meuse, d. Dominique, a Paul. 

Cesar, m. Genevieve Meuse, d. Luc. 

Catherine, m. Thomas Cothereau, s. Jean ist. 

Julie, m. Denis Meuse, s. Benjamin ist. 

Petronille, m. Zacharie Le Blanc, s. Basile. 

I. Vincent Cothereau 2d, s. Vincent. 



Caroline, m. 

. 2. Hilaire Richard, s. Magloire. 

MicHEL_DoucETTE, s. Jean 2d, m. Marie Robicheau, d. Pierre ist. 

Issue : Ambroise, m. Madeleine Comeau, d. Ephraini. 

Archange, m. Marguerite Surette, d. Frederic, a Pierre 2d. 

Fran(,oise, m. Jerome Cothereau, s. Jean ist. 

Marguerite, married in Clare. 

Sylvain Doucette 1st, s. Jean 2d, m. Rosalie Cothereau, d. Jean ist. 

Issue : Jean R., m. Scholastique Meuse, d. Joseph 3d. 

I. .Stephanie Richard, d. Charles. 



Franfois, m. 

2. Julienne Moulaison, d. Matthias. 

Michel, m. Gertrude Pothier, d. Joseph, a Amand. 

Jerome, m. Philomene Richard, d. Charles. 

Sylvain, m. Genevieve Amirault, d. Hilaire. 

Marie, m. David Clermont, s. Fran(,'ois. 

Monique, m. Edouard Doucette, s. Michel ist. 

Elisabeth, m. Cyriaque Thibault, s. Jean B. of Clare- 
Rosalie, ni. Eusebe Thibault, s. Jean B. of Clare. 

Marguerite, not married. 

Seraphie, not married. 

Mathilde, m. Francois Sylvain De Villiers, s. Jacques. 

Genevieve, m. Honor^ De Villiers, s. Jacques. 
Joseph Doucette ist of Tusket Hill, m. Ludivine Meuse, d. Dominique 1st. 
Issue: Fran9ois, m. Genevieve Le Blanc, d. Amand ist. 

Augustin, m. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Jean, a Amand. 

Joseph, m. Nathalie Meuse, d. ' 

Timothee, m. Gertrude Meuse, d. Benjamin. 

Osithe, m. Joseph Hebert 2d, s. Joseph. 

Ludivine, m. Fran(;ois Clermont, s. Paul of Wilson's Island. 
Francois Doucette, s. Joseph ist, m. Genevieve Le Blanc, d. Amand. 

Issue : Andre, m. Anne Melanfon. '._ : - ' ' — 
Louis, m. Rosalie Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist of Eel Brook. * 



436 FRO NT A IN. 

FRAN901S DoUCETTK, continued. 

_ . r I. Catherine Habin, d. Flippolyte. 

Francois, m. { 

(2. Marie Saulnier, w. [nie Cothereau, d. Charles). 

Chrysoatome, m. Julie Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist of Eel Brook. 

Elisabeth, m. Francois Le Blanc, s. Joseph 1st of Eel Brook. 

Henriette, m. Remi Le Blanc, s. Joseph 1st of Eel Brook. 

Simon, m. Mary Blaney, d. William. 
AuGUSTiN DoucETTE, s. Joseph ist, m. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Jean. 
Issue : Solon, m. Madeleine Meuse, d. Benjamin 2d. 

Olivier, m. Euphroisine Meuse, d. Isaac. 

Guillaume, m. Ludivine Le Blanc, d. Baiile. 

Marie, ni. Frederic Landry. 

Catherine, m. Mande Meuse, s. Frederic ist. 

Agnes Franyoise, m. Pierre Marin Meuse, s. Luc. 

Honorine, m. rrani;ois D. Doucette, s. Joseph, a Michel. 

Anne, m. Remi Le Blanc, s. Francois, a Joseph ist. 
Joseph Doucette, s. Joseph ist, m. Nathalie Meuse. 
Issue : Cyrille, m. Ursule Le Blanc, d. Benoni. 

Anne, not married. 

Marceline, not married. 

Seraphie, m. Antoine Doucette of Cape Ste. Marie. 

Julie, m. Louis Cyprien Dulin, s. Louis ist. 
Alexandre Frontain, m. 

\ I. Marguerite Corporon, d. Eustache. 



Issue : Victor, m. , 

2. Marguerite Meuse, d. Joseph 2d. 

Olivier, settled in Clare. 

Colombe, m. Pierre Burette 3d, s. Pierre 2d. 

Pauline, m. Louis Dulin ist. 

Venerante, m. Gregoire Meuse, s. Benjamin ist. 

, m. Antoine Comeau of Clare. 

Olivier Frontain, s. Alexandre, m. 

Issue : Joseph. 

Jeanf 

Hilaire of Morris's Island. 

Anselme, m. Marie Doucette, d. Dominique. 

I. Marguerite Corporon, d. Eustache. 



Victor Frontain, s. Alexandre, m. , ,, ,, , ^ ,. , 

2. Marguerite Meuse, d. Joseph32d 

Issue : Augustin, m. Elisabeth Doucette, d. Michel ist. 
Marguerite, m. Michel Doucette, s. Michel ist. 
Victor, supposed lost at sea. . :_i_:. 

By 2d wife : — 

Pierre (1810), m. Marie Elisabeth Corporon, d. Simon. 
Charlotte, m. Augustin Hebert, s. Joseph. 
Victor, died unmarried, aged 20. 



APPEXDIX D. 427 

AuousTiN Frontain, s. Victor, m. Elisabeth DoucrrrE, d. Michel ist. 
Issue: Gabriel, m. Fran(,oise Meuse, d. Paul. 

Marc, m. Elisabeth Meuse, d. Jean liaptiste ist 

Simon, lost at sea, unmarried. 

Marguerite, m. Antoine Le Hlanc, s. Honor^. 

Sara, m. Joseph Hurlburt, s. Israel 1st. 

Marie Anne, ni. Cyrille Dulin, s. Martin. 
I'lERRE Frontain, s. Victor, m. Marie Elisabeth Corporon, d. Simon. 
Issue: Jean (1836), left home in i860, served in United-States ship Minnesota 
during war, not heard from lately. 

Cyrille, m. Judique Meuse, d. Clement. 

Marie, m. Patrice Doucette, s. Michel Patrice. 

Marguerite, m. Jean S. Doucette, s. Jean, a Jacques ist. 

Simon, m. Fran^oise Doucette, d. Athanase, a Jacques ist. 

Julie, m. Dominique Doucette, s. Jean, a Jacques ist. 

Genevieve Vitaline, m. Lester Benoit of St. Jacques, Quebec. 

Remi, m. Annie McLeary of Wakefield, Mass. 

Mathilde, died in childhood. 
Joseph H^BfeRT ist, m. Clementine Meuse, w. Dominique ist. 
Issue : Joseph 2d, m. Osithe Doucette, d. Joseph ist. 

Osithe, m. Francois Meuse, s. Jean Pierre. 

Jean, m. Marie Doucette, d. Michel ist. 

Venerante, m. Joseph Meuse 3d, s. Joseph 2d. 

Angelique, m. Benjamin Meuse 2d, s. Jean Pierre. 

Charles. 
Joseph Heb^rt 2d, s. Joseph, m. Osithe Doucette, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : Augustin, m. Charlotte Frontain, d. Victor. 

Joseph 3d, m. Brigide Meuse, d. Anselme, a Paul. 

Charles, m. Marie Anne Le Blanc. 

Marie, m. Guillaume Deveau (2d wife). 

Henriette, m. Benjamin Le Blanc, s. Joseph ist of Eel Brook. 

Christophe, m. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Joseph 1st of Eel Brook. 

Angelique, m. Cyrille Amirault, s. Jacques 2d. 

Elisabeth, not married. 
Jean Bertrand, m. Anastasie Clermoxt, d. Paul ist 

1. Madeleine Corporon, d. Abraham. 

2. Rosalie Dulin, d. Louis ist. 
Paul, m. Josephte Moulaison, d. Joseph ist. 
Etienne, m. Ursule Doucette, d. Charles ist. 
Basile, m. Brigide Moulaison, d. Joseph ist. 
Victoire, m. Samuel Robbins. 
Adelaide, m. Joseph Robicheau of Clare. ' " "^ " 



Issue : Benjamin, m. J 



428 CL ERMOA' T. — D ULIN. — BOUCHER. 

Jean Bertrand, continued. 

Anastasie, m. Amand Le Blanc of Clare. 

Anne, m. Jean Blaise Meuse, s. Dominique, a Benjamin. 

Cecile, m. Jean Marie Blanchard. 

Madeleine, not married. 
Paul Clermont, m. 

Issue : Fran9ois, m. Ludivine Doucette, d. Joseph ist. 

Paul 2d, removed. 

Anastasie, m. Jean Bertrand. 

Ludivine, m. Olivier Robicheau of Clare. 
Francois Clermont, s. Paul isi, m. Ludivine Doucette, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : David, m. Marie Doucette, d. Sylvain ist. 

Joseph, m. Elisabeth Le Blanc, d. Joseph of Eel Brook. 

Augustin, m. Perpetue Le Blanc, d. Benoni. 

Marguerite, m. Jean David Meuse, s. Jean 2d. 

Angelique, ra. Michel Meuse, s. Jean 2d. 

Nathalie Rachel, ni. Joseph Deveau of Clare. 

Marie, m. Charles Theriault of Clare. 

Veronique, m. Joseph Hebert, s. Jean. 

Rosalie, not married. 
Louis Dulin ist, m. Pauline Frontain, d. Alexandre. 
Issue : Martin, m. Scholastique Le Blanc, d. Honore. 

Eude, m. Julie Le Blanc, d. Honore. 

j I. Julie Doucette, d. Joseph. 

. 2. Vitaline Meuse, d. Cyrille, a Anselme. 

Francoise, m. Basile Meuse, s. Benjamin ist. 

Elisabeth, m. Florent Meuse, s. Dominique, a Paul. 

Rosalie, m. Benjamin Bertrand, s. Jean. 

Marie, m. Guillaume Deveau. 
Jean Boucher ist, m. Anne Doucette, d. Michel ist. 
Issue: Jean B., m. Sophique Meuse, d. Jean 2d. 

Simon, m. Marguerite Meuse, d. Luc. 

Anselme, m. Marie Meuse, d. Luc. 

Gabriel, lost with brigantine Jeiuess on Pubnico Point in 1844. 

Marie Anne, m. Jean B. Meuse (Gar(;on), s. Joseph 3d. 

Madeleine, m. Fran9ois Meuse, s. Dominique, a Benjamin. 

Leonice, m. Zacharie Meuse, s. Anselme, a Benjamin. 

Charlotte, m. Amand Le Blanc, s. Jean, a Amand. 

Marie, m. Eusebe Meuse, s. Jean 2d. 
Louis Le Fevre ist, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Honore. 
Issue : Louis 2d, m. Madeleine Le Blanc, d. Jean, a Charles. 

Remi, m. Marie Doucette, d. Paul. 



Louis Cyprien, m. 



APPENDIX D. 429 

Louis Le FfevRE, continued. 

Maximin, m. Marie Antoinette Le Blanc, d. Bernard. 

Rosalie, m. Charles Le Blanc, s. Bernard. 

Madeleine, ni. Alexandre Meuse, s. Firtnain. 

Francois, tn. Marguerite Doucette, d. Edouard. 

Amable, m. Marie Meuse, d. Florent. 

Toussaint, m. Julienne Meuse, d. Frederic 2d. 

Elisabeth, m. Patrice Frontain, s. Gabri'"!. 
SvLVESTRF. Jacquard, m. Marie Meuse, d. Paul. 
Issue: Jovite, m. Genevieve Meuse, d. Jean Baptiste is;. 

Seraphin, ni. Madeleine Meuse, d. Luc. 

Elisabeth, m. Gervais De Villiers, s. Jacques. 

Joseph, ni. Marine Clermont, d. David. 

Benjamin, m. Margaret Fitzgerald, d. John. 

Mande, m. llenriette Boucher, d. Jean B. 

Leon, m. Helen Fitzgerald, d. John. 

Paul, m. Catherine De Villiers, d. Jean B. 

Julienne, m. Michael Fitzgerald, s. John. 

Philomene, m. Felix Boucher, s. Jean B. 

Marine, m. Damien Meuse, s. Jean David. 

The genealogy of some of the old Acadian famihes of Argyle is not 
now easily adjusted, and especially that c?f the Meuse ' family, which 
appears to have several branches in the county, although they are prob- 
ably nearly related ; and, according to the traditions of the family, they 
unite in their veins the best of the blood royal of America with that of 
certain kings of France, with which governors and barons, and the sons 
of governors and barons, have been proud to become allied. 

After the return from e.xile in 1 766 or thereabouts, we find Pierre 
and Louis Meuse parties to the purchase in 1773 of a part of the Eel 
Brook district from the Rev. John Breynton, and we have a fair record 
of their families. 

Paul Meuse and his sister Marie, who married Charles Le Blanc 
I St, were among those taken to New England in 1 755, and they returned 
from Salem to Argyle about 1765. 

About a thousand of the Acadians were taken to Massachusetts in 

1755, and distributed and redistributed among the various towns. In 

1756, there were thirty-two at Salem, and among them Francois Meuse 

' Pronounced .!//«<.(•. 



430 ME USE. 

and family, — eight all together. Twelve more were sent from other 
towns to Salem in 1 760 ; among these was John Meuse, with his wife 
and children. When about to return to Nova Scotia in 1 766, there were 
a hundred and forty-one Acadians gathered at Salem for that purpose. 

In 1 760, there were at Framingham, Mass., John White (Le Blanc) 
and his wife Clear (Claire) and their children, Peter, Molle, Sable, 
Joseph, Margaret, Keziah, Maudlin, and Peton, following the orthography 
of the town-clerk of Framingham. Maudlin means Madeleine, and 
Peton stands for Petite-Anne. At Concord, Mass., were Charles Trahant 
and his wife Tithorn (another spelling of Petite-Anne) , and also Glode 
White (Claude Le Blanc), with his wife and children, Mary, Charles, 
Margaret, Magdalen, Joseph, John, Peter, Anne, Rose, and Simeon. 

Benjamin Meuse ist, formerly of Meuse's Point at the mouth of the 
Tusket River, whose sister Marie married Michel Doucette ist, was 
half-brother to the late Isidore Doucette of Passe-de-Pr«^ and Dominique 
Doucette of Cape Ste. Marie ; and his mother, having been left a second 
time a widow, married Joseph Hubert ist. 

John Pierre Meuse, formerly of Jeffery's Point, and Jean Baptiste 
Meuse ist, the pioneer of the settlement at "The Forks," are now 
represented by numerous descendants from the mouth of the Tusket 
River and Goose Bay to the remotest settlements at " The Forks ; " and 
some of them are to be found establishing good records elsewhere in 
Nova Scotia as well as in Massachusetts towns where they have gone 
during the last twenty years. 

There is at Halifax an old record of some Acadian families of Argyle 
in 1 7 7 1 , which gives an account, copied below, of the family of Joseph 
Mius and Marie Prejean ; and their son Joseph was probably he, a 
record of whos( mily immediately follows. 

Joseph Mius, married Marik Prejean. 
Issue : Louis, Joseph, Anne. 

Joseph Meuse 2d, m. 

Issue : Marguerite, m. Victor Frontain, s. Alexandre. 

Marie Anne, m. Abraham Corporon 2d, s. Abraham. 
Judithe, m. Honore Le Blanc, s. Pierre ist of Eel Brook. 
Nannette, m. Jean Le Blanc, s. Amand. 
Seraphie, m. Anselme Meuse, s. Benjamin ist. 
Joseph 3d, m. Venerante Hebert, d. Joseph ist. 



APPENDIX D. 431 

Joseph Meuse 3d, s. Joseph 2d, m. Venerante Hubert, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : Jean Baptiste (Gar^on), m. Marie Anne Boucher, d. Jean. 

Scholastique, m. Jean R. Doucette, s. Sylvain ist. 

Joseph, died unnnarried. 

Gertrude, m. Remi Meuse, s. Jean Baptiste ist. 
Pierre Meuse ist of Roco Point, m. Cecile Amirault, d. Joseph 2d. 
Issue : Cecile. 

Joseph. 

Veronique, m. Hippolyte Babin, s. Victor. 

Anne, m. Frederic Surette, s. Pierre 2d. 

Isabelle, m. David Doucette, s. Michel ist. 

Monique, m. Michel Moulaison, s. Joseph ist. 

Marie, Mathurin, Athanase, Pierre (blind), not married. 
Louis Meuse ist of Roco Point, m. Josephine Meuse (Rosette). 
Issue : Luc, m. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Honore. 

Frederic, m. Anne Moulaison, d. Joseph ist. 

Firmain, m. Genevieve Doucette, d. Michel 1st. 

Louis 2d, m. Theotiste Doucette, d. Charles ist. 

Anne, m. Charles Doucette 2d, s. Charles. 

Celeste, m. Louis De Bouillon. 
Luc Meuse, s. Louis ist, m. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Honore. 
Issue : Marguerite, m. Simon Boucher, s. Jean ist. 

Marie, ni. Anselme Boucher, s. Jean ist. 

Leonice, m. Archange Meuse, s. David. 

Elisabeth, m. Pierre M. Meuse, Captain of Roco Point. 

Celeste, m. Damas Moulaison, s. Joseph 2d. 

Genevieve, m. Cesar Doucette, s. Pierre of Chebec. 

Edouard, m. Nannon Doucette, d. Antoine of Salmon River. 

Pierre Marin, m. Agnes Fran^oise Doucette, d. Augustin. 

Remi, m. Mary Hurlburt, d. Joseph. 

Alexandre, m. Marceline Thibault of Clare. 

Sylvain, m. Genevieve Babin, d. Gabriel. 

Urbain, not married. 

Madeleine, m. Seraphin Jacquard, s. Sylvestre. 
Frederic Meuse, s. Louis ist, m. Anne Moulaison, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : '"atherine, m. Simon Le Blanc, s. Joseph ist of Eel Brook. 

Mande, m. Catherine Doucette, d. Augustin. 

Sylvain, m. Elisabeth Doucette, d. Joseph, a Michel. 

Jean, m. Therese Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist of Eel Brook. 

Marguerite, m. Remi Meuse, s. Anselme, a Benjamin. 



432 ME USE. 

FiRMAiN Meuse, s. Louis 1st, m. GENEVifevE DoucETTE, cl. Michel 1st. 

Issue : Scholastique, m. Pierre I-e Wane, s. Honore. 

Archange, m. Marguerite Moulaison, d. Joseph 2d. 

c^v t» ~ (I- Genevieve Meuse, d. Jean 2d. 
Calixte, m. ) -" 

( 2. Catherine Moulaison, d. Joseph 2d. 

Pierre, m. Marguerite Babin, d. Hippolyte. 

Ilenriette, m. Jean B. Meuse, s. Anselme, a Benjamin. 

Marguer; .11. Joseph Deveau of Salmon River. 

Esaie, m. Osithe Le Blanc, d. Honore. 

Marc, m. Elisabeth Dulin, d. Eude. 

Alexandre, m. Madeleine Le Fevre, d. Louis ist. 

Louis Meuse 2d, s. Louis, m. Th^otiste Doucette, d. Charles ist. 

Issue : Frederic 2d, m. Genevieve Moulaison, d. Joseph 2d. 

Germain, m. Madeleine Le Blanc, d. Honore. 

( I. Remi Doucette, s. Edouard ist. 
Rosalie, m. \ 

( 2. Marc Amirault, s. Jacques 2d. 

Esther, m. Joseph M. Le Blanc, s. Jean, a Charles. 

Catherine, m. Seraphin Le Blanc, s. J an, a Charles. 

Simon, m. Madeleine Moulaison, d. Joseph 2d. 

Francois, m. Rosalie Fitzgerald, d. John. 

Joseph, m. Marguerite Le Fevre, w. Francois. 

Remi, m. Vitaline Le Blanc, d. Jean, a Honore. 

Paul Meuse ist, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Pierre ist of Eel Brook. 

I. Anastasie Doucette, d. Charles ist. 



Issue: Nicolas, m. , ,^ „ 

( 2. Hurlburt. 

Angelique, m. Joseph Doucette, s. Michel ist. 

Veronique, m. Thomas Melan^on. 

Isaac, m. Marguerite Moulaison, d. Joseph ist. 

Marguerite, m. Seraphin Meuse, s. Francois. 

Anselme, m. Margueri te Meuse, d. Jean Pierre. 

SI. Gabriel Frontain, s. Augustin. 
2. Jean Marie Blanchard. 
Dominique, m. Nannon Meuse, d. Jean Pierre. 
Marie, m. Sylvestre Jacquard. 
Hippolyte, died unmarried. 

Joseph " Bruno," died unmarried. 

( I. Anastasie Doucette, d. Charles ist. 
Nicolas Meuse, s. Paul, m. ' 

( 2. Hurlburt. 

\ I. Jacques Doucette, s. Michel ist. 



Issue: Theotiste.m. , 

. 2. Maximm Meuse, s. Francois. 

Jacques, m. Henriette Doucette, d. Edouard. 

Cyriaque, m. Judithe Meuse, d. Dominique, a Benjamin. 

Perpetue, m. Remi Doucette, s. Jacques 1st. 

Madeleine, m. Athanase Doucette, s. Jacques ist. 



APPENDIX D. 433 

Anselme Meuse, s. Paul, m. Marguerite Meuse, d. Jean Pierre. 
Issue : Joseph Marin, m. Marie Doucette, d. Charles 2d. 

Cyrille, m. Scholastique Doucette, d. Charles 2d. 

Cecile, m. David Doucette, s. Charles 2d. 

Brigide, m. Joseph Hebert 3d, s. Joseph 2d. 

Fran9ois. 

Dominique Meuse, s. Paul, m. NANNO>f Meuse, d. Jean Pierre. 

(I. Maurice Meuse, s. Gregoire. 
Issue : Mane, m. J 

(2. Epiphane Doucette, s. Pierre ist of Chebec. 

Florent, in. Elisabeth Dulin, d. Louis ist. 

Anne, m. Jacques Doucette, s. Jacques ist. 

Marguerite, m. Mathurin Corporon, s. Simon. 

Stillman, m. Catherine Corporon, d. Simon. 

Leonice, not married. 
Dominique Meuse ist, m. Clementine Doucette, w. Magloire. 
Issue : Benjamin ist, m. Nannette Doucette, d. Jean ist. 

Isabelle, m. Amand Le Blanc ist of Tusket Hill. 

Marie, m. Michel Doucette ist, s. Jean ist. 

Ludivine, m. Joseph Doucette ist of Tusket Hill. 
Benjamin Meuse ist, s. Dominique ist, m. Xannette Doucette, d. Jean ist. 
Issue : Anselme, m. Seraphie Meuse, d. Joseph 2d. 

Dominique, m. Isabelle Le Blanc, d. Jean, a Amand. 

Gregoire, m. Venerante Frontain, d. Alexandre. 

Basile, m. Fran^oise Dulin, d. Louis ist. 

I. Marie Thercse Moulaison, d. Joseph 2d. 
I 2. Marie Anne Corporon, d. Abraham. 

Denis, m. Julie Doucette, d. Pierre ist of Chebec. 

Jeannette, m. Pierre Doucette, s. Jean 2d of Chebec. 

Marceline, m. Joseph Boudreau, s. Michel ist. 

Gertrude, m. Timothee Doucette, s. Joseph ist. 

Anselme Meuse, s. Benjamin, m. Seraphie Meuse, d. Joseph 2d. 

( I. Elisabeth Corporon, d. Abraham. 
Issue : Gabriel, m. { 

( 2. Mary Colhns. 

Jean B., m. Henriette Meuse, d. Firmain. 

Adrien, m. Anne Doucette, d. Michel, a Michel. 

Benjamin, m. Leonice Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist of Eel Brook. 

Remi, m. Marguerite Meuse, d. Frederic ist. 

Archange, m. Monice Doucette, d. Jacques ist. 

Zacharie, m. Leonice Boucher, d. Jean ist. 

Dominique Meuse, s. Benjamin, m. Isabelle Le Blanc, d. Jean, a Amand. 

Issue : Charles, m. Anne Le Blanc, d. Jean, a Charles ist. 

Etienne, lost at sea, unmarried. 



George, m. | 



434 ME USE. 

DoMiMiQUE Meuse, continued. 

Rigobert, m. Ursule Le Iilanc, d. Joseph ist of Eel Brook. 

Jean Blaise, m. Anne Bertrand, d. Jean. 

Fran^-ois, m. Madeleine Boucher, d. Jean ist. 

Judithe, m. Cyriaque Meuse, s. Nicolas. 

Fran9oise, m. Frangois Meuse, s. Michel. 

Daughter, not married. 
Gregoire Meuse, s. Benjamin, m. Venerante Frontain, d. Alexandre. 
Issue : Chrysostome, m. Rosalie Le Blanc, d. Bernard. 

Catherine, m. Jean Adrien Le Blanc, s. Jean, a Charles. 

Alexandre, m. Nanon Trahan, d. Bernard of Clare. 

Alexis, m. Vitaline De Villiers, d. Jacques. 

Maurice, m. Marie Meuse, d. Dominique, a Paul. 

Rosalie, m. Cyrille Moulaison, s. Joseph 2d. 
Basile Meuse, s. Benjamin, m. FRAN901SE Dulin, d. Louis ist. 
Issue : Robert, m. Julienne Meuse, d. -A^change, a Benjamin 2d. 

Vital, m. Marguerite Doucette, d. Jacques ist. 

Thelesphore, m. Anne Doucette, d. Jacques ist. 

Vitaline, m. Cyrille Doucette, s. Jacques ist. 

Julienne, m. Jean Baptiste Doucette, s. Joseph, a Michel. 

Rosalie, m. Marcel Colin, s. Marcel. 

Catherine, m. Ambroise Doucette, s. Athanase. 

Helene, m. Felix Le Visconte. 

1. Marie Th^rese Moulaison, d. Joseph 2d. 

2. ^f^RIE Anne Corpopon, d. Abraham. 
Issue : Marc, m. Rosalie Meuse, d. .ndre, a Gregoire. 

Joseph, m. Madeleine Pothier, d. Charles Amand. 

Gervais, m. Leonice Meuse, d. Marc, a Firmain. 

Elisabeth, not married. 

Marie, m. Cesar Babin, s. Simon. 

Marguerite, m. Leon Le Fevre, s. Maximin. 

Francoise, m. Francois Doucette, s. Olivier. 
Denis Meuse, s. Benjamin, m. Julie Doucette, d. Pierre ist of Chebec. 
Issue : Dominique, m. 

Gregoire, m. Elisabeth Moulaison, d. Cyril 

Sylvain, m. Julienne Moulaison, d. Cyrille. ' 

Patrice, m. Meuse, d. Simon. 

Jean Pierre Meuse of Jefifery's Point, m. 
Issue : David, removed to Salmon River. 

Benjamin, m. Angelique Hebert, d. Joseph ist. 

Jean 2d, m. Marguerite Robicheau, d. Pierre 1 f Chebec. 

Franyois, m. Osithe Hebert, d. Joseph ist. 



George Meuse, a. Benjamin, m. I 



Issue : Seraphin, m. j 



APPENDIX D. 435 

Jean Pierre Meuse, continued. 

Marguerite, m. Anselme Meuse, s. Paul. 

Rosalie, m. Joseph Le Blanc, s. Pierre ist of Eel Brook. 

Nannon, m. Dominique Meuse, s. Paul. 

Benjamin Meuse, s. Jean Pierre, m. Angelique II^BfeRT, d. Joseph ist. 

Issue: Madeleine, m. Solon Doucette, s. Augustin. 

Joseph, a bachelor. 

Jean Marie. 

Jean Meuse 2d, s. Jean Pierre, m. Marguerite Robicheau, d. Pierre ist. 

Issue : Eusebe, m. Marie Boucher, d. Jean ist. 

Jean David, m. Marguerite Clermont, d. Fran9ois. 

Michel, m. Angelique Clermont, d. Francois. '^ 

Sophique, m. Jean B. Boucher, s. Jean ist. 

Genevieve, m. Calixte Meuse, s. Firmain. 

Celeste, not married. 

Francois Meuse, s. Jean Pierre, m. Osithe HfiBfeRT, d. Joseph ist. 

\ I. Marguerite Meuse, d. Paul. 

\z. Perpetue Meuse, d. Jean Baptiste ist. 

Clement, m. Marie Meuse, d. Jean Baptiste ist. 

,, . . ( I. Adele Le Blanc, d. Chrvsostome ist. 

Maxmun, ni. ) ' 

I 2. Theotiste Doucette, w. Jacques ist. 

Marie Susanne, m. Leon Le Blanc, s. Chrvsostome ist. 

Mathilde, m. Chrysostome Le Blanc 2d, s. Chrysostome. 

Nannette, m. Michel Patrice Doucette, s. Joseph ist. 

Jean Baptiste Meuse ist of " the Forks," m. G^NEVifevE Moulaison, d. Joseph ist. 

Issue : Remi, m. Gertrude Meuse, d. Joseph 3d. 

Louis, m. Mary \Verkin.s, d. David. 

Cyrille Baptiste, m. Rosalie Doucette, d. Joseph ist. 

Elisabeth, m. Marc Frontain, s. Augustin. 

Jeanne, m. Jovite Jacquard, s. Sylvestre. 

Seraphie, m. Julien Meuse, s. Seraphin. 

Monicjue, m. Francois Meuse, s. Seraphin. 

Perpetue, m. Seraphin Meuse, s. Fran9ois. 

Marie, m. Clement Meuse, s. Francois. 

Cyrille B. Meuse, s. Jean Baptiste ist, m. Rosalie Doucette, d. Joseph ist. 

Issue : Mathilde, m. Timothee Doucette, s. Jean, a Jacques ist. 

Sylvie, m. Jean Meuse, s. Archange, a Anselme. 

I I. Madeleine Meuse, d. Archange, a Anselme. 

Jean, m. ■< 2. Cyprienne Doucette, d. Louis. 

V 3. Le Blanc, w. Pierre, a Basile. 

( I. Domathilde Doucette, d. Cvrille. 
Leon, m. ) ' x t^ 

( 2. Rosalie Meuse, w. Julien, a Capt. Jean B. 



436 MEUSE. 

Joseph, m. Marie Le Blanc of Clare. 
Sylvain, m. Josephine Doucette, d. Ambroise. 
Casimir, m. Domathilde Doucette, d. Alexandre. 
Jacques, m. Louisa Currier of Reading, Mass. 
« Franc^ois Xavier, m, Sylvie Le Blanc, d. Fran5ois, ajBernard. 

Theophile, m. Fran9oise Meuse, d. Vital. 
Felix, Cyrille, Nannette, not married. 
Genevieve, Louis, Marc, and Marie, died young. 



APPENDIX E. 

(See page 62.) 
[From the Annals of Salem. ^ 

1782, March. — "A vessel from Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, bringing 
home fourteen Americans had been taken off our harbour. The people 
here desire that she may be returned." 

1782, May 27. — "Gentlemen of Salem and Beverly petition the 
Legislature that the people of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, may not be 
plundered by our privateers, because the greater part of them moved 
thither from this quarter a few years ago and have been very kind to our 
men who have be 1 thrown among them by the events of War. But a 
majority of the town have different views and wish their representatives 
to oppose any bill to this effect. Still, the General Court prohibited 
hostilities against Yarmouth. Seth Barnes of that town stated previously 
to the petition that one of our privateers had taken a large sum from 
him." 

1806. — " This was a year of great trade for Salem. We had 73 
Ships, II Barques, and 48 Brigs in foreign commerce. Of these 
William Gray owned about one quarter." 

1809. — " Our foreign trade is very much vexed and injured by the 
European belligerents. Most of the voyages performed are unprofitable." 

181 2. — "Mrs. Elizabeth Bell, of Nova Scotia, a passenger on board 
of the Schooner Anne, taken by the Dolphin ' begs leave to acknowl- 
edge, with much gratitude, the gentlemanly and humane treatment of 
the Captain and prize master of the Dolphin, in returning to her $900 
together with her personal effects.' " 

1813, February. — "The prizes to our armed vessels were 87. 
The total for those sold was $474,234, captured within seven months. 
It was computed that the English had taken a greater sum from our 



438 FROM ANNALS OF SALEM. 

merchants. Sixty-five more prizes arrived before the close of the war. 
Many others were burnt. A few were given up as cartels, to prisoners." 
X815, March. — "Our tonnage has been greatly reduced by the 
war. Only 57 vessels are now registered as belonging to this town, 
little more than one quarter of what was owned here ten years before." 



APPENDIX F. 

(See page 69.) 

Mr. Campbell has not correctly copied the inscription 'upon the 
monument to Herbert Huntington in the Mountain Cemetery. The 
er^oi Mr. Campbell may deem imn^.tierial, but he who wrote the epitaph 
would not have so considered it. 

This is the inscription : — 

HERBERT HUNTINGTON 

REPRESENTED HIS NATIVE COUNTY 

YARMOUTH, 

AS MEMBER OF THE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY 

FOR 20 YEARS, 

WITH SIGNAL ZEAL, ABILITY, AND DISINTERESTEDNESS ; 

SERVING PART OF THAT PERIOD AS 

MEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

OF NOVA SCOTIA, 

AND FINANCIAL SECRETARY. 

THE LEGISLATURE 

OF A GR.\TEFUL COUNTRY, BY UNANIMOUS VOTE, 

RAISED THIS MONUMENT 

TO HIS MEMORY. 

---' . ' BORN 1800. DIED 1851. . 



APPENDIX G. 

(See page 75.) 

ABSTRACT OF THE TRADE OF YARMOUTH FOR THE 

YEAR 1834. 

ENTRIES. 





No. of 
Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Value in Sterling. 


Duty 
Collected. 


From Great Britain 

" New Brunswick, Canada, and 

Newfoundland .... 

From West Indies 

" United States 


I 

71 
52 

58 


183 

3-242 
4,315 
3.415 

II.I55 
6,008 


;^200 

7.814 '5 5 
11,916 s 

6.735 19 


;^I3 II 2 
337 5 
446 4 


Total foreign 

From Nova-Scotia ports 


182 
136 


;^26,666 19 s 
15,100 


;^797 2 


Total inwards 


3.8 


17.163 


;^4i,766 19 5 


- 



CLEARANCES. 





No. of 
Vessels. 

t 


Tonnage. 


Value in Sterling. 


To Great Britain 

" New Brunswick, Canada, and 

Newfoundland 

" West Indies 

" United States 

" Brazil 


2 

93 
54 
24 

I 


283 

4,065 

4,426 

1,498 

126 


;^476 

77,478 7 

1,763 13 2 
232 


" Nova-Scotia ports 

With fishing-passes 


174 

157 

39 


10,398 
7.532 
1,292 


;^20,950 2 
10,293 10 

2,000 


Total outwards 


370 


19,222 


;^33.243 10 2 



APPENDIX G. 441 

THE EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

The following are the statistics of the imports and exports of the 
various ports of the province for the fiscal year : — 

EXPORTS. 

^^'^- 1885. 1884. 

^'"''"'" $171,474 $179,710 

^""^'P""' 167,994 237.378 

Antigonish 71,000 74.525 

Arichat 64,380 50.645 

^^ddeck 84,259 89.926 

Barrington 122,642 154.344 

Bridge-own ,3,274 16,115 

Cornwallis 46,109 90,422 

^'8by ,37,,34 ,43,657 

Guysborough 115,-78 196,689 

"'^•'f*'' 4.927,634 4.886,264 

Liverpool 102,358 125,757 

Lockeport 374.780 449.769 

Londonderry 7,776 13,786 

Lunenburg 654,060 813,340 

Margaretville ,5,018 20,978 

North Sydney 151,251 142,694 

Parrsborough 220,689 274,555 

^'<^'°" 94.567 109,707 

Port Hawkesbury 233,150 236,868 

Po""'""*"! 5.359 2,795 

PortMedway 72,771 69,604 

Shelburne 40,667 41,964 

Sydney 145,869 205,725 

Truro 4,85, 2,304 

Weymouth 93,677 103,010 

Windsor 116,820 158,228 

Yarmouth 627,779 708,597 



IMPORTS. 



$8,882,620 $9,599,356 



P°". ,885. ,88^. 

Amherst $84,500 $90,814 

Annapolis 76,, 60 1 13.218 

Antigonish. . 57,499 62,858 

Arichat 29,889 36,321 

Baddeck 6,181 6,030 



442 



COMMERCE. 



rORT. 

Barrington 

Bridgetown 

Cornwallis 

r>igby •. . . . 

Guysborough 

Halifax 6,154,107 

Liverpool 

Lockeport 

Londonderry 

Lunenburg 

Margaretville 

North Sydney 

Parrsborough 

Pictou 

Port Hawkesbury 

Port Hood 

Port Medway 

Shelburne 

Sydney 

Truro 

Weymouth 

Windsor 

Yarmouth 

$8,483,589 $9,653,104 

1886. Exports, 58,071,513. Imports, 57,840,244. Duties, $1,663,087. 
Yarmouth imports, 1886, $494,466. 1887, $438,980. 
Duties paid at Yarmouth, 1885, $81,530. 18S6, $81,088. 

Exports from Yarmouth for the year ending Dec. 31, compiled from 

Swedish consul's reports : — 

1885. 1886. 

To United States, $276,425. $254,868 

39.274 
36,861 

"1.737 

30,968 

4.240 

2,000, 

3.250 
4,600, 



1885. 


1884. 


47.537 


48,048 


13.331 


13.985 


65,177 


108,222 


37,192 


52,080 


17.419 


21,238 


6,154,107 


6,932,253 


53.704 


70,853 


103.379 


99,609 


28,752 


38,856 


134.921 


152,402 


8,646 


12,063 


64,256 


93.H6 


34,449 


84,798 


284,624 


278,845 


86,459 


41,150 


898 


2,030 


7,330 


24,087 


21,468 


28,369 


29.751 


45.577 


235.767 


253.359 


70,841 


62,755 


jr4,i90 


198,720 


515,162 


6St,452 





Sp. West Indies, 


38,150 




Fr. West Indies, 


66,955. 




Br. West Indies, 


113.949- 




Great Britain, 


14,079. 




St. Pierre, 


21,867. 




Newfoundland, 


760. 




Argentine Republic, 760. 




Norway, 


760. 



$532,185. $487,807 







1 886. 




due 


ts of the mines, 


$6,122. 


(t 


K 


fisheries. 


35f.46o. 


it 


(1 


forests, 


66,275. 


it 


U 


animals, etc., 


19,454. 


t( 


(( 


agriculture. 


30,629. 


tt 


ti 


manufactures 


, 13.867- 



$487,807. 



APPENDIX G. • 443 

{From the Halifax Herald, New-Year Supplement.^ 

The amount < n deposit at the government savings banks in Nova 
Scotia on the ist of November, 1885, including the new post-office 
savings banks at Dartmouth and elsewhere, was $8,000,000. The state- 
ment published in the last New- Year's " Herald " gave the deposits on 
the 15 th of December of the three previous years, as follows : — 

On deposit December, 1SS2 $5,282,000 

On deposit December, 1SS3 6,045,000 

On deposit December, 1884 6,752,000 

On deposit December, 18S5 8,000,000 

Increase 1885 over 1884 1,248,000 

Increase 1S85 over 1882 2,718,000 

The following is a memorandum of deposits in the Nova-Scotia 
offices on the ist of November, 1885 : — 

Amherst $181,098 

Antigonish 135,219 

Annapolis 244,644 

Arichat i^iog^ 

Acadia mines 47,080 

^^ddecl< 5^^70^ 

Bridgewater ^4,247 

Barrington 112,454 

I^'gby 132,801 

Guysborough gi^^g^ 

"^•'fa-^ 3,258,861 

*^e"tville 283,527 

Liverpool 188,352 

Lingan 10,361 

Lunenburg 177,956 

Maitland So^,,^ 

New Glasgow . . 324,040 

Parrsborough g^gog 

Port Hood iio,!7r 

P'«°" 217,432 

Shelburne 67 ^^22 

Sydney 282,325 

Sydney mines $43,031 



444 SAVIA'GS BANKS. 

Sherbrooke $48i4S' 

Truro 3SI.32S 

Wallace S3.I77 

Windsor 479.790 

Weymouth ■ 92.284 

Yarmouth 600,673 



APPENDIX H. 

{See page 8i.) 
"A LOST CHAPTER IN ACADIAN HISTORY." 

The above is the title of a book published at New York in 1884. 
The author, Philip H. Smith, tells this story of the first winter's experi- 
ence at Chebogue, which, as it varies from Haliburton, grows more 
terrible with age. 

"In 1 76 1 a few families from Massachusetts were attracted by the 
rich alluvial of Chebogue marsh and the valuable fisheries adjacent. 
The greater part of them settled at the head of the marsh, on the site 
of a French village, and in most instances they erected their houses on 
the cellars which had been dug by their predecessors. Having carried 
them to a state of completion, affording a tolerable shelter, the new 
settlers essayed the serious task of passing their first winter in the dreary 
and lonely spot of which they had taken possession. They had brought 
with them two horses, six oxen, and a number of c ows and calves. The 
horses they immediately sent back as useless encui. ibrances. Over half 
the cattip died of hunger and exposure, and the rest were killed for 
food. The winter was terrible in its severity. Snow lay on the ground 
for four months at the depth of four feet. An accident having befallen 
the vessel on which they were totally dependent for supplies, they were 
reduced to the most pitiable condition for want of provisions. For a 
long time they were without potatoes, bread, or any substitute. A few 
actually perished for want of suitable nutriment. Six families, terrified 
and disheartened, returned home by the first opportunity. The 
remainder, being joined by other emigrants from the fishing-towns of 
New England, effected a permanent settlement." 

It is perhaps needless to say that this is, mostly, simple fiction ; but 
Admiral Knowles, writing to the Duke of Newcastle from Louisburg 



446 A LOST CHAPTER. 

in January, 1747, tellb a still more terrible story of the climate. He 
says, " The frosts begin to cease about the middle of May, which are 
succeeded by fogs. These last to the end of July, with the inter- 
mission, perhaps, of one or two fair days in a fortnight." 

He says many of the troops were frozen to death. " The sentries, 
though relieved every half-hour, frequently lose their toes and fingers. 
Some have lost their limbs by mortification in a few hours. There is 
no such thing as using any kind of exercise to keep themselves warm, 
the snow in many places laying ten, twelve, and sixteen feet deep, 
and when it ceases snowing the whole island is covered with a sheet 
of ice. Nothing is more common than for one guard to dig the 
other out of the guard-room before they can relieve them, and so by 
the rest of the officers and soldiers out of their several quarters, the 
drift snow sometimes covering the houses entirely. There is not 
a single person yet come to settle and fish here. Our miseries and 
distresses, occasioned by the severity of the weather, I really want 
words to describe. Nature seems never to have designed this a place 
of residence for man, for with the poet we may justly say, — 

' Here elements have lost their uses, 
Air ripens not, nor earth produces.' " 

Says Murdoch, "In reading this (hisi correspondence, we feel as 
if we had got to the fountain-head of all the dismal misrepresentations 
of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, that were so reiterated and believed 
in during the latter part of the eighteenth century and the first part 
of the nineteenth, when our year was said to consist of nine months of 
winter and three months of fog. It is surprising to read a picture 
of climate so opposite to that given by the French governors and 
adventurers at an earlier date." 



APPENDIX I. 

(See page 98.) 

THE INDIAN NAMES OF ACADIA. 

By Richard Huntington, late of "The Yarmouth Tribune," ob. 1883. 

The memory of the Red Man, 

How can it pass away, 
While tb "' --xmes of music linger 

On ea . ..it and stream and bay; 
While Musqaodoboit's waters 

Roll sparkling to the main ; 
While falls the laughing sunbeam 

On Chegoggin's fields of grain ; 

While floats our country's banner 

O'er Chebucto's glorious wave. 
And the frowning cliffs of Scatarie 

The trampling surges brave ; 
While breezy Aspotogon 

Lifts high its summit blue, 
And sparkles on its winding way, 

The gentle Sissibou ; 

While Escanoni's fountains 

Pour down their crystal tide; 
While Ingonish's mountains 

Lift high their forms of pride ; 
Or while on Mal)Ou's river 

The boatmaa plies his oar, 
Or the billows burst in thunder 

On Chicaben's rock-girt shore ? 



448 INDIAN NAMES OF ACADIA. 

The memory of the Red Man, 

It lingers like a spell 
On many a storm-swept headland, 

On many a leafy dell ; 
Where Tusket's thousand islets 

Like emeralds stud the deep ; 
Where Blomidon, a sentry grim, 

His endless watch doth keep. 

It dwells round Catalone's blue lake, 

'Mid leafy forests hid, — 
Round fair Descouse and the rushing tides 

Of the turbid Pisiquid ; 
And it lends, Chebogue, a touching grace 

To thy softly flowing river, 
As we sadly think of the gentle race 

That has passed away forever. 



APPENDIX J. 

{See fa^c 113.) 

WILLIAM AND EDWARD HILTON. 

[From Maine Historical Society's Collectionl\ 

" David Thompson, Edward and William Hilton and others, com- 
menced a settlement on the west side of the Piscataqua River, the 
beginning of the present town of Portsmouth, in 1623." 

William Hilton, the writer of the following letter, probably came over 
in tlie ship Fortune, which left England the last of August, 162 1, and 
arrived at Plymouth in November. 

New Plymouth, November, 1621. 
Loving Cousin, — At our arrival at New Plymouth in New England we 
found all our friends and planters in good health, though they were left weak and 
sick with very small means ; the Indians round about us are peaceable and friendly ; 
the country very pleasant and temperate, yielding naturally of itself great stores of 
fruits, as vines of divers sorts, in great abundance. There are likewise walnuts, 
chestnuts, small nuts and plums, with much variety of flowers, roots, and herbs, no 
less pleasant than wholesome and profitable. No place hath more gooseberries and 
strawberries, nor better. . imber of all sorts you have in England doth cover the 
land that affords beasts of divers sorts and great flocks of turkeys, quails, pigeons, 
and partridges ; many great lakes abounding in fish, fowl, beavers, and otters. The 
sea affords us great plenty of all excellent kinds of sea fish, as the rivers and isles 
doth variety of wild fowl of most useful sorts. Mines we find to cur thinking, but 
neither the goodness nor quality we know. Better grain cannot be than the Indian 
corn if we will plant it on as good ground as man need desire. We are all free- 
holders, the rent day doth not trouble us ; and all these good blessings we have of 
which and what we list in their seasons for taking. Our company are for most part 
very religious, honest people ; the word of God sincerely taught us every Sabbath ; 
so that I know not any thing a contented mind can here want. I desire your friendly 
care to send my wife and children to me where I wish all the friends I have in 

England. And so I rest, 

Your loving kinsman, 

WILLIAM HILTON. 



APPENDIX K. 

(See page 120.) 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE LA TOUR FAMILY AND OF 
PHILIPPE MIUS D'ENTREMONT, AND A RECORD OF 
SOME ACADIAN FAMILIES OF PUBNICO AND TUSKET 
WEDGE, 

Since the main body of this book was completed, some particulars 
have been gathered of the D'Entremont family, which are here repro- 
duced. Tlieir genealogical record, so far as it is connected with 
Acadian history, begins with — 

Claude Turgis de St. Etienne, Sieur de La Tour, often men- 
tioned in Chapter VIII., who by his first marriage had one son, Charles 
Amador, born in 1596. While at London in 1629, Claude de La Tour 
married Henrietta Marl4, said to have been a relative of Sir William 
Alexander, and one of the maids of honor to the English queen. 
Claude de La Tour died in 1651. 

Charles Amador de La Tour was twice married, first in 1625, and 
by this marriage he had several children. The eldest, Jeanne, born in 
1626, married Sieur D'Arpentigny de Martignon. He married next, 
Feb. 24, 1653, Jeanne de Motin, Madame D'Aulnay; and by this 
marriage he had issue : — 

1654. Marie, m. Alexandre Le Borgne, Seigneur de Port Royal in 1686. 

( I. Abraham Mii's D'Entremont, s. Philippe. 
i6i;'i- Marguerite, m. 5 
^^ ^ ^2. In 1705,7. F. Villate. 

1661. Jacques, m. Marie Melanyon. 

1664. Anne, m. Jacques Mius D'Entremont, s. Philippe. 

1665. Charles 2d; was at Annapolis in 1726, and in 1732 he went to Cape 

Breton. His sister, widow Anne D'Entremont, died while on a visit 
there in 1741. 



APPENDIX K. 451 

Alexandre Le Borgne, s. Emmanuel, m. Marie La Tour, d. Charles. 
Issue : 1675. Emmanuel. 

1677. Marie, m. Louis Girouard. 

1679. Alexandre 2d, m. Anastasie de St. Castin, d. Baron de St. 

Castin. 
1681. Jeanne. 

Anne, m. Jean de Fond. 

And two others, names not ascertained. 

Alexandre Le Borgne de Belleisle 2d was living at St. John in 1754. 
It seems probable that one of the daughters of Alexandre Le Borgne ist 
married Alexandre Robicheau, and that their daughter was the Frangoise 
Belleisle Robicheau whose correspondence with Gov. Mascarene appears 
in the annals of the time. 

Jacques de La Tour, s. Charles, m. Marie Melancon. 

( I. Lieut. Edmund Bradstreet, had son John B., b. 17x4. 
Issue : Agathe, m. 5 

( 2. Ensign James Campbell. 

Anne Marie, m. Jean B. Porlier, had a son Claude Cyprien, b. 1726. 

Jeanne, rr. Jacques Pontiff, surgeon. 

And one son (Lucien .'). 

In 1 703 a decree passed at Versailles granting to the five children of 
Charles de La Tour " Le Vieux Logis " at Cape Sable, with a territory 
six leagues square, and the islands in front ; also Port La Tour with four 
leagues on each side, and six leagues in depth, to be divided equally 
between them. The same decree granted the Seigneurie of Port Royal, 
five leagues on the river, and two leagues deep on each side of it, and 
the Seigneurie of M' les, six leagues square, to be divided into seven equal 
parts ; one share to each of the five children of Charles de La Tour, and 
the other two shares to the seven children of Madame Marie, widow of 
Alexandre Le Borgne de Belleisle. 

Philippe Mius D'Entremont, ecuyer, m. Madeleine Elie. 
Issue : 1650. Marie, m. Pierre Melancon. They had 9 children. 

1658. Abraham Mius, m. Marguerite de La Tour, d. Charles Amador. 

1659. Jacques Mius, m. Anne de La Tour, d. Charles Amador. 
1662. Philippe Mius, wife not known, had a son Joseph. 
1670. Madeleine, was at Port Royal in 1686 ; no other record. 



452 D'ENTREMONT. 

Major Philippe Mius D'Entremont came to Acadia in 1651, and was 
associated with Gov^. Charles de La Tour in his enterprise at Port Royal, 
where, in 1653, he was appointed to the command in the absence of the 
governor. He founded the colony at Pubnico, and in 167 1 he was 
living there with his wife and five children under the title of Barov de 
PoBONcoup. He figures in the census of 167 1 as the owner of 20 
head of horned cattle, 25 sheep, and 6 acres of cultivated land. 

In 1686 he, with his two youngest children, was living at Port Royal, 
and in the census of that year his age is stated at 77. But Sieur des 
Goutins, Judge and King's Secretary in Acadia, writing to the ministers 
under date of Dec. 23, 1707, says, "Sieur Philippe D'Entremont, a 
native of Normandy, died seven years ago at the age of 99 years and 
some months. For 18 years, and until old age rendered him incapable, 
he was ' Procureur du Roi ' " (King's Attorney). 

Pierre Melan^on {dit La Verdure), who married Marie D'Entre- 
mont, was one of the parties to the marriage contract of Charles Amador 
de La Tour and Madame D'Aulnay, and was appointed guardian to 
D'Aulnay's minor children. He was captain commandant at Port Royal 
at its surrender to Oliver Cromwell's general, Robert Sedgewick, in 1654 ; 
and by one of the articles of capitulation it was agreed that the property 
of D'Aulnay's children should be left in charge of La Verdure for their 
benefit. 

Abraham Mius D'Entremont, s. Philippe, m. Marguerite de La Tour, d. 
Charles Amador. 
Issue: 1681. Marguerite. 
1683. Charles. 
1685. Philippe. 

1687. Madeleine, m., 1707, J. F. Channiteau. 
1690. Marie Josephte, m., 17 17, Pene Landry. 
1697. Anne, died in 1704. 
And one other child. 

Abraham Mius D'Entremont died in 1703. The records of his 
sons' families have not been distinctly traced. 

In J ae, 1725, Ensign James Campbell, Jacques and Charles 
D'Entremont, petitioned Lieut. -Gov. Mascarene at Annapolis Royal, 
claiming rights to properties there under the will of Marie D'Aulnay, 



APPENDIX K. 453 

and producing the will and other papers. Some fifteen years later, 
Madame Agathe Campbell, then living in Kilkenny, Ireland, having 
secured the shares of some others of the heirs, sold to the English 
crown, for about three thousand guineas, her rights to the properties 
in Nova Scotia. 

On the 28th March, 1732, Gov. Armstrong gave a writtea permission 
to Joseph and Pierre Surette, Joseph Babin, and two others, to visit 
the lands at Musquash Harbor on the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, 
with instructions to report to him thereon. 

Charles D'Entremont, under instructions from the Government, 
assisted in the investigation relating to the derelict brigantine Baltimore; 
and in May, T736, he conducted tliat vessel from Chebogue Harbor to 
Annapolis Royal. 

On 27th June, 1745, Jean Theriault and Jean Potier, deputies, 
appeared before Gov. Mascarene and the Council at Annapolis, and 
presented a memorial from some Acadians at Chicnecto. 

Jacques Mius D'Entremont, s. Philippe, m. Anne de La Touu, d. Charles 
Amador. 
Issue : Marie, m., 1705, Capt. Fran9ois Dupont Duvivier. 
Anne, m., 1707, Enseigne Antoine De Saillan. 

Philippe 3d, m., 1707, Therese de St. Castin, d. Baron de St. Castin. 
Jeanne, m., 1709, Lieut. Louis Dupont Duchambon. 
Charles, m., 17 12, Marguerite Landry, 
Joseph, m., 1717, Cecile Boudrot. 
Jacques 2d, m., 1723, Marguerite Amirault. 
And two others, names not recorded, the youngest born in 1697. 

The Baron de St. Castin, distinguished in early Acadian history, and 
Enseigne De Saillan, were wounded in repulsing the attack on Port 
Royal on Aug. 31, 1707 ; and on Sept. 8, De Saillan died of his wounds. 

It was the son of Franqois and Marie Duvivier who commanded 
the forces which went from Louisburg to an attack on Annapolis Royal 
in 1 744, marching from Chicnecto via Grand Pr6. Duvivier demanded 
from Gov. Mascarene the surrender of the fort. After an exchange of 
messages, in which both commanders exhibited diplomatic skill, 
Duvivier, convinced that the governor was by no means inclined to 
surrender, returned with his forces to Louisburg. 



454 D'EA'/RKAtOM: 

Louis Dupont Duchambon was commandant at Louisburg when 
surrendered to the forces from Boston under Pepperell in June, 1 745 ; 
and M. Duchambon de Vergor, son of I-ouis and Jeanne, was appointed 
to the command of Fort Heausejour, Chicnecto, which yielded to the 
forces from Ik)Ston under Col. Monckton in June, 1755. 

Phiuitk 3d and Th^rk.se (her mother was Melchidk Pidikwamiscou, 
the daughter of the Abnaki chief, Madockawando) are said to have 
left a numerous progeny who do not bear the family-name, but of them 
little can here with certainty be said. 

Charles and MARCUERrrE D'Extremont (Landry) had two sons, 
Pierre and Charles, and one or two daughters. The latter Charles had, 
so far as is known, two sons, Charles and Laurent. 

Joseph and Cecii.e D'Entremont (Houdrot) had two sons, Joseph 2d 
and Simon ; daughters, if any, unknown. Joseph 2d had four sons, 
Etienne, Augustin, Corneille, and Philippe. Simon had a son, Firmain. 
It is said that these branches of the family of Jacques Mius D'Entre- 
mont went to France after the events of 1755. 

It would seem that the Acadians living on the south-western shores 
of Nova Scotia were not removed in 1755. They were scattered over 
various localities ; and like some others from the northern shores, who 
retreated to places on the Gulf coast, a good many eventually succeeded 
in eludi'^c; the vigilance of their persecutors from Massachusetts. 

According to the account of Henri Leond^e D'Entremont of Pub- 
nico (the son of Nicolas, the son of Sylvain, the son of Cyrille, the son 
of Joseph, the eldest son of Jacques 2d), his great-great-great-great- 
grandfather, Jacques D'Entremont 2d, was removed with his family to 
Boston in 1756, where he died in 1759, and was buried at Roxbury. 

In September, 1758, Joseph Landry and Charles D'Entremont, 
" two of the principal men of Cape Sable," and representing about forty 
families, one hundred and fifty persoiir, residing there, petitioned the 
governor of Massachusetts that they might remain on the lands they 
then occupied, or be received into New England, wliich request was 
communicated to Gen. Amherst and Gov. Lawrence, with the declaration 
that Massachusetts was unwilling to receive them. 

In the spring of 1759, Gov. Lawrence despatched vessels to Cape 
Sable, which took on board one hundred and fifty-two persons, m.en, 



APPENDIX K. 455 

women, and children, and carried them to Halifax, landing them on 
Governor's Island. In November, 1759, they were placed on board of 
his Majesty's ship Sutherland, and carried to England. What disposi- 
tion was then made of them, does not appear ; but no doubt they passed 
over into France. 

On Nov. 18, 1759, PiKRRK SuRETTE, Ji-:an Bourque, and Michel 
BouRQUE, deputies from about seven hunilred Acadians residing at 
Miramichi, Richibucto, and Buctouche, arrived at Fort Cuml)erland, 
Chicnecto, asking for a supply of provisions for the winter. In 1 760 
another delegation from the same people arri.cd at Fort Cumberland, and 
concluded a treaty with Col. Fry, commandant there, agreeing to become 
subjects of Great Britain on condition that they should be permitted to 
retain their property, and thenceforth receive humane treatment. This 
treaty was signed by M. M. Manache (missionaire), Abraham Dugast, 
Fran(,ois Arsenault, Michlx Bourque, Paul Le Blam:, Pierre GAUrRor, 
and Pierre Surette. 

The conflict between France and England was terminated by a treaty 
of peace, signed at Paris, Feb. 10, 1763. 

In June, 1 764, Lord Halifax, Secretary for the Colonies, addressing 
Lieut.-Gov. Montague Wilmot of Nova Scotia, said, " His Majesty 
considers the French Acadians in the same light with the rest of his 
Roman-Catholic subjects in America. If they shall be willing to take 
the oath of allegiance, and to become good subjects and useful inhabit- 
ants, it will be your care to settle them in such parts of your government 
as may be agreeable to themselves, and at the same time consistent with 
the public peace and security." 

In December, 1 764, about six hundred Acadians, chiefly from places 
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, procured vessels at their own expense, and 
proceeded for the French West Indies. Gov. Wilmot, reporting this 
exodus to the Home Government, said, " Their settlement in the 
West Indies removes them far from us ; and as that climate is mortal to 
the natives of the Northern countries, the French will not be likely to 
gain any considerable advantage from them." 

Gov. Wilmot died in May, 1 766 ; and in August, Michael Francklin 
was appointed to succeed him. Gov. Francklin had been a Halifax 
merchant and a member of the Executive Council : and his wife was 



456 THE ACADIANS. 

a granddaughter of Peter Faneuil of lioston, a wealthy and liberal- 
minded merchant of that town, whose name is honored in Faneuil Hall, 
the " Cradle of Liberty." 

With Gov. Francklin's administration came a measure of jus- 
tice to the Acadians. His representations to the Home Government 
had led to a change of policy ; and accordingly we find nun \\\ June, 
1768, writing to Isaac Deschamps, M.P.P. for Windsor, and afterwud 
chief justice of Nova Scotia, " I have it in command from His Ma- 
jesty to give them [the Acadians] the fullest assurance of his Royal 
favour and protect'on. . . . They will be treated at all times with the 
same degree of indulgence and protection as His Majesty's other sub- 
jects. And to this you may also add that the Government has not the 
least desire either to molest or disturb them on account of their religion." 

To Col. Denson of Falmouth, Gov. Francklin wrote on July 4, 
1 768, " I am, therefore, to desire that you do exempt them [the 
Acadians] from mustering or training, until you have orders to the con- 
trary from the Governor or Commander-m-Chief for the time being ; 
and I am further to signify to you that it is the King's intentions and I 
do expect, that they be treated by the Officials of Gov joent with all 
possible mildness and tenderness upon every occasion, 10 the end that 
they may not have the least cause to repent of their having submitted in 
so ample a manner to His Majesty's Government." And so it seems 
that the Acadians had found a kind and gentle and influential friend in 
Lady Franckijn, 

The instructions granting permission to the Acadians to settle again 
in Nova Scotia, were received at Halifax in September, 1 764 ; and when 
the tidings reached them in Massachusetts, some of the former residents 
of Argyle ♦urned toward their old homes. "Dans I'ann^e 1766 (^crit 
Benoni D'Entremont) nous avons laisse la Nouvelle-Angleterre pour aller 
nous rtitablir au Cap Sable. 

In i860 the historian Rameau visited Argyle, and an account of his 
" Voyage en Acadie " was published at the time at Paris in the " Econo- 
miste Franq:ais." He wrote that nine Acadian families came from 
Boston to Pubnico in 1766 ; namely, three D'Entremont, one Mius, two 
lielliveau, two Amirault, and one Duon. These were Joseph, Paul, and 
Benoni D'Entremont, Pierre and Louis Mius, Charlf_s J. and Isidore 
Bellivlau, Jacques and Ange Amirault, and Abel Duon. 



APPENDIX K. 457 

In October, 1767 (says Murdoch), eighteen Acadian families at 
Cape Sable (Pubnico) applied to the government for lands. P'our years 
afterward lands were surveyed and granted to them; and in June, 
1784, further grants were ordered to Henoni D'P^ntremont, Pierre 
Meuse, and others, of lands in Argyle. 

Jacquks D'Eni rkmont 2d, s. Jacques, m. Maruukrite Amirault, ob. 179G. 
Issue : Joseph, ni. Aj^nes ISelliveau. 
Paul, m. Isabelle Kelliveaii. 
Hcnoni (1745), m. Anne I'othier, d. Dominitiue. 
Anne, m. Abel Duon. 
One other daughter, not married.- 
Joseph D'Kntrkmont, s. Jacques 2d, m. Agnes Heli.iveau. 
Issue: Cyrille, m. Anastasie Pothier, d. Dominique. 
Marguerite, m. Amand Pothier, s. Dominique. 
Marie, m. Pierre Pothier, s. Dominique. 
Venerante, m. Jacques Amirault 2d, s. Jacques ist. 
Charles Celestin, m. Marie lioudrcau, d. .Michel. 
Joseph blie, m. Celeste Amirault, d. Joseoh 3d. 
Esther, m. Jean Jiaptiste Pothier, s. Dominique. 
Louise, m. Athanase Surette, .s. I'ierre 2d. 
Genevieve, m. Jose|)h IJoudreau, s. Michel. 
Paul D'Entremont, s. Jacques 2d, m. Isabelle Belliveau. 
Issue: Jacques 3d, m. Angelique Hourque, d. Jean ist. 
Hilaire, m. Anne Pothier, d. Sylvain ist. 
Etienne, m. Rosalie Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist. 
Joseph Levi, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Joseph 1st. Their twelve children 

all (lied young. 
Benjamin, m. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Joseph'ist. 
Gabriel, not married. 
Benoni D'Entremont, s. Jacques 2d, m. Annk Pothikr, d. Dominique. 
Issue: 1784. Joseph Josue, m. Nathalie Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist. 

I. Eli/.abeth Larkin, d. John. 



1788. Simon, m. ^„. , , ^, . , 

2. Elisabeth Theriault. 

( I. Marie Amirault, d. Cyriaque. 
I/OO. Philippe, m. 5 , ., „ , „. 

(2. Genevieve Surette, d. Pierre 3d. 

'799- J«:a"» n». Jeanne Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist. 

1801. Joseph Vincent, m. Madeleine Amirault, d. .Simon. 

1805. .Marc, not married. 

1786. .Marguerite, m. Louis Amirault, s. Ange. 

1793. Marie, m. Joseph Le Blanc 2d, s. Joseph ist. 

1796. Anne, m. Frederic Le Blanc, s. Joseph ist. 



458 D'ENTREMONT. 

Cyrille D'Entremont, s. Joseph, m. Anastasie Pothier, d. Dominique. 

Issue : Anne, m. Anselme Le Blanc, s Joseph ist. 

Julie, m. Paul Fran(;ois Surette, s. Paul ist. 

Sylvain ist (1795-18S1), m. Elisabeth Amirault, d. Joseph 3d. 

Pierre, m. Madeleine Babin, d. Charles Amand. 

Remi, m. Leonice Belliveau of Clare. 

Anselme, m. Genevieve Duon, d. Augustin. 

Joseph Cyrille, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Benjamin. 

Jean B., m. Fran(,oise Babin, d. Charles Amand. 

(1. Charles Duon, s. Augustin. 
Marguerite, m. J 

I 2. Etienne V. D'Entremont, s. Etienne. 

Madeleine, m. Joseph R. D'Entremont, s. Etienne. 

And one other daughter, not married. 

Charles Celestin D'Entremont, s. Joseph, m. Marie Boudreau, d. Michel. 

Issue : Dominique, m. Anne Catherine D'Entremont, d. Hilaire. 

Severin m. Rosalie Amirault, d. Marc ist. 

I. Mathilde Belliveau, d. Charles. 



Timothee, m. 

2. Susan Moulton. 

Simon, m. Madeleine Surette, d. Joseph 2d. 

Charles, m. Julia Burns. 

Louis, m. Marie Jeanne D'Entremont, d. Benjamin. 

( I. Madeleine D'En* amont, d. Benjamin. 

Guillaume, m. • a • ,. j c- 

( 2. Frangoise Amirault, d. Simon. 

« 

Marguerite, m. Etienne Duon, s. Augustin. 
Anne H., m. Frederic Amirault, s. Joseph 3d. 
Frarcoise, m. Gabriel Babin, s. Charles. 
Rosaije, m. Fran<,'ois Bourque, s. Joseph. 
Cecile, m. Anselme D'Entremont, s. Benjamin. 
Joseph Elie D'Entremont, s. Joseph, m. Celeste Amirault, d. Joseph 3^^ 
Issue : Athanase, m. Sophique Surette, d. Eusebe, of Surette's Island. 
I. Anselme D'Entremont, s. Hilaire. 



Marie, m. 

. 2. Raphael Bourgeois. 

George, m. Mathilde Surette, d. Prospere, of Surette's Island. 

Gertrude, m. Francj-ois D'Entremont, s. of Joseph Josue. 

Genevieve, m. Philippe Duon, s. Augustin. 

Patrice, m. Philomene D'Entremont, d. Anselme. 

Veronique, m. Pierre S. D'Entremont, s. Simon. 

Alexandre, not married. 

Luc, not married. 

Jacques D'Entremont 3d, s. Paul, m. Angelique Bourque, d. Jean ist. 

Issue : .Scholastique, m. Louis Amirault, s. Cyriaque. 

Ma.ximin, m. Catherine Amirault, d. Simon. 



APPENDIX K. 459 

Jacques D'Entremont, continued. 

Francois, m. Scholastique Amirault, d. Simon. 

Madeleine, m. Esaie Belliveau of Gilbert's Cove. 

Marie Anne, m. Jean 15. Pothier, s. Amand. 

Angelique Foi (1807, Sept. 27), m. Ambroise Amirault, s. Louis. 
HiLAiRE D'Entremijnt, s. Paul, m. Anne rorniER, d. Sylvain ist. 
Issue : Anne Catherine, m. Donli^^ique D'Entremont, s. Charles Celestin. 

Elisabeth, m. Cyrille Duon, s. Paul. 

Anselme, m. Marie D'Entremont, d. Josejjh Elie. 

Sylvain 2d, m. Marguerite Le Blanc of Clare. 

Pierre, m. Catherine Duon, d. Augustin. 

Jean, m. Marguerite Surette, d. Augustin ist. 

( I. Ursule D'Entremont, d. Sylvain ist. 
Andre, m. j . 

( 2. Mane LeBlanc {uie Pothier), \v. Joseph. 

Jacques, m. Marie Babin, d. Jean. 

Marguerite, m. Cyriaque Amirault, s. Marc. 

And two other dau^ hters, not married. 

Etienne D'Entremont, s. Paul, m. Rosalie LeBlanc, d. Joseph ist. 

Issue : Paul 2d, m. P'ranCj'oise Amirault, <\. Charles. 

Joseph R., m. Madeleine D'Entremont, d. Cyrille ist. 

( I. Elisabeth Amirault, d. Jean. 
Eticnne V., m. \ 

{ 2. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Cyrille 1st. 

Martin, m. Rosalie D'Entremont, d. Joseph Vincent. 

Thecle, ni. Cyprien Duon, s. Paul. 

Madeleine, m. Joseph J. Amirault, s. Louis ist. 

Euphroisine, m. Ange A. Amirault, s. Jean. 

Jeanne, m. Toussaint Amirault, s. Jean. 

Jeremie, not married. 
Benjamin D'Entremont, s. Paul, m. Marguerite LeBlanc, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : Marie Jeanne, m. Louis D'Entremont, s. Charles Celestin. 

Marguerite, m. Joseph C. D'Entremont, s. Cyrille ist- 

Madeleine, m. Guillaume D'Entremont, s. Charles Celestin. 

Anselme, m. Cecile D'Entremont, d. Charles Celestin. 

Cyriaque, m. Gertrude Pothier, d. Alexandre. 

Joseph F., m. Elisabeth Duon, d. Etienne. 

M^ximin, m. Fran9oise D'Entremont, d. Fran<,-ois. 
Joseph Josu6 D'Entremont, s. Benoni, m. Nathalie Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : Fran(;ois, m. Gertrude D'Entremont, d. Joseph Elie. 

Rosalie, m. Sylvain Amirault, s. Jean. 

Philippe, m. Julie D'Entremont, d. Sylvain ist. 

Louis B., m. Victoire D'Entremont, d. Sylvain ist. 

( I. Rosalie Duon, d. Etienne. 
Marc, m. { 

( 2. Colombe Duon, d. Cyprien. 



46o D 'ENTREMONT. 

JoSEi'H Josu£ D'Entremont, continued. 

Alexandre, m. Veronique D'Entremont, d. Paul. 

Petronille, m. Louis B. Amirault, s. Louis 2d. 

And two other sons, not married. 

„ ,^,^ „ (I- Elizabeth Larkin, d. John. 

Simon D'Entremont, s. Benom, m. { 

( 2. Elisabeth Theriaolt. 

Issue : Marie Anne, m. Paul Amirault, s. Cyriaque. 

_ . , (I. Monique Amirault, d. Charles. 
David, m. ! 

( 2. Catharine Murphy. 

„. ^ ( I- Anne Pothier, d. Joseph Josue. 
Pierre S., m. j j r j 

( 2. Veronique D'Entremont, d. Joseph Elie. 

Marguerite, m. Mathurin Amirault, s. Jean. 

Elisabeth, m. Paul Amirault, s. Charles. 

Rosalie, m. Mande Le Blanc, s. Benjamin. 

And three other daughters, not married. 
By 2d wife : — 

Louis M., m. Jeanne D'Entremont, d. Joseph. 

Virginie, m. Toussaint Amirault, s. Joseph Josue. 

Marie Jeanne, m. Alexis Amirault, s. Frederic. 

Isabelle Anne, m. Nicolas Amirault, s. Philippe. 

Damas, not married. 

Nathal'3, not married. 

Catherine, not married. 

Charles, not married. 

Joseph, not married. 

, I. Marie Rosalie Amirault, d. 
Philippe D'Entremont, s. Benoni, m. \ Cyriaque. 

(_ 2. GENEVifevE Surette, d. Pierre 3d. 
Issue : Anne Marguerite, m. Paul F. Amirault, s. Simon. 

Julie, m. Dominique Duon, s. Etienne. 

Louis, m. Fran9oise B-;lliveau, d. Jean. 

Marie Jeanne, m. John Carroll. 

Remi, m. Madeleine Surette, d. Jean B. 

Madeleine, m. Xavier Babin, s. Jean, ? Charles Amand. 

Pierre, not married. 

Cyriaque L., not married. 

Mathurin, not married. 

Elisabeth, Rosalie, and two others, not married. 
Jean D'Entremont, s. Benoni, m. Jeanne Le Blanc, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : Marguerite, m. Simon Le Blanc, s. Frederic. 

Charlotte, m. Dominique Q. Amirault, s. Jean. 

Catherine, m. Andre Amirault, s. Louis i^t. 



APPENDIX K. 461 

Jean'D'Entremont, continued. 

Marie, m. Michel D. Pothier, s. Dominique. 

Fran9oise, m. Augustin Duon, s. Mathurin. 

Joseph L., m. Juliette D'Entremont, d. Pierre, a Hilaire. 

Josue E., m. Marie D'Entremont, d. Jean, a Hilaire. 

Hilaire, Andre, David, and two others, not married. 

Joseph Vincent D'Entremont, s. Benoni, m. Madeleine Amirault, d. Simon. 

( I. Marie Anne Amirault, d. Louis 2d. 
Issue : Simon, m. ' 

( 2. Julienne Pothier, d. Seraphin. 

( I. Marie Bibienne D'Entremont, d. Sylvain 1st. 
Ambroise, m. ! 

( 2. Marine Amirault, d. Ange A. 

[\. Juliette Amirault, d. Louis 2d. 
Esai'e, m. -J 

L2. Perpetue D'Entremont, d. Paul. 

Rosalie, m. Martin D'Entremont, s. Etienne. 

Jean B., ni. Rosalie Pothier, d.Cyrille of Eel Lake. 

Cyriaque, m. Ursule D'Entremont, d. Jean, a Hilaire. 

Anne, Vitaline, Paul, Marc, Jeanne, and one other, not married. 

Sylvain D'Entremont ist, s. Cyrille, m. Elisabeth Amirault, d. Joseph 3d. 
Issue : Julie, m. Philippe D'Entremont, s. Joseph Josue. 

Victoire, m. Louis B. D'Entremont, s. Joseph Josue. 
Ursule, m. Andre D'Entremont, s. Hilaire. 
Marie Bibienne, m. Ambroise D'Entremont, s. Joseph Vincent. 
Nicolas (1835, Aug. 2), m. Anne Vitaline Amirault, d. Ambroise. 
f I. Nathalie Duon, d. Mathurin. 
' ^ 2. Madeleine D'Entremont, d. Guillaume. 
Nicolas D'Entremont, s. Sylvain ist, m. Anne Vitaline Amirault, d. 
Ambroise. 
Issue : 1S60. Aug. 25. Nicolas Alfred. 

1862. Oct. 22. Henri Leondee, m. Marie Rose D'Entremoi.t, d. Athanase. 
1864. Dec. 8. Marie Elisabeth. 

Agnes Louise Alice. 
Guillaume Edmond. 
Jacques Gilbert. 
Francois Ephraim. 
Lucie Anne. 
Estelle Marie Therese. 

The parents of the following, comprising the Bellivf-au family that 
came to Pubnico 1766-1767, have not been definitely ascertained : — 

Charles Joseph, m. Marguerite Bastarache. 
Isidore, m. Ursule Amirault, d. Jacques ist. 
Michel, not married. 



462 BELLIVEAL. 

Agnes, m. Joseph D'Entremont, s. Jacques 2d. 

Isabelle, m. Paul D'Entremont, s. Jacques 2d. 

Nathalie, m. Ange Aniirault, s Jacciues ist. 
Charles Joseph Belliveau, m. Marguerite Bastarache. 
Issue : Marie, m. John Larkin. 

Joseph, m. Marie Osithe Bourc[ue, d. Jean ist. 

Marguerite, tn. Charles Amand Babin, s. Joseph ist. 

Claire, died young. 
Isidore Belliveau, m. Ursule Amirault, d. Jacques ist. 
Issue : Charles Ballou, m. Sherah Robbins, d. James 2d. 

Marguerite, m. Joseph Le Blanc 2d, s. Joseph ist. 

Elisabeth, m. Basile Bourcjue, s. Jean ist. 

Pierre, not married. 
Joseph Belliveau. s. Charles J., m. Marie Osithe Bourque, d. Jean ist. 
Issue : Jean, m. Thecle Surette, d. Jean Louis. 

Joseph, not married. 

Charles, not married. 

Pierre, m. Juliette .A.mirault, d. Cyriaque. 

Basile, m. Marie Anne Amirault, d. Louis ist. 

Celestin, not married. 

Marie Helene, not married. 
Jean Belliveau, s. Joseph, m. Thecle Surette, d. Jean Louis. 
Issue : Basile, m. Monique Belliveau, w. Louis Remi. 

Helene, m. Jean Amirault, s. Louis. 

Marguerite Rosalie, m. Anselme Amirault, s. Jean. 

Margerie, not married. 

Framboise, m. Louis D'Entremont, s. Philippe. 

Susanne, not married. 

Jean, m. Elise Boudreau. 

Pierre, m. Sophique Bourque, d. Francois, a Joseph. 

Michel, m. .Sophique Surette, d. Prospere, a Joseph, of Eel Brook. 

Louis, not married. 

Madeleine, m. George N. Eaton. 
Pierre Belliveau, s. Joseph, m. Juliette Amirault, d. Cyriaque. 
Issue: Zacharie, m. Ursule Boudreau, d. Feli.x. 

Cyriaque, m. Rosalie Amirault, d. Francois. 
Basile Belliveau, s. Joseph, m. Marie Anne Amirault, d. Louis. 
Issue : Anne Mathilde, m. Mande Comeau. 

Louis Remi, m. Monique Amirault, d. Fran9ois. 

Sylvain, m. Clara Dorman. 

Joseph Leon, m. Elisabeth Rose D'Entremont, d. Pierre S. 

Catherine, Isaac, Marie, Marguerite, Monique, Marc Esaie, Alexandre 
Svlvain, not married. 



APPENDIX K. 463 

Charles Ballou Belliveau, s. Isidore, m. Sherah Robbins, d. James 2d. 

Issue : Mathildc, m. Timothee D'Entremont, s. Charles Celestin. 

T . , , ( '• I-etitia Robbins, d. Samuel. 

Isidore 2d, m. J 

( 2. Phoebe Goodwin. 

Margerie, m. Jeremiah Larkin. 

T„.^„ Tj J ^, , ( '• Letitia Robbins, d. Samuel. 

Isidore Belliveau 2d, s. Charles, m. | 

( 2. Phcebe Goodwin. 
Issue : Marie Alice, m. Isaiah Kenney. 

Israel, m. in Lockeport. 

Jacques, m. Sarah Nickerson. 

George, Anne, Benjamin, Helene, not married. 
Abel Duon, m. Anne D'Entremont, d. Jacques 2d. 
Issue : Augustin, m. Nathalie Amirault, d. Ange. 

Paul, m. Victoire Boudreau, d. Michel. 

Marie, m. Pierre Surette 2d, s. Pierre ist. 

Cecile, not married. 

Ursule. 

Jacques. 

Euphroisine. 

Monique, m. Amable Boudreau, s. Michel. 

Augustin Duon, s. Abel, m. Nathalie Amirault, d. Ange. 

Issue: 1796. Madeleine, m. Anselme Pothier, s. Amand. 

1797. Etienne, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Charles Celestin. 

1800. Jean, m. Elisabeth Boudreau, d. Joseph. 

1802. Charles, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Cyrille ist. No issue. 

1S03. Monique, m. Seraphin Pothier, s. Sylvain ist. 

1805. Catherine, m. Pierre D'Entremont, s. Hilaire. 

1807. Mathurin, m. Rosalie Boudreau, d. Joseph. 

1809, Julien, m. Marie Surette, d. Paul Francois. 

1S14. David, m. Anne Pothier, d. Pierre ist. 

1817. Philippe, m. Genevieve D'Entremont, d. Joseph Elie. 

1812. Genevieve, m. Anselme D'Entremont, s. Cyrille ist. 
Paul Duon, s. Abel, m. Victoire Boudreau, d. Michel. 
Issue : Marie, m. Marc Saulnier. 

Celeste, m. Ange Saulnier. 

Rosalie, m. Archange Surette, s. Augustin. 

Joseph, m. Perpetue Amirault, d. Charles. 

Cyprien, m. Thecle D'Entremont, d. Etienne. 

Cyrille, m. Elisabeth D'Entremont, d. Hilaire. 

Gabriel, m. Ursule Surette, d. Augustin. No issue. 

Marc, Simon, Margueriie. and Madeleine, not married. 



464 DUON. 

EriENNK Di'oN, s. Augiistin, m. Marguerite D'Kntremont, d. Charles Celestin 
Issue : Elisabeth, m. Joseph V. D'Entremont, s. Benjamin. 

Rosalie, m. Marc D'Entremont, s. Joseph Josue. 

Dominique, m. Julie D'Entremont, d. Philippe. 

Scholastique, m. Charles V. Amirault, s. Joseph. 

Madeleine, m. Cesar Habin, s. Simon. 

Pierre, m. Josephine D'Entremont, d. Joseph Cyrille. 

Fran9ois, m. Marine Doucette, d. Ange, of Chebec. 

Geneviivc, m. lienjamin Hourque, s. Marc. 

Etienne, Charles Jovite, not married. 

Franc^oise, Gertrude, Marie Anne, not married. 
Jean Duon, s. Augustin, m. Elisabeth Boudreau, d. Joseph. 
Issue : Madeleine, m. Pierre Le Blanc, s. Anselme. 

Rosalie, m. Symphorien Syrette, s. Augustin 1st. 

Marin, m. Melanic Surette, d. Jean B. 

Jacques, m. Philomene D'Entremont, d. Jean, a Milaire. 
Charlotte Duon, d. Cyprien. 



Simon, m. 

2. Adcle D'Entremont, d. Philippe, a Josue. 

Francois, m. Marie Anne D'Entremont, d. Andre. 

Genevieve, I'elagie, not married. 

Henri, died young. 

Mathurin Duon, s. Augustin, m. Rosalie Boudrp:au, d. Joseph. 

I. Fran(;oise Duon, d. Cyrille. 

' 2. Framboise D'Entremont, d. Jean. 

Nathalie, m. Michel D'Entremont, s. Sylvain. 

I. Angelique D'Entremont, d. Joseph Cyrille. 



Issue : Augustin, m. J 



Ambroise, m. , , „,,, , ^ , , 

2. Perpetue D Entreniont, d. Paul 2d. 

Sylvain, m. Marie D'Kntremont, d. Anselme, a Benjamin. 

Anselme, m. Marie Jeanne Amirault, d. Mathurin. 

Catherine, m. Romain D'Entremont, s. Dominique. 

Bibienne, m. Leon D'Entremont, s. Dominique. 

Monique, m. Rami D'Entremont, s. Dominique. 

Julie, m. Urbain D'Entremont, s. Joseph Cyrille. 

JOLiKN Duon, s. Augu.stin, m. Marie Sureite, d. Paul Francois. 

Issue : Francois, m. Modeste Amirault, d. F'rederic. 

Michel, m. Victoire Duon, d. Joseph. 

Symphorien, m. .Seraphie D'Entremont, d. Dominique. 

Zacharie, m. Esther Amirault, d. Frederic. 

Charles, m. Catherine D'Entremont, d. Dominique. 

Nicolas, m. Emilie D'Entremont, d. Maximin. 

I. Dominique D'Entremont, s. Joseph. 



Angelique, m- ,.,... ,,, t, • • 

( 2. Maximm Le Blanc, s. Benjamin. 

Anastasie, not married. 

Germain, died young. 



ai'I'i:m)ix k. 4^5 

David Duon, s. Augusiin, m. Anni. I'oihiek, d. I'icrrc ist. 

(I. Monicjue D'Entrcmont, d. Joseph Cyrillc. 
Issue : I.eon, ni. { 

( 2. FraiKjOise Itourquc, d. Franvois. 

Cyriaquc, m. Catherine Comeau, d. I'ierre of Clare. 

Marguerite, m. Isaac O'Enfrcmont, s. Franv'ois. 

l)oniathilde, in. Juiien D'Entrcmont, s. Domini<|ue. 

Virginie, m. Apollonaire D'Entrcmont, s. Fran(,ois. 

Susanne, Marie Anne, not married. 
V\\\\.\v\v. Duo.v, 8. .\ugiistin, m. Gl^.NEVifevE D'Entrkmont, d. Joseph'Elie. 
Issue : Elit, m. Moni((iie Bourfjue, d. I''ran(,oi.s. 

Symphorien, m. .Marie Doucette, (I. Ange of Chebec. 

Agapis, m. Catherine D'Entrcmont, d. Joseph Cyrillc. 

komain, m. Elise D'Entrcmont, d. Marin. 

Marie, m. Cyprien Amirault, s. Simon, a Simon. 

V'eroninue, m. Ferdinand Amirault, s. Louis. 

Denis, Joseph, Christine, not married. 
JosEi'H Dues, s. Paul, m. PEKPliTUK Amirault, d. Charles. 
Issue : Eustache, m. Fran(;()ise Surette, d. Jean V>. 

Voiontin, m. Marguerite Surette, d. Zacharie. 

J().seph, m. Eugenie D'Entrcmont, d. George. 

Moni(|ue, m. Kemi D'Entrcmont, s. Pierre, a flilaire. 

Victoire, m. Michel Duon, s. Juiien. 

Modeste, m. Clement D'Entrcmont, s. Jean, a Ililaire. 

Scholastii|ue, not married. 
CvfRiEN Duon, s. Paul. m. TiiifxLK J)'Entremont, d. Etienne. 
Issue : Colombc, m. Marc D'Entrcmont, s. Joseph Josue. 

Charlotte, m. Simon Duon, s. Jean. 

Louis, m. Adelaide D'Entrcmont, d. Joseph Cyrillc. 

Paul, m. Marguerite lioudreau, d. Lucicn. 

Pierre, m. Zo<5e Surette, d. Augiistin. 

Zacharie, ni. Adeline Pothier, d. Fran',ois, a Seraphin. 

Marie, not married. 
CvRti.i.E DroN, s. Paul, m. Elisabeth D'Entremont, d. Hilaire. 
Issue : FrauijOisc, m. Augustin Duon, s. Mathurin. 

Jactjues, died unmarried. 

Other children died young. 
Jacques .Amirault ist, m. Jeanne Laure. 
Issue : Angc, m. Nathalie Helliveau. 

Jacques 2d, m. Venerantc D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 

Hasilc, settled at Sissibou. 

Isidore, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Pierr" ist of Clare. 

Ursule, m. Isidore Belliveau. 



466 A.}// RAUL/: 

Jacquks Amirault ist, continued. 

Anastasie, m. Jean Doucette of Sissibou. 

I.udivine, m. Charles l'>abin, s. Victor. 

Rosalie, in. Jean Louis Surette, s. Joseph 1st. 

Genevieve, m. Ansclme Le Blanc, s. Pierre ist of Clare. 

Marie, ni. Joseph I.e lilanc ist, s. ricrrc of Clare. 
Ange Amirai:lt, s. Jacques ist, m. Nathalik Helliveau. 
Issue : Joseph 3d, m. Marguerite Surette, d. Joseph ist. 

Cyriaque, ni. Marie .Surette, d. Paul 1st. 

Jean, m. Marie Susanne Pothier, d. Sylvain ist. 

Simon, m. Anne M. Surette, d. Paul ist. 

1 I. Pcrpetue Pothier, d. Sylvain ist. 
Charles, ni. ; 

I 2. Scholastique Surette, d. Paul tst. 

I.ouis, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Benoni. 

Marc, m. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Joseph 2d. 

Nathalie, m. Augustin Duon, s. Abel. 

Veronique, m. Joseph Bourque, s. Jean ist. 

Susanne, m. Simon Sauinier. 
JosEi'ii Amirallt 3d, s. Ange, m. Marguerite Sureitk, d. Joseph ist. 
Issue : Frederic, m. Anne H. D'Entremont, d. Charles Celestin. 

Celeste, m. Joseph E. D'Entremont, s. Joseph ist. 

Elisabeth, m. Sylvain D'Entremont, s. Cyriile. 

Joseph M., m. Eulalie Pothier, d. Pierre ist. 

George, m. Marthe .Surette, d. Pierre 3d. 

Veronique, m. Joseph Pothier, s. Amand. 

One other daughter, not married. 
CVRiA<jUE Amirault, s. Ange, m. Marie Surette, d. Paul ist. 
Issue : Louis 2d, m. .Scholastique D'Entremont, d. Jacques 3d. 

Rosalie, m. Philippe D'Entremont, s. Benoni. 

Anastasie, m. Alexandre Pothier, s. Pierre ist. 

Paul, m. Marie Anne D'Entremont, d. Simon. 

Juliette, rn. Pierre Belliveau, s. Joseph. 
Jean Amirault, s. Ange, m. Marie Susanne Poihier, d. Sylvain ist. 
Issue : Hilaire, m. Elisabeth Le Blanc, d. Joseph 2d. 

Elisabeth, m. Etierine V. D'Entremont, s. Etienne. 

Ange A., m. Euphroisine D'Entremont, d. Etienne. 

Sylvain, m. Rosalie D'Entremont, d. Joseph Josue. 

Mathurin, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Simon. 

Toussaint, m. Jeanne D'Entremont, d. Etienne. 

Anselme, m. Marguerite Rosalie Belliveau, d. Jean. 

Dominique Q., m. Charlotte D'Entremont, d. Jean. 

Gertrude, m. Mathurin Boudreau, s. Dominique. 

Charlotte Marie, m. Jean B. Le Blanc, s. Anselme. 

Jeanne, died unmarried. 



Charlks Amirault, s. Ange, ni. | 



APPENDIX K. 467 

Simdn A.MiKAi'i.r, s. Ange, m. Anne M. Surktik, d. Paul ist. 
Issue: Marc 2d, m. Anastasie I'othier, d. Jean !>;iptiste 1st. 
Madeleine, m. Joseph V. D'Entremont, s. Henoni. 
( atherine, m. Maximin D'Entremont, s. Jacques 3d. 
Scholasticiue, m. Fran(,ois J. D'Entremont, s. Jaccjucs 3d. 
Fran(,oisc, m. Guillaiinie D'Entremont, s. Charles Celestin. 
Jeanne, not married. 
Pierre, not married. 

Simon J., m. Marie Anne Lc Klanr, d. Joseph 2d. 
Paul Frani.ois, m. Anne Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Philippe. 

I. PF.Ri'^ruK PoniiKR, d. Sylvain ist. 

! 2. SCHOLASTIQUE SlRETTE, d. I'aul ISt. 

Issue : Kran(,oise, m. I'aul D'Entremont, s. Etienne. 

Perpetue, m. Joseph Duon, s. I'aul. 

Monique, m. George David D'Entremont, s. Simon. 

I'aul, m. Elisabeth D'Entremont, d. Simon. 

Madeleine, not married. 
Louis Amirauli, s. Ange, m. Marguerite D'Entremo.nt, d. Benoni. 
Issue : Philippe, m. Marie E. D'Entremont, d. Etienne. 

Ambroise (Sept. 2, iSoS), m. Angelique Foi D'Entremont, d. Jacques 3d. 

Joseph Josue, m. Madeleine D'Entremont, d. Etienne. 

( I. Marguerite Amirault, d. Marc ist. 
Andre, m. , 

( 2. Catherine D'Entremont, d. Jean. 

Marie Anne, m. Hasile lielliveau, s. Joseph. 

Rosalie, m. Marc Le ISlanc, s. Anselme. 

Marguerite, m. Etienne Le Blanc, s. Simon. 

( I. Frain,oise Le Blanc, d. [oseph zd of Pubnico. 
Louis Remi, m. ; 

( 2. Elisabeth Pothier, d. Sylvain of Eel Brook. 

Jean, m. Helene Belliveau, d. Jean. 
Leon v., m. Marguerite Amirault, d. Marc 2cl (Capt.). 
Anne Catherine, not married. 
Marc Amirault, s. Ange, m. Marguerite Le 1'>lanc, d. Joseph 2d. 
Issue : Marie Jeanne, m. Michel Surette, s. Paul Francois. 

Rosalie, m. Severin D'Entremont, s. Charles Celestin. 
Francois, m. Charlotte Bourque, d. Pierre. 
Cyriaque, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Hilaire. 
Martin, m. Catherine Pothier, d. Sylvain, a Jean B. 

f I. Fran9ois Surette, s. Paul 2d. 
Sophique, w\.\ 2. Cyrille Melancon of Sissibon. 

[ 3. Cyrille Babin, s. Amable. 
Marguerite, m. Andre Amirault, s. Louis. 
Elisabeth, not married. 



468 AMIRAULT. 

Ambroise Amirault, s. Louis, m. Angelique Foi D'En tremont, d. Jacques 3d. 

Issue : 1836. Oct. 19. Annr Vitaline, m. Nicolas D'Entremont, s. Sylvain ist. 

1838. Jan. 15. Agnes. 

1840. Feb. 15. Clement. 

1843. June 15. Avit Israel, died young. 

1846. Aug. 10. Elisabeth Therese. 

1848. Dec. 27. Augusta A., m. Marie Susanne Amirault, d. Dominique. 

1851. June 23. Liboire Elie, died young. 

" Amirault'.s Hill," on the eastern side of the Tiisket River, about 
three miles below the village, was so called from Jacques Amirault 
2d, son of Jacques ist of Pubnico, who settled there. He married 
Venerante D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist, and had issue : — 

Pierre, m. Marie Amirault, d. Gabriel of Meteghan. 
Hilaire, m. Anne Le Hlanc, d. Jean of Amirault's Hill. 
Cyrille, m. Angelique Hebert, d. Joseph 2d. 

I. Seraphie Le Blanc, d. Chrysostome. f 



Marc, m. 

( 2. Rosalie Douceite, w. Remi, a Edouard. 

Romain, not married. 

Jacques 3d, m. Henriette Le Blanc, d. Chrysostome. 

Ursule, m. Jean B. Boudreau, s. Michel ist. 

Scholastique, m. Nicolas Pothier, s. Sylvain ist. 

Marie, m. Sylvain Pothier, s. Sylvain ist. 

Genevieve, m. Felix Boudreau, s. Amable. 

No relationship has been traced between the Amirault family of 
Pubnico and Joseph Amirault who came from Tours, France, and 
settled at Port La Tour. He had a son Joseph Amir-Wlt 2d, and four 
of this Joseph's daughters were, — 

Cecile, m. Pierre Meuse ist of Roco Point, Eel Brook. 
Marguerite, m. Pierre Le Blanc ist of Roco Point, Eel Brook. 
Madeleine, m. Paul Surette, s. Pierre 2d of Eel Brook. 
Padene, m. Jean Doucette 2d of Tusket Wedge. 

In the year of Acadian expatriation they were carried to Salem, 
Mass., and in 1 769 they returned to Argyle. 

Closely connected with the families of Pubnico and Eel Brook are 
many of the Acadians of Tusket Wedge. Sylvain and Amand Pothier, 
sons of Dominique ist of Eel Brook, settled there, as well as Michel 



APPENDIX K. 469 

BouDRKAU who married a daughter of Dominique; Jenn L'^uis Siirette, 
son of Joseph ist, and Jean Doucette 2d, and their numerous rlescendants, 
have established a character for enterprise and ability in that district 
and beyond it. 

The name Michel Boudrot is a familiar one to readers of early 
Acadian history. In 1687, Michel Boudrot, born in 1601 (he had a 
son Michel, born in 1660), was lieutenant-governor of Acadie, and 
then living at Port Royal. He was sometimes styled Judge, which was 
a title attached to the head of the civil government of the colony ; and 
while Michel Boudrot was at the head of the government, Philip 
Mius D'Enlreniont was procureur dtt roi ; that is, attorney, or chief 
secretary, for the king. 

References may be here made to some other Acadian families who 
had representatives in the colony in early times. Capt. Paul Berirand 
commanded the ship Chafeaitfort which sailed from Rochelle for 
Acadie, in March, 1654. The vessel was laden with merchandise 
shipped by Emmanuel Le Borgne, on account of Madame I)'.\ulnay 
and the Duke of Vendome, pursuant to an agreement made between 
them for the joint proprietorship of rights ''i Acadie, which agreement 
was confirmed by the king of France, by a decree of December, 1652. 

Jean Boucher was a party to one of the grants of land in Acadie. 
passed by the king of France in 1680; and in 1707 Thomas Le 
Fevre had a royal grant of lands, two leagues in front and three leagues 
in depth, between Point Meriquet and River St. George. 

In 1727, Gov. Armstrong appointed Franqois Richaru high con- 
stable for .Annapolis Royal and the adjacent territory ; and in the same 
year Jean Duon was appointed clerk to the justices of the peace. 

A prominent man in the districts from Port Royal to Pigiguit was 
Alexandfk Bourg (Bourque). In 1720 he was chief notary there. In 
1 730 he was appointed procureur du roi for Grand Pre and Pigiguit. 
and authorized to receive all payments and quit-rents due to the 
Government. He held the same position in 1 740 ; and he was still at 
Mines, " an aged man," in 1745. Antoink Bourg, aged sixty-two, in 
the census of 167 1, appears as the head of a family, the oldest aged 
twenty-seven years. His wife was a Landry. 

The Le Blancs of Tusket Wedge and Pubnico are descended from 



470 LE BLANC. 

Pierre Le Bianc ist of Church Point, Clare, who was born at })';:es m 
1711, carried to Salem in 1755 ! ^"^ about 1772 he returned with his 

family to Clare, where he died in 1 799, in his 89th year. 

\ 

Pierre Le Blanc ist, of Churca Point, married M arik Madeleine^Babin, and 
had issue: — 

Anselme, m. Genevieve Amirault, d. Jacques ist, settled at Church Point. 

Joseph, m. Marie Amirault, d. Jacques ist, settled at Tusket Wedge. 

Charles, m. Marie Meian9on, settled at Church Point. 

Marie (1746), m. Isidore Amirault, s. Jacques rst, settled at Meteghan. 

Franfoise, m. Charles Doucette, settled at Church Point. 

Marguerite, m. Joseph Doucette, settled at New Edinburgh. 

Madeleine (1753-1852), m. Charles Marin Belliveau, settled at BelHveau's Cove. 

Susanne, m. Joseph Comeau, settled at Saulnierville. 

Elisabeth, m. Sylvain Pothier ist, s. Dominique, settled at Tusket Wedge. 

Anne (1767-1S42), m. Pierre Comeau, settled at Meteghan River. 
Joseph Le Blanc ist, s. Pierre ist, m. Dec. 28, 1778, Marie Amirault,'; d- 

Jacques ist. 

(I. Marguerite Belliveau, d. Isidore, settled at Pubnico. 
Issue : Joseph 2d, m. ] , t, . 

( 2. Mane D'Entremont, d. Benoni. 

Rosalie, m. Etienne D'Entremont, s. Paul ist, settled at Pubnico. 

Marie, m. Joseph Levi D'Entremont, s. Paul ist, settled at Pubnico. 

Marguerite, m. Benjamin D'Entremont, s. Paul ist, settled at Pubnico. 

Nathalie, m. Joseph Josue D'Entremont, s. Benoni, settled at Pubnico. 

Anselme, m. Anne D'Entremont, d. Cyrille, settled at Tusket Wedge. 

Frederic (1790 '), m. Anne D'Entremont, d. Benoni, settled at Tusket Wedge. 

Ursule, m. Sylvain Pothier, s. Amand, settled at Tusket Wedge. 

Jeanne, m. Jean D'Entremont, s. Benoni, settled at Pubnico. 

Simon, m. Ursule Boudreau, d. Amable, settled at Tusket Wedge. 

Benjamin, m. Euphroisine Pothier, d. Amand, settled at Tusket Wedge. - 

(i. Marguerite Belliveau, d. Isidore. 
Joseph Le Blanc 2d, s. Joseph ist, m. I 

( 2. Marie D'Entremont, d. Benoni. 

Issue : Elisabeth, m. Ililaire Amirault, s. Jean. 

Joseph 3d, m. Marie Pothier, d. Cyrille of Eel Lake. 

David, m. Marguerite Pothier, d. Sylvain of Eel Brook. 

Marie Anne, m. Simon J. Amirault, s. Simon. 

Fran9oise, m. Louis R. Amirault, s. Louis. 

Louis, m. Gertrude Pothier, d. Cyrille of Eel Lake. 

Andre, m. Marie Anne Pothier, d. Joseph Josue. 

Pierre, m. Marie D'Entremont, d. Fran9ois, a Jacques. 

Philippe, m. Susanne Amirault, d. George. 

Simon, m. Nathalie Le Blanc, d. Frederic. - ^ 

Marguerite, m. Marc Amirault, s. Ange. 
-r— 1 Still living. - - - — 



APPEADIX A. . 471 

Anselme Le Hlanc, s. Joseph ist, m. Anne D'Entremont, d. Cyrilie. 
Issue: Joseph, m. Rosalie Fothier, d. Anselme. 
I. Madeleine Duon, d. Jean. 



Pierre, m. , ^ ,. ,^,_ , ,, , , 

( 2. Rosalie D Entremont, d. Paul 2d. 

Jean B., m. Charlotte Marie Amirault, d. Jean. 

Marc, ni. Rosalie Amirault, d. Louis. 

Cyriaque, m. Stephanie Pothier, d. Jean B. of Chebec. 

Remi, m. Charlotte Pothier, d. Charles Amand. 

Madeleine, m. Romain Pothier, s. Anselme. 

Marguerite, m. Luc Boudreau, s. Dominique. 

Marie Anne, m. Dominique D. Boudreau, s. Dominique. 

Dorothee, m. Fran9ois Pothier, s. Seraphin. 

Leonice, m. Jean B. Pothier, s. Seraphin. 
Frederic Le Blanc, s. Joseph ist, m. Anne D'E.ntremont, d. Benoni. 
Issue : Joseph, m. Fran^oise Pothier, d. Anselme. 

Pierre, m. Madeleine Pothier, d. Nicolas. 

Andre, m. Delphine Pothier, d. Cyrilie of Chebec. 

Simon, m. Marguerite D'Entremont, d. Jean. 

Jacques, died unmarried. 

Alexandre, a bachelor. 

Anselme, died unmarried. 

Marie, m. Jacques Pothier, s. Nicholas. 

Marguerite, died unmarried. 

Rosalie, m. Pierre Surette, s. Pierre of Chebec. 

Nathalie, m. Simon Le Blanc, s. Joseph 2d of Pubnico. 

Anne, m. Thelesphore Pothier, s. Jean B. of Chebec. 

Catherine, m. Matthieu Cothereau, s. Jean V. 

Madeleine, not married. 
There were 21 children in this family. The other seven died young. 
Simon Le Blanc, s. Joseph ist, m. Ursule Boudreau, d. Amable. 
Issue : Etienne, m. Marguerite Amirault, d. Louis. 

( I. Madeleine Surette, d. Pierre of Chebec. 

Anselme, m. ) ,, , ^ ,. ,.-,,. 

( 2. Hazaele Pothier, d. Charles Amand. 

Timothee, m. Rosalie Surette, d. Prospere of Pinkney's Point. 

Zacharie, m. Agnes Pothier, d. Jean B. of Chebec. 

Jean, died unmarried. 

Eulalie, m. Jeremie H. Pothier, s. Cyrilie of Chebec. 

,, . (I. Comeau. 

Monique, m. J 

( 2. Guillaume Surette, d. Prospere of Pinkney's Point. 

Benjamin Le Blanc, s. Joseph ist, m. Euphroisine Pothier, d. Amand. 

Issue : Sylvain, m. Elisabeth Surette, d. Hippolyte of Surette's Island. 

{ I. Elisabeth Pothier, d. Nicolas. 
Jean, m. ! 

( 2. Nathalie Surette, d. Pierre of Chebec. ~ 



47- BOUDREAU. 

Kknjamin Le Bl\nc, continued. 

Marin, m. P'rancjoise Boudreau, d. Doniiniciiie. 

(I. Genevieve Boudreau, d. Jean H. 
Maximin, m. I 

(2. Angelique D Entremont, w. Dominique («(V Duon). 

Mandt, ni. Rosalie D'Entremont, d. Simon. 

Liboire, m. Elisabeth . 

Remi V., m. Elisabeth ]!oudreau, d. Jean B. 

Zacharie, m. Fran9oise Pothier, d. Marc. 
Joseph Le Blanc, s. Frederic, m. Francoise Pothier, d. Anselme. 
Issue : George, died unmarried, aged 23. 

Francois L., m. Elisabeth I'oth er, d. Marc. 

Louis, 111. Adelia Agnes Wanders, d. William of Boston. 

Frederic, m. Joanne Burrage. 

Jacques (1S63), not inar''- '. Hrlds ship-master's certificate. 

Melanie, m. Louis Le Blar •, s. Joseph 3d of Pubnico. 

Madeleine, 111. Edmond Le Blanc, s. Anselme, a Simon. 

Marguerite Arite, died, aged 14. 

Michel Boudreau ist, m. Marguerite Pothier, d. Dominique ist. 

Issue : Amable, m. .Nfonique Duon, d. Abel. 

I I. Genevieve D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist. 
Joseph, m. I 

( 2. Marceline Meiise, d. Benjamin. 

Dominique, m. Pelagie Babin, d. Joseph ist. 

Jean B., m. Ursule Amirault, d. Jacques 2d. 

Charles, m. Veronique Deveau, d Felix. 

Marie, m. Charles Celestin D'Entremont, s. Joseph 1st. 

Victoire, m. Paul Duon, s. Abel. 

Veronique, m. Michel Surette, s. Charles Borrome of Surette's Island. 

Genevieve, m. Pierre Doucette, s. Jean 2d of Tusket Wedge. 

Amaisle Boudreau (I'eveque), s. Michel, m. Monique Duon, d. Abel. 

Issue: Lucien, m. Mary O'Niel of Barrington. 

I. Genevieve Amirault, d. Jacques 2d. 



Felix, m. 

.2. Genevieve Surette, d. Joseph, a Jean Louis. 

Joseph 2d, m. Rosalie Richard, d. Antoine i.si. 

Sylvain, m. Veronique Richard, d. Antoine 1st. 

Marie, m. Antoine Richard 2d, s. Antoine. 

Ursule, m. Simon Le Blanc, s. Joseph ist. 

Madeleine, m. Matthias Saulnier of Saulniervilie. 

I. Charles Melanij'oii of Clare. 



Euphroisine, m. , , „ . 

(2. Michel Babm, s. Joseph (Carino). 

(I. Genevieve D'Entremont, d. Joseph ist 
Joseph Boudreau,' s. Michel, m. J 

(2. Marceline Meuse, d. Benjamin. 

Issue: Marie, m. Simon Surette, s. Pierre 3d. ' "■'"' ' ^' 
_j^ . ' Still living and " hearty " in his 98th year. 



.APPENDIX K. 473 

Joseph Bocdreau, continued. 

Marguerite, ni. Paul Surette, s. Jean I.ouis. 
Elisabeth, ni. Jean Duon, s. Augustin. 
Rosalie, m. Mathurin Duon, s. Augustin. 
Monique, m. Mathurin Comeau of Meteghiiii. 
By 2d wife: — 

Fabien, ni. Philomene Tothereau, d. Jean Fran(,ois. 
Marie Anne, ni. Matthieu Cothereau, s. Jean Fran9ois. 
Madeleine, m. Retni Surette, s. Pierre of Tusket Wedge. 
Dominique Boudreat, s. Michel, m. Pelagie Pabin, d. Joseph i:^:. 
Issue: Mathurin, m. Gertrude Amirault, d. Jean. 

Anselme, ni. Marguerite Pothier, d. Sylvain, a .\mand. 
I. Marguerite Le Blanc, d. Anselme. 



Marc, m. \ 



Luc, m. 

Judithe Le Blanc of Salmon River. 

Dominique D., m. Marie Anne Le Blanc, d. Anselme. 

Catherine, m. Prc-pere Surette, s. Jean Louis. 

Fran9oise, m .Marin Le Blanc, s. iJenjamin. 

f I. Elisabeth Poihier, d. Svlvain, a .\mand. 

Michel, m. > 2. Elisabeth Bourque, d. Jean 2d. 

1 3. Venerante Comeau of Meteghan. 

Jf.an B. Bocdreau, s. Michel, m. Ursui.e Amirault, d. Jacques 2d. 

Issue : Charles M., m. Rcsalie Pothier, d. Sylvain, a Amand. 

( I. Vitaline Mallet. 

. 2. Nathalie Cothereau, d. Adrien. 

Jacques, m. Marine Pothier, d. Pierre of Tusket Wedge. 

Onesiphore, m. Adesse Pothier, d. Pierre of Tusket Wedge. 

llonorine, m. Francois Pothier, s. Sylvain, a Amand. 

Genevieve, m. Maximin Le Blanc, s. Benjamin. 

Catherine, m. Anselme O. Pothier, s. Cyrille. 

Elisabeth, m. Remi V. Le Blanc, s. Benjamin. 

Madeleine, m. Sylvain Surette, s. Cyrille of Chebec. 

Emilie, m. Severin Pothier, s. Dominitjue of Chebec. 

Judithe, m. Alfred C. Nadeau of Magdalen Islands. 

Charles Boudreau, s. Michel, m. Veronique Dkveau, d. Felix of Cape Cove. 

Issue : Pierre Luxime, m. Colombe Mallet, d. Charles. 

I. Joseph Saulnier, s. Iliiaire. 



Genevieve, m. 

( 2. Volusien Comeau, s. Marcelm. 

Elisabeth, m. Louis Melan^on, s. Etienne. 

Cyrille, m. Madeleine Comeau, d. Franijois. 

Timothee, m. Margaret Tucker, d. Reuben of Gilbert's Cove. 

Alexandre, died unmarried, aged 24 years. 

Charlotte, m. Severin Le Blanc, s. Franyois. 



474 CORPORON. 



Charles Boudreau, continued. 

( I. Prospere Deveau, s. Gabriel. 
Rosalie, m. J 

( 2. Etienne Mallet, s. Jovite. 

Leon, m. Chantalle Mallet, d. Joseph. 

Charles, in. Marie Deveau, d. Alexandre. 



EUSTACHE CORPORON, PlERRE RoiMCHEAU, and PlERRE ReN.\R1>, WOrC 

among the first settlers of Chebec, now better known as Tusket Wedge. 
Je.\n Cothereau, Antoine Richard, and Jacques De Villiers who 
fought under Napoleon Bonaparte, were later accessions. Jean 
Doucette, brother of Michel Doucette ist, was also one of the first 
settlers of Chebec, where his descendants remain, and the record of 
his family will be found enrolled with the Doucettes of the Eel-Brook 
District. 

Ejstache Corporon married Angelique Brigeaud. 
Issuo : Joseph. 

Abraham, m. Marie Doucette, d. Charles ist. 

Marguerite, m. Victor Frontain, s. Alexandre. 

Marie Josephte. 
Abraham Corporon, s. Eustache, m. Marie DoucErrE, d. Charles ist. 
Issue : Eustache, Pierre, died unmarried. 

Simon, m. Marie Legere. 

Abraham 2d, m. Marie An.ie Meuse, d. Joseph 2d. 

Alexis, Esther, Anne, Phillice, died unmarried. 

Euphroi;ine, married in Clare. 

Madeleine, m. Benjamin Bertrand, s. Jean. 

Marie Anne, m. George Aleuse, s. Benjamin. 

Elisabeth, m. Gabriel Meuse, s. Anselme, a Benja-nin. 
Simon Corporon, s. Abraham ist, m. Marie Legere. 



fr. Ba.thilde Bertrand, d. Benjamin. 



Issue : Mathurin, m. ■{ 2. \'arguerite Meuse, d. Dominique, a Paul. 
L3. Frontain, d. Joseph. 

Marie Elisabeth, m. Pierre Frontain, s. Victor. 

C^rille, drowned, aged 24. 

Catherine, m. Stillman Meuse, s. Dominique, a Paul. 

Esther, not married. 

Vitaline, died in infancy. 

Vitaline, m. Gabriel Robicheau of Salmon River. 

Pierre, went to sea. Not lately heard from. 
— Gabriel, m. Henriette Moulaison, d. Guillaume. ^ ^^^ - 



APPEXDIX K. 475 

Simon Corporu.n, continue J. 

,, , ., (I. Alexis liertrand, s. Benjamin. 

Oenevieve, ni. I 

( 2. of Clare. 

Denis, died in childhood. 

Archange, drowned, aged 22. 

Pierre Roiiicheau ist, m. Rosalie . 

Issue: Eleazar, m. Osithe Doucette, d. Charles ist. 

Honore, m. Marguerite Doucette, d. Charles ist. 

Pierre 2d, m. Marie Thibault. 

Marie, m. Michel Doucetf, s. Jean 2d of Chcbec. 

Siisanne, m. John Fitzgerald. 

Agnes, ni. Andrew Morrisey. 

Marguerite, m. Jean Meuse 2d, s. Jean Pierre. 

Honors Robicheau, s. Pierre ist, m. Marguerite Doucette, d. Charles ist. 

Issue : Catherine, m. Ange Doucette, s. Pierre ist of Chcbec. 

Marie, in. Pierre Doucette, s. I'ierre ist of Chebec 

Genev' e, m. Jean B. De Villiers, s. Jacques. 

Pierre Renard, m. 

Issue: Rosalie, m. Isidore Doucette of Passe-de-Pre. 

Marie, ni. Jean Cothereau ist of Chebec. 

Pierre, aied unmarried. 

Jacques De Villiers, m. Seraphie I.e Blanc, d. Honore. 

^ ,, . fi. Germain Doucette, s. Paul. 

Issue : Marguerite, in. \ 

\2. Andre Surette, s. F'ierre 3d. 

_ „ f I. Genevieve Robicheau, d. Hon* re. 

Jean B., m. \ 

(.2. Jeanne Richard, w. Antoine 2d. 

Frangois Sylvain, m. Mathilde Doucette, d. Sylvain ist. 

Honore, m. Genevieve Doucette, d. Sylvain ist. 

Alexandre, m. Jane Newell, d. Robert. 

Gcrvais, m. Elisabeth Jacquard, d. Sylvestre. 

Sophique, m. Athanasius Fitzgerald, s. John. 

Marie Anne, m. Peter Fitzgerald, s. John. 

V'italine, m, Alexis Meuse, s. Gregoire. 

Jean Cothereau ist, m. Marie Renard, d. Pierre. 

Issue; Charles, m. Frangoise Richard, d. Antoine ist. 

Pierre, m. Marguerite Richard, d. Antoine ist. 

Vincent, m. Marie Jeanne Surette, d. PVederic of Eel Brook. 

^, fi. Madeleine Le Blanc, d. Jean, a Amand. 

Thomas, m. \ 

12. Catherine Doucette, d. Pierre ist of Chebec. 

Jerome, m. Fran9oise Doucette, d. Michel ist of Chebec. 

Adrien, m. Mathilde Richard, d. Magloire. 

Isidore, a bachelor. / 

Rosalie, m. Sylvain Doucette ist of Chebec, s. Jean 2d. 

Marie, not married. 



4/6 CO THE RE A U. — RICH A RD. 

Jean Cothkrkau, iontinueJ. 

Jean Fran(,-ois, i.i. Marie Richard, d. Antoine ist. 

Elisabeth, m. Ignace Doucette. s. Pierre 1st of Chebec. 

Henriette, m. Celestin Doucette, s. I'ierre ist of Chebec. 
Antoink RtcHARD 1st. m. Cecii-K noucETFE, d. Jean 2d of Chebec. 
Issue : Charles, m. Marie R'obicheau of Clare. 

Magloire, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. J"an, a Amand. 

Franyoise, m. Charles Coihereau, s. Jean ist. 

Marguerite, \\\. Pierre Cothereau, s. Jean ist. 

Marie, m. Jean Franijois Cothereau, s. Jean ist. 

Veronique, m. Sylvain Houdreau, s. Amablc. 

Rosalie, m. Joseph Boudreau, s. Amable. 

fi. Marie Boudreau, d. Amable. 
I 

I 2. Adelaide Comeau of Clare. 
Antoine 2d, m.^ 

I 3. Marguerite Surette, d. Pierre of Chebec. 

[4. Jeanne Surette, d. Joseph of Eel Bro(jk. 

Charles Richard, s. Antoine ist, m. Marie Roricheau. 

Issue: Stephanie, m. Fran(,ois Doucette, s. Sylvain ist. 

Marguerite, m. Urbain Babin, s. Hippolyte. 

Philomene, ni. Jerome Doucette, s. Sylvain ist. 

f I. Vitaline Pothier, d. Cyrille, a Amand. 

Joseph, m. -i 2. Judithe Surette, d. Raphael. 

1 3. Martine Doucette, w. 

Mathurin, Cyrien, Magloire, drowned. 

Ma(;lo!re Richard, s. Antoine ist, m. Marie Le Blanc, d. Jean of Tusket Hill. 

Issue: Jacques, m. Francoise Cothereau. <! Vincent. 

Vital, m. Genevieve Cothereau, d. '. rcer' 

fi. Monique Boudreau, d. Lucier. 
Hilaire. m. <* 

[2. Caroline Cothereau, w. Vmcent 2d. 

Mathilde, m. y^drien Cothereau, s. Jean ist. 

Madeleine, m. Marc Cothereau, s. Vincent. 

1. Marie Bouni eau, d. Amable. 

2. Adelaide Comeau of Clare. 

3. Marguerite Surette, d. Pierre of 
Chebec. 

.4. Jeanne Surette, d. Joseph of Eel Erook. 
Issue : Ambroise/m. Philomene Comeau of Clare. 
Madeleine, m. Etienne Thibeaudeau. 
Franij'oise, m. John Ward. 
Marguerite, m. Jean Amirault 
. Elisabeth, m. Michael A. Fitzgerald, s. John. 
— Mande, m. Madeleine Boudreau, w. Zacha.ie. -^ 

Etienne, not married. 



Antoine Richard 2d, s. Antoine, m. , 



APPENDIX L. 

(See fage 121.) 

THE REV. ABBE JEAN MANDE SIGOGNE 

was born at Tours, France, in 1 760. In the early years of the French 
Revolution of 1 789, his father being at the time mayor of the city of 
Lyons, he went to London, where he remained several years engaged 
in acquiring a knowlec'ge of the English language and literature. Hav- 
ing become familiar wivh the history and condition of the Acadians in 
the western part of Neva Scotia, he came here in 1797, and assumed 
the charge of seven p.irishes extending from Annapolis to Pubnico. 
He was devotedly attached to the Acadians ; and by the Indians, whom 
he learned to address in their own language, he was venerated as a 
true ambassador from the Great Spirit. 

A man of liberal mind and genial manner, a faithful priest, a trusted 
counsellor, a steadfast friend, the Abb^ Sigogne was beloved by Protes- 
tants and Catholics alike. He died on Nov. 9, 1844, in his eighty-fifth 
year ; and he met his last fatal illness while conducting services in the 
chapel at Church Point, Clare. 

The following correspondence illustrates the benevolence of his dis- 
position as well as the geniality of his intercourse with the clergy and 
laity not of his own church ; and it may not be out of place here to say 
that Mr. Alexander Lawson still publishes " The Yarmouth Herald " with 
the same rare judgment that enabled him to spread these letters before 
its patrons or that Christmas morning of 1835. 

\From The Yarmouth Herald, Dec. 25, 1835.] 

( 
To the Rev'd Abb6 Sigogne, Catholic Missionary : 

Rev'd Sir: — At a convention of Delegates held at Argyle on Wednesday, the 
7th Octr., many of whom appeared in behalf of the several Societies they repre- 
sented, forming what is called the Shelburne Count) Temperance Convention, for 



478 THE ABBE SIGOGXE. 

the suppression of intemperance, Abraham Lent Esqre. in the Chair, it was moved 
and passed unanimously that a respectful address be presented to you. Reverend 
Sir, and through your instrumentality to our esteemed neighbours the Acadians, 
soliciting your and their cordial co-operation in this benevolent Institution. 

It is with all due respect and delicacy, Reverend Sir, we make this suggestion, 
but having been informed of your favourable disposition to the Temperance cause, 
which unites people of all religious creeds in this now almost universal work of 
philanthropy, and having seen a disposition in some of our Acadian friends to 
advance it, we venture to make this application to you as their Missionary in this 
vicinity, merely asking your recognition and recommendation of it among those 
over whom you preside, that they may be induced to unite with us in the great work 
of moral reformation which has no particular reference to language, country, sect, 
or religion. 

We have the honour to be. Reverend Sir, 

Vour obedient servants, 

John Fox. 
William Burton. 
John Bennisov. 

On behalf of the ConimitUe. 
Akgyle, Xovr. 5lh, 1835. 

To the Committee of the Shelburne Temperance Convention. 

Gentlemen: — You thought right by numbering me among the friends of the 
Temperance cause. I consider it a duty and an honour to be one. I thank you 
kindly for the concern you take in that respect for those you call in your polite and 
estimable address, your esteemed neighbours, the Acadians. I will not fail to let 
them know those liberal sentiments of yours toward them. You will pardon me 
to remark that it is a delicate point forme to interfere; the religious difference is 
in the way. I gratefully acknowledge your professed liberality. I, with a particular 
pleasure and gratitude, remember the many proofs of attention and esteem I have 
received from the English people since I am in the country. Your esteemed 
address is for me a confirmation of that. 

May I be permitted to offer my respectful thanks for those favours .'' Take no 
offence, if you please, against me, if I mention the late events at Boston and 
CharlestoWi against the Papists, so called, are well known among all ranks of 
Catholics, and do not, I am sorry to say, operate friendly. Besides, our people 
here move in a circle in which there are many scoffers, casting bitter and offensive 
reflections against the persons and the manners of the Catholics, as well as against 
their religion which they know not. 

These things do promote diffidence and reserve ; even in some, provoke aversion 
and disgust ; do act strongly on susceptible and weak minds. This, I observe, not 



appEaXDix l. 479 

by way of complaint nor reproof. It is the work of ill-minded folk, not of any 
person of sense, but the grievance is no less real. By these observations I only 
mean to expose before you. Gentlemen, a fact as it is in itself, and for that even 
I beg your indulgence. I have a firm hope that *!.? liberality of the day shall 
extend itself to the very lowest ranks. These religious feuJs will cease, though 
prejudices cannot wear away in a day. 

1 have never blamed any one of the Acadians for having joined the Society, nor 
will I do so. I have even exhorted those who had joined to stand true to their 
engagements, and behave as men faithful to their word, I have also to rejoice and 
to congratulate the .Society in seeing many who have refrained from intemjierance, 
induced by the good example of their temperate neighbours. .Sincerely, I consider 
this as a good and commendable effect of the Temperance Societies. 

I have the honor to be, with esteem and respect, gentlemen, 

Vour obedient and humble servant, 

ABBfi SIGOGNE. 

Not the least meritorious among the many good deeds of the Abb6 
Sigogne was the pains he took to educate some youthful members of his 
flock. One of these was Louis Q. Jjounjue, grandson of Jean Bourque 
I St of Eel Brook, who was placed with the .Vbbc Sigogne when in his 
fourth j'ear, and remained with him for sixteen years. Mr. Bourque 
married a sister of the Hon. Anselme F. Comeau, and settled in Clare, 
where he has filled many important public ofifices, and among them 
those of land surveyor and justice of the peace. For twenty years he 
was clerk of the board of school commissioners ; and from 1836, when 
Clare was made a sessional district, until 1879, when the court of 
sessions was abolished by the Act for County Incorporation, he filled 
the office of clerk of the peace. In an obituary notice from the pen 
of Mr. Bourque, in December, 1844, the following passages occur : — 

" Devoted to letters and religion from his earliest youth, his progress 
was rapid and his piety conspicuous. The talents of the Rev. Abbe 
Sigogne were of the highest order. In him were united a sound under- 
standing, a rich and 'vigorous imagination, and a logical precision of 
thought. His learning was extensive and profound. He had learned 
divinity as a scholar, taught it as a professor, and diffused it as a faithful 
pastor. 

" The Revolution which had dethroned his beloved monarch and 



480 THE ABBE GO (/DOT. 

stained the altar of his God with the blood of holy men, drove the Rev. 
Abb6 Sigogne an exile from his native shores. He fled to England, 
where he remained two years ; and from there he retired to this peace- 
able and secluded settlement of Clare, where he has resided about forty- 
five years. 

" This excellent curate was the priest and comforter, the lawyer and 
judge, of all the Acadians of Clare and Argyle. As their lawyer, or 
rather as their notary, he kept their records, and wrote their deeds and 
contracts ; while his opinion as their judge, his advice as their priest or 
father, convinced his flock of the evil of dissension and strife. The 
venerable abbe spoke the Indian language fluently, and the Micmacs 
regarded him with the utmost veneration. All looked to him for 
comfort in their afflictions, advice in their mutual difficulties, and for the 
settlement of their little disputes. 

" The reverend abbe loved his native country, and always expressed 
the deepest interest in her fortunes. He spoke of England as a great 
nation which contained much to admire and imitate ; and his gratitude 
kindled at the remembrance of British generosity and munificence to 
the exiled priest of a hostile nation of a different religious creed. 

" Far from the sepulchre of his fathers, repose the ashes of the 
good Abbt^ Sigogne ; yet his grave is not as among strangers, for it was 
watered by the tears of an affectionate flock ; and his memory will be 
forever cherished by all who value learning, honor genius, or love 
devotion." 

THE REV. ABBE JOSEPH GOUDOT. 

.\ very worthy successor to the Abb6 Sigogne in the care of the 
Acadian parishes of Argyle was the Abb^ Joseph Goudot, who came 
there from France in 1839, accompanied by Father Vincent, who after- 
ward established the monastery and convent at Tracadie. From 1839 
to 1859, excepting an interval of two years, the Abb6 Goudot lived at 
Eel Brook. For about fourteen years he had the care of the parishes 
of Ste. Anne and St. Pierre, and for six years or more during the same 
period, of that also of St. Michel ; the chapel at Pubnico on the one 
side being distant from his residence at Eel Brook about eighteen miles, 
and that of Tusket Wedge on the other side thirteen miles distant. 



APPENDIX L. 481 

In the winter of 1844- 1845 the Abbd Goudot had also under his 
charge at Eel Brook for instruction in the French language, four Yar- 
mouth boys, Alexander S. Murray, John W. Moody, George S. Brown, 
and Charles E. Brown, who may yet sometimes be heard recounting 
pleasant reminiscences of the good-natured sociality which Father 
Goudot mip- led with his French lessons; for at that time he was not 
much more familiar with the English language than the boys were with 
thv. A "ench. 

in 1857, when in his seventy-fifth year, the Abb6 Goudot was sent to^ 
the Parish of Descouse, in the Township of Arichat, Cape Breton, where- 
he remained about two years. In 1859 he returned to his old home 
at Eel Brook to exchange farewells with his people in Argyle, by whom 
he was much and deservedly beloved ; and during the same year he 
retired to the monastery at Tracadie, where, in i860, he died in his 
seventy-eighth year. — Reqiiiescat in Pace. 



APPENDIX M. 

{See page 156.) 

OBITUARY. 

{Prom The Yarmouth Herald of Sept. 15, 1886.] 

On Tuesday evening, Sept. 7, 1886, there passed away from this 
world to a brighter one, Simon D'Entremont, Esq., of Pubnico, at the 
ripe age of ahnost 98 years. He was, no doubt, the oldest Acadian in 
the Dominion of Canada. He was born twenty years after the second 
settlement of Pubnico, the 28th October, 1 788, at West Pubnico, near 
the chapel, in his father's house, which to-day stands as good as ever, 
and is occupied by Joseph Vincent, his only living brother, who is 87 
years old. In an interview with Squire Simon, your correspondent 
learned that he could remember the time when there were 90 souls and 
13 houses in Pubnico Harbor. His father, whose name was Benoni, 
with his two brothers and other exiled Acadians, sailed from Boston in 
the fall of 1 768, and to whom the settlements of Pubnico, Eel Brook, 
and every other French, and some English, are due. He was one of 
the smartest men of his time. He was the first French magistrate in 
Nova Scotia. He had six sons. Squire Simon, his second, was the 
second French magistrate, the first French member of the House of 
Assembly, a position he occupied between 1836 and 1840; and he was 
the first French collector of customs in Nova Scotia. In his childhood 
there was no such thing as schools, so his schooling was very scant : but 
before he died, he could speak and read French, English, Latin, and 
Indian, having learned all these without a teacher. He could say " Our 
Father " by heart in the four mentioned languages. He it was who 
obtained the abolition of what was called the " Big Oath," and which 
can be found in the third volume of "Burn's Justice," at p. 21, a book 



APPENDIX M\ 483 

published in 1 788, in the reign of King George III. Three genera- 
tions followed him to the grave. He was married twice, and was the 
father of 18 children, 12 of whom are living. He leaves a widow, 12 
children, and about 140 grandchildren and great-grandchildren. He 
died as he lived, a Christian. May he rest in peace ! 



APPENDIX N. 

(See page 1 56.) 

LOUIS A, SURETTE, 

now of Concord, Mass., sixth son of Athanase and Louise Surette, was 
born Dec. 29, 18 18, his mother having been a lineal descendant of 
Gov. Charles de La Tour, the former partial owner of Acadia, whose 
daughter Anne married Jacques D'Entremont. At the age of seven he 
was placed in charge of the Rev. Abb6 Sigogne, under whose instruc- 
tion he remained twelve years. 

In March, 1841, he went to Boston, and secured a situation as clerk 
with Messrs. Ladd & Hall, which he retained fiv years ; and in March, 
1846, he engaged in business in Boston on his own account, which he 
continued for twenty-seven years, and during this period a number of 
vessels were built for him in Yarmouth County. 

In May, 1849, Mr. Surette married Frances Jane, daughter of Hon. 
Daniel Shattuck, President of Concord Bank, of Concord, where he has 
since resided. Of their family of eleven children, five died young ; the 
others are, — 

Louis D'Entremont, m. Alice May, d. George Hunt, banker, Boston. 

Daniel La Tour, m. Addie Maria, d. Edmund Stanley Hallett, Marlborough, 

Mass. 
Charles D'Aubre, not married. 

Thomas Whitney, not married, Organized Chora) Club of Concord. 
Sara Elizabeth, m. Charles Fremont Hopkins of New York. Residence, 

River Edge, Bergen County, New Jersey. 
Edouard Maynard, not married. Organist Episcopal Church, Concord. 

From 1 85 1 to 1858, and from 1863 to 1867, Louis A. Surette was 
Worshipful Master of " Corinthian Lodge " of Concord (founded in 
1797) ; his administration during the former period showing, with a 
single exception, more initiates than that of either of his predecessors. : 1 



APPENDIX N. 485 

In 1859 Mr. Surette published the "History of Corinthian Lodge," 
an interesting volume of 190 pages, err bracing the biography of twenty- 
three past-masters, and a historical sketch of Masonry. The book was 
received with many complimentary notices from tne press of Boston 
and other places. "The Masonic Journal" of Sept. 15, 1859 pub- 
lished at Haverhill, Mass., has this notice : ' The best arranged and 
most complete history of a lodge we have ever met with is that just 
issued by Bro. Louis A. Surette of Concord, Mass., and "devoted to the 
history of Corinthian Lodge." After giving a synopsis of the contents 
of the volume, the article says, " We can hardly realize that the author 
has found time and patience to collect and arrange this mass of material, 
while daily occupied with the cares of a large commercial business. 
The work is certainly a credit to his head, heart, and industry. If any 
of our readers contemplate compiling a similar work, we recommend 
the one before us as a model for a lodge history." 

In 1 86 1 Mr. Surette was honored with a membership in the New- 
England Historic-Genealogical Society, and in 1868 with a life mem- 
bership in the Massachusetts Horticuku'al Society. He has held the 
highest offices in the gift of historic Concord. For three years he was 
chairman of selectmen, and he was chairman of the school committee 
also for three years. For eleven years he was curator and president of 
the Concord Lyceum, one of the earliest institutions of the kind in the 
United St&<^es, and which, in 1879, celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, — 
" an institution conducted in the most catholic spirit, where every shade 
of opinion has been presented and respectfully entertained ; " and 
whose roll of lecturers ranges from Dr. Brownson to Theodore Parker, 
from Ralph Waldo Emerson to Horace Greeley, and bears such other 
honored names as those of Wendell Phillips, Louis Agassiz, and Oliver 
Wendell Holmes. 

" When specie payments were suspended, on the breaking out of 
the rebellion, and small change was driven out of the channels of trade, 
our Association, under the management of Mr. Louis A. Surette, then 
president and curator, came to the assistance of the suffering com- 
munity, and assumed the function of issuing paper money." 

So said the orator at the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary. 
S<;rip of the Lyceum, in denominations from five to fifty cents, and 



486 LOUIS A. SURETTE. 

bearing the artistic an . well-known signature of Louis A. Surette, was 
issued to the amount of $1,450, the primary object being to facilitate 
the making of change at the door on the evenings of the Lyceum 
lectures ; but the paper passed freely at the banks and in the business 
transactions of Concord and other towns, until the Government came 
forward with its fractional paper currency, when the Lyceum scrip was 
withdrawn. 

Mr. Surette has enjoyed an extensive acquaintance with the descend- 
ants of the Acadian faijilies who returned to Nova Scotia about the 
year 1766, and settled in Clare and Argyle ; and the reader is largely 
indebted to his industry and researches, aided by those of his kinsmen, 

— Michel Surette of Eel Brook, and Henri L. D'Entremont of Pubnico, 

— for the notes in this volume on the Acadian families of Argyle. 
Among other ancient family relics, Mr. Surette has the original of 

a fdssport, issued at Quebec by the French governor, on Sept. 2, 
1748, to enable his great-grandfather, Jacques D'Entremont 2d, to go 
in his vessel from Pubnico to I'lsle Royale (Cape Breton). 
The following is a copy : — 

RoUand Michel Barrin Chev. Marquis de La Galissoniere, Chevalier de 
L'Ordre Royal et Militaire de St. Louis; Capitaine des vaisseaux du Roy, Com- 
mandant General pour Sa Majeste dans toutte la Nouvelle France, Terres et pais 
de La Louisianne. 

II Est permis au S. Jacques D'Antremont cy devant habitant de L'Accady, de 
se retirer avec sa Famille, ses Effets, et un Batiment, sur les terres de L'Isle 
Royale, ou autres de la Domination fran9aise ; Prions et requerons tous ceux qui 
sont a prier de le laisser libremer t passer pour se rendre aux etablissements sans 
luy faire aucun trouble ny empechement. Ordonnons a tous ceux qui sont de notre 
Commandement de luy donner tous les secours et assistances dont il aura besoin. 

A Quebec, le 2, ybre, 1748. 

La Galissoniere 

Par MONSEIGNEUR 

PiMAMET. 



APPENDIX O. 

(See page 185.) 
BISHOP PERRY'S VISIT. 

Among Yarmouth's summer visitors during the season of 1886 
was the Right Reverend William Stevens Perry, Bishop of Iowa, the 
distinguished Historian of the American Episcopal Church, who occu- 
pied the pulpit of Trinity Church on the morning and evening of 
Sunday, July 1 1 ; and it is said, that, while winning waverers to his 
doctrines, he won some hearts to himself. On his return home 
he conveyed to his flock, through the columns of " The Davenport 
Democrat," his impressions of this part of "the Acadian country;" 
and he told them in his pleasant way that " it was only after years that 
these dispossessed settlers of Acadie, some of them closely connected 
with the French noblesse, singly and after long intervals found their way 
back, so that to-day in numerous settlements not far from the ' Cloven 
Cape,' and the beautiful town of Yarmouth, the words of Longfellow 
are true, — 

" * Only along the s'.^ re of the mournful and misty Atlantic linger a 
few Acadian peasants, whose fathers from exile wandered back to their 
native land to die in its bosom. In the fisherman's cot the wheel and 
the loom are still busy ; maidens still wear their Norman caps and their 
kirtles of homespun, and by the evening fire repeat Evangeline's story, 
while from its rocky caverns the deep-voiced, neighboring ocean speaks, 
and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the forest.' 

" We saw the ' kirtles ' and the ' caps.' We heard the soft, sweet 
language of Evangeline. The pretty faces and sparkling eyes, the lithe 
figures and brilliant complexions, told of their Norman origin ; and their 
presence on the ' Western Counties ' train and at the stations, by the 
roadside, or at the doors of their homes amid * the pines and the hem- 



488 BISHOP PERRY. 

locks,' i.ade the verse of Longfellow more vivid and real than even the 
desolation of Crr^id Pr6. 

" The early settlers (of Yariaouth Township) were nearly all from 
New England, and iii the main were Congregationalists. Soon others, 
of diverse nationalities and faiths, followed, attracted by the treasures of 
the sea, the coast, the meadows, and the streams, all lying so readily 
at hand. Ships-of-war came to an anchorage off the Cloven Cape. 
One, in \ .nding its captain for an evening's entertainment on shore, 
found its chief officer a willing captiv^e to the charms of a Yarmouth 
belle. The meal was served by a shipwright's daughter of the name 
of ' Pearl.' The captain saw the fair maid-of-all-work, and was van- 
quished. He proposed ; and the nuptial knot was tied by a local 
magistrate, and the Yarmouth ' Pearl ' became the honijred wife of an 
admiral of the Royal Navy. Her brother, who accompanied her on 
leaving her Acadian home, was atterwi rd knighted, and became the only 
Yarmouth baronet. 

" As we drove through the winding Yarmouth streets, or visited in 
the charming homes of this city by the sea, we could easily understand 
that that Yarmouth ' Pearl ' of a century' past might thus claim and con- 
quer the jolly tar. Beautiful complexions, with coloring softened by the 
ocean-fogs ; sparkling eyes, blue and bright as gems ; lithe and lovely 
figures full of health and vigor ; and the coy and charming manners of 
the Yarmouth girls of this generation, — go far to prove the truth of this 
story of the earlier days of the town. There are many ' pearls ' of purest 
ray serene to be had for the seeking on the shores of the ' Cloven Cape,' 
— the gate of Nova Scotia. 

" As a summer resort Yarmouth possesses every possible attraction. 
The sea-air is full of life, invigorating, bracing, and * salty ' even to the 
taste. The view of old ocean cannot be excelled. The drives, the 
walks, the baths, are each and all of the best. Charming, comfortable 
houses are scattered over the various ridges along either side of the 
* Cloven Cape ; ' and for beautiful homes, attractive scenery, and delight- 
ful people, the Gate City of the Province of Nova Scotia stands pre- 
eminent. 

" From the lofty tower of the handsome home of our most kind and 
attentive host and hostess, the Hon. L. E. Baker and his lovely wife, the 



APPENDIX O. 489 

outlook is one of wondrous beauty. Far out at sea the eye can range 
without an intervening obstacle, save the low coast-line or the rocky 
ridge, where it takes no prophet's vision to behold in the near future the 
seaside cottages of ocean-loving visitors from the heated cities, or the 
close, crowded inland summer resorts of the ' States.' Fishing, boating, 
sailing, bathing facilities are at hand ; and in the lovel/ fresh-water lakes, 
of which there are nearly a hundred in the vicinity, a id in the forests 
well stocked with game, — not excluding the moose and the bear, — the 
sportsman's paradise is here. The gate of Nova Scotia opens to one all 
possible pleasures of the forest, the lake, the river, and the sea. 

" Our days at Yarmouth were both restful and stimulating ; and when 
we visit the Maritime Provinces again, as we trust we ma}- be sometime 
so happy as to do, we shall come by sea, and enter the beautiful Acadie 
by the gate of Nova Scotia, — Yarmouth by the sea. And entering 
thus by the easiest and most accessible passage-way this sea-girt town, 
we shall linger long and lovingly among scenes so fair, and people so 
hospitable, kind, and cultivated, as are offered in the city of the Cloven 
Cape." 

Bishop Perry is a graduate from Harvard. He bears the titic of S.T.D. 
from that university ; of LL.D. from William and Mary College ; and 
this year, when our little King's College at Windsor caught him within 
range, the Faculty hastened to tack their D.C.I.. to his name. 



APPENDIX P. 

(See page 188.) 

DUELLING IN THE OLDEN TIME. 

The Justice Fletcher referred to in the following article, was William, 
the eldest brother of Dr. Richard Fletcher. He was appointed judge 
in 1807, and died in 1823. The story is also told by James Anthony 
Froude, in his history of " The English in Ireland." 

\From the London Truth, December, 1880.] 

"Apropos of the late discussions as to the propriety of settling 
disputes by a duel, and the legal consequences thereof, the following 
conclusion of the summing-up of Baron Hotham at Maidstone in 1 794, 
in the very famous case of Rex v. Purefoy, is interesting. Needless to 
add that the learned judge's hint to the jury, that it was necessary and 
expedient to temper the law with mercy, was followed by an immediate 
acquittal. 

" ' It is now a painful duty which belongs to us : it is mine to lay 
down the law, and yours to apply it to the facts before you. The oath 
by which I am bound obliges me to say to you that homicide, after a 
due interval left for consideration, amounts to murder. The laws of 
England, in their utmost lenity and allowance for human frailty, extend 
their compassion only to sudden and momentary frays, and then, if the 
blood has not had time to cool, or the reason to return, the result is 
termed manslaughter. Such is the law of the land, which undoubtedly 
the unfortunate gentleman at the bar has violated, though he has acted 
in conformity to the laws of honor. His whole demeanor in the duel, 
according to the witness whom you are most to believe. Col. Stanwix, 
was that of perfect honor and perfect humanity. Such is the law 
and such are the facts. If you cannot reconcile the latter to your 



APPENDIX P. 491 

conscience, yoii must return a verdict of guilty. Kjt if the contrary, 
though the acquittal may trench on the rigid rules of the law, yet the 
verdict will be lovely in the sight of both God and man.' 

"Rut finer still was the direction of Justice Fletcher in 181 2 on a 
similar occasion, when, addressing an Irish jury, he summed up in two 
minutes : — 

" ' GenUemen, it is my business to lay down the law to you, and I 
shall do so. Where two people go out to fight a duel, and one of them 
falls, the law says it is murder. And I tell you, by law it is murder ; 
but, at the same time, a fairer duel I never heard of in the whole course 
of my life.' " 



APPENDIX Q. 

(Set page 285.) 
[From Dr. Johnson's Journey to the Western Highlands of Scotland in 1773.] 

" Civility seems part of the national character of the Highlanders. 
Every chieftain is a monarch ; and politeness, the natural product of the 
royal government, is diffused from the laird to the whole clan. To enter a 
habitation without leave seems to be considered not as a rudeness nor in- 
trusion. The old laws of hospitality give this license to a stranger." . . . 

" By their Lowland neighbors they would not willingly be taught, for 
they have long considered them a mean and degenerate race. When 
I asked a very learned minister in the islands which they considered 
their most savage clans, ' Those,' said he, ' that live next the Low- 
lands.'" . . . 

" Some time after dinner (at a village on the west coast where John- 
son and Boswell spent a day and night) we were surprised by the 
entrance of a young woman, not inelegant either in mien or dress, who 
asked us whether we would have tea. We found she was the daughter 
of our host, and desired her to make it. Her conversation, like her 
appearance, was gentle and pleasing. We kne